Youhei Tsubono, Japan
(20/ 11/6 ) New Summary 2020
Criticize the present physics. (21/8/20 )
(Fig.1) Quantum mechanics = unreal parallel worlds.
Quantum mechanics is so crazy and unrealistic that still Nobody understands weird quantum mechanics, though 100 years have passed since its foundation.
People have been deceived into believing in the false idea that "(fictional) quantum mechanics contributed to today's modern computer technology" by an incredible amount of the fake news media and academia repeatedly for a long time.
In this fictional quantum mechanical world, a cat can be dead and alive simultaneously while we are not observing it.
Even a single electron can pass through two slits simultaneously to interfere with itself ( this 3rd paragraph ) using fantasy parallel worlds.
In quantum mechanical atomic wave function, an electron is said to exist in all different places at once (= because, probability of finding an electron is not zero in any places ) splitting into an infinite number of parallel universes.
Furthermore, quantum mechanics is said to have "occult power" to rewrite the past ? Time machine ? ← Nothing could be more unrealistic than quantum mechanics.
It is terrible that this irrational, fantasy quantum mechanics has been our manistream atomic theory for an extremely long time, obstructing real science and education.
(Fig.2) Quantum mechanics + Einstein relativity = string theory.
Einstein dream = theory of everything is supposed to unify quantum mechanics and Einstein's theory of relativity.
In 1970s, as the first theory of everything, unrealistic 26-dimensional string theory was invented.
Our real world is 3-dimensional (= x,y,z ), which is incompatible with this extra-dimensional theory of everything.
In 1980s, this fictional 26-dimensional string theory incorporating another fictional theory called supersymmetry turned into new theory of everything called superstring theory which still has 10 extra-dimensions.
In 1990s, this 10-dimensional superstring added one fictitious extra-dimension, and developed into 11-dimensional M theory which is supposed to be the present leading theory of everything.
The latest version of these fantasy unified theories is 12-dimensional "F theory".
As you see, quantum mechanics and Einstein relativity were so unrealistic that their unified theory, a.k.a. theory of everything is also filled with fictional extra-dimensions, parallel worlds, and wrong math (= 1+2+3 .. = -1/12, this 4th paragraph ).
These current so-called mainstream "science" is Not "science" but just illusion which has No relation to real physical phenomena around us.
(Fig.3) Electrons in "s" orbital always crash into nucleus . → unstable
Schrödinger equation is the only tool for quantum mechanics to calculate atomic energies. ← But "calculation" is Not a right word, because Schrödinger equation has No ability to predict any physical values by "calculation".
Because one-electron hydrogen atom is the only atom for which Schrödinger equation has an "exact solution". In any other multi-electron atoms, Schrödinger equation is unsolvable, so quantum mechanics just chooses fake solution instead of solving Schrödinger equation.
The only solvable hydrogen atomic solution of Schrödinger equation is known to just agree with Bohr model which had already successfully explained all hydrogen-like atoms and ions.
Then, which of these two atomic models giving exactly the same hydrogen atomic solution (= energy ) is real ?
In fact, only atoms of Schrödinger equation have unrealistic orbitals, and Bohr model does Not have unrealistic orbits at all, which fact is enough to prove quantum mechanics is wrong.
Quantum mechanics always has to include unrealistic zero orbital angular momentum ( all s-orbital such as 1s, 2s, 3s .. orbitals are zero angular momentum, this p.7 ).
When an electron moves around a nucleus without crashing into a nucleus ( like planetary orbit where the earth does Not crash into the Sun ), the electron must always have some angular momentum which is Not zero.
Abnormal zero angular momentum means quantum mechanical electrons are always headed toward a nucleus in a linear orbit, and crash into the nucleus, as seen in Fig.3.
Hydrogen and Helium atoms have 1s electrons, so their electrons are always crashing into nucleus randomly and chaotically according to quantum mechanical irrational rule which makes atomic electrons' motion very unstable.
As a result, quantum mechanical atoms with unphysical zero orbital angular momentum diagree with reality.
(Fig.4) Schrödinger's 2p radial wavefunction, negative kinetic energy area.
The easiest way to find out that quantum mechanics is wrong is to know the fact that an atomic electron of Schrödinger equation must have unreal negative kinetic energy.
Kinetic energy is defined as mass times the square of velocity of a particle, so kinetic energy can never be negative, unless a particle's velocity becomes an imaginary number ( when kinetic energy is negative = 1/2mv2 < 0, the velocity v is an imaginary number. ← Impossible ! )
In Schrodinger equation of hydrogen atom, the sum of an electron's kinetic energy and Coulomb potential energy equals total energy E. ← This total energy E value must be constant and conserved in any electron's positions inside an atom.
Kinetic energy can be divided into radial (= toward the nucleus ) and angular (= perpendicular to radial ) directions ( this p.2 ).
Fig.4 shows Schrodinger's 2p wave function of an hydrogen atom, this 2p orbital contains both radial and angular kinetic energies, because orbital angular momentum of 2p orbital is not zero ( l=1, n=2 ).
Different from realistic orbits, quantum mechanical wave function, which allegedly represents probability of finding an electron, spreads all over the place, hence, an electron can exist in all places at once using fantasy parallel worlds.
When an electron gets close to the nucleus ( r → 0, ① area of Fig.4 ), angular kinetic energy (= also called centrifugal potential, this p.3 ) inversely proportional to the square of the distance (= r ) between an electron and nucleus increases to infinity so rapidly that it cannot be canceled out only by negative Coulomb energy near a nucleus.
To cancel out this too-rapidly increasing angular kinetic energy of an electron closer to nucleus for keeping constant total energy E, the radial kinetic energy has to become unrealistically negative (= an electron in ① area of Fig.4 ).
Not only when an electron is close to the nucleus, but also when an electron moves far awaty from the nucleus (= ③ area of Fig.4 ), radial kinetic energy has to become negative.
Because as an electron moves farther away from the nucleus ( r → ∞ ), Coulomb potential energy becomes higher than total energy.
To keep constant negative total energy E (= this E must be the lowest negative value ), again, the radial kinetic energy has to unrealistically become negative also in ③ area of Fig.4.
So both ends of the quantum mechanical wave function is classically forbidden region. A realistic electron has to turn around before it enters the area with non-existent negative kinetic energy ( this p.2 ), but quantum mechanical electrons, which have already lost reality, have to enter these unphysical negative kinetic energy area without stopping.
This negative kinetic energy has nothing to do with quantum tunnel.
For example, in ① area of Fig.4, a contradictory thing happens = only electron's radial kinetic energy is negative (= decrease to negative infinity ), and the electron's angular kinetic energy is positive (= increase to positive infinity ).
↑ So this weird electron has negative kinetic energy in radial direction and positive kinetic energy in angular direction simultaneously, which chimera-like thing is impossible in a real physical particle.
(Fig.5) Quantum mechanics needs unrealistic electron spin. ↓
Irrational quantum mechanics replaced real electron's orbit by unrealistic wave function which allegedly has unphysical zero orbital angular momentum.
This zero angular momentum means an unphysical one-dimensional "line-shaped orbit" where an electron heads for and crashes into a nucleus (= so unstable electron's orbit ), and cannot produce magnetic field which is generally produced by an electron's circular motion (= angular momentum is necessary to generate magnetic field ).
So quantum mechanical atom with zero angular momentum disagreed not only with reality but also with experimental results showing a hydrogen atom has magnetic field equal to Bohr magneton which was successfully predicted by Bohr model.
This inconvenient fact prompted quantum mechanics to artificially introduce an ad-hoc concept called electron's "spin" which is said to happen to have the same Bohr magneton as magnetic field of Bohr model. ← too good to be true !
The problem is each electron particle is too tiny to produce enough magnetic field or angular momentum ( angular momentum = mvr is closer to 0 as the radius r of a tiny electron r → 0 ).
Therefore, an electron must spin much faster than light to generate enough magnetic field and angular momentum ( this p.2, angular momentum = mvr where a tiny electron's radius r → 0 and velocity v → ∞ ) ! ← Electron spin is unreal.
So quantum mechanics made a poor excuse that an electron spin is Not an actual spinning contradicting its name of 'spin', and the strange spin cannot stop or slow down ! ← nonsense.
These facts prove that quantum mechanical electron spin is fake, and the atomic magnetic field is caused by "electron's orbital motion" like in Bohr's atom instead of unphysical electron spin.
Different from unrealistic electron's spin, a nucleus can actually 'spin'. Because a nucleus (= proton ) is much bigger and heavier than a tiny electron ( angular momentum = mvr where nuclear mass m and raidus r are far bigger than those of an electron ).
And a nuclear magnetic field is far weaker than electron's (spin ?) magnetic field, which shows each nucleus "spins" realistically slower than light speed.
(Fig.6) Why electron spin is Not a real spinning ? ↓
Unrealistic electron spin must be "spinning" much faster than light ( this p.4 ) to generate angular momentum and magnetic field which accidentally agreed with Bohr magneton given by Bohr model.
The famous Stern-Gerlach Experiment, which was supposed to measure electron spin's magnetic field, did Not measure an electron spin itself. It just measured the whole "silver atom's magnetic field" which can be naturally explained by electron's orbital motion instead of unreal spin.
Electron spin is Not a real "spinning", because spinning must be unrealistically faster-than-light, and the spin cannot stop or slow down.
This quantum mechanical illogical claim that the spin should Not be treated as electron's spinning clearly contradicts another quantum mechanical claim that spin has "angular momentum", which must be generated by a "spinning" object.
More unreasonable thing is electron spin needs to rotate twice (= 720o ) instead of once to return to its original state. ← No physical mechanism can be given to such an uncanny spin which is unable to return to the original state just by 360o rotation.
Some experiments claimed that this physically-impossible property of electron spin which needs 720o (= instead of 360o ) rotation to return to the original state was confirmed by rotating (= precessing ) neutron spin interference.
But of course, they could Not see each neutron spin actually spinning (= because spin is Not an actual spin ). They just imagined the neutron rotated twice on the false assumption that each neutron has 1/2 angular momentum (= angular momentum itself cannot be directly measuread, only magnetic field = Bohr magneton can be measured ).
If we assume each neutron's rotation has 1 angular momentum (= instead of 1/2 ) like Bohr's orbit, this experimental result can be naturally interpreted as the one showing neutron normally returned to its original state by rotating once (= 360o ) instead of unrealistic 720o
Because precession speed is inversely proportional to angular momentum as seen in gyroscope, so as a neutron's angular momentum increases from quantum mechanical 1/2 to classical 1, precession velocity decreases from 720o to 360o rotation.
A neutron is known to be a composite particle consisting of a proton and an electron, and the magnetic moment of electron spin is far larger than the magnetic moment of proton. So if an electron's spin is real, the magnetic moment of a neutron should be as large as an electron.
But an actual neutron's magnetic moment is as small as a proton (= an electron's orbital radius is as small as that of proton inside neutron ), which means an electron's spin is unreal.
In conclusion, electron spin with 1/2 angular momentum is physically impossible. Atomic powerful magnetic field is produced by a large electron's orbital motion instead of illusory electron's "spinning".
(Fig.7) Fantasy basic theory makes even good technology useless.
In fact, the current humankind technology makes No more progress due to fictional basic theory called quantum mechanics, contrary to the media repeatedly saying "most successful quantum mechanics and Einstein theory !".
Schrödinger equation = the only calculation tool of quantum mechanics has No ability to deal with multi-electron atoms or molecules.
Schrödinger equation cannot be solved except for the simplest one-electron hydrogen atom. In all other atoms and molecules, all physicists can do is choose fake solution called trial function or basis set ( this middle ), manipulate free parameters, which illegitimate method cannot predict any physical values, it's "art" rather than science.
Quantum mechanics has to irrationally treat the whole many-electron material as one pseudo-electron model with fictitious (= effective ) mass using unphysical model called "band theory" where some fictitious electrons are said to have unreal negative mass.
Surprisingly, to explain various physical phenomena, quantum mechanics has to fabricate many fictitious particles called quasiparticles with fake mass and charge.
Condensed matter physics relying on fictitious quasiparticles makes No more progress due to harmful and useless quantum mechanics.
Under this useless basic physics, physicists had No choice but to make up "fake science goal" such as parallel-world quantum computer, fantasy Big Bang, Black hole, extra-dimensions as an illusory unified theory, God particle wasting taxpayers' money in useless colliders.
We already have excellent technology to see and manipulate each single atom using atomic force microscope, hence we should have been already able to construct any sophisticated nano-machines by manipulating a single atom one by one for curing many diseases such as cancer. But we still cannot.
Because no matter how precisely we can measure each single atomic behavior, the current fantasy basic theory called quantum mechanics prevents us from using real electrons or waves as a realistic useful atomic model to interpret the measured results.
(Fig.8) Hydrogen shows "normal Zeeman effect" without spin.
When an excited atomic electron moves back from higher energy to lower energy levels, it emits the amount of energy equal to the difference between two energy levels, which was detected as "emitted lights" with frequencies (= showing the magnitude of energy separation between excited and lower energy levels ) called spectral lines.
Under external magnetic field, each emitted light (= line ) is split into three lines (= three energy levels ) depending on the direction of an electron's orbital magnetic field relative to external magnetic field (= electron's orbital magnetic field parallel, perpendicular, or antiparallel to external magnetic field gives slightly different energy levels ).
These split energy levels under external magnetic field is called Zeeman effect. If each electron does Not have (unreal) spin, it is called normal Zeeman effect where each energy line is said to split into only three energy lines.
One electron hydrogen atom shows this normal Zeeman effect, which means an electron does Not have spin. ← Electron spin is illusion.
Lithium with one valence electron is also known to show normal Zeeman effect pattern called "Paschen-Back effect ( this lower )."
So one-electron hydrogen atom (= with No influence of other electrons as seen in complicated spectral lines in multi-electron atoms ) shows there is No electron spin.
(Fig.8') Einstein relativistic effect = a electron is at rest ? ↓
An excited electron's spin is said to slightly split atomic energy levels into two lines (= called fine structure ) due to one of relativistic effects called spin-orbit interaction.
But this idea of spin-orbit interaction caused by the so-called relativistic effect is physically impossible, so wrong.
It is more natural to think this fine energy splitting is caused by other realistic reasons such as different electron's motions or Coulomb interaction between inner electrons and an outer electron.
Normally, a light electron is moving around a heavy nucleus at rest.
But according to stupid Einstein relativistic effect, we have to think about the unrealistic rest frame of an electron where a light electron could be magically at rest, and instead, a heavy nucleus is moving around the lighter electron, though it is impossible ( this p.3 ).
In this unrealistic rest frame of an electron, a circularly-moving heavy nucleus allegedly causes magnetic field at the point of the center electron at rest, and this fictitious magnetic field may split an energy level into two, depending on the direction of the electron spin up or down, they claim ( this p.2-3 ).
But thinking commonsensically, it is impossible that a heavier nucleus is moving around a ligher electron at rest !
A lighter electron must always be moving around the much heavier nucleus in any frames, as long as they obey physical principles, so Einstein relativistic effect contradicts other physical principles and electron's motion inside atoms, so false.
First of all, if in the normal frame, there is No fictitious magnetic field caused by (unrealistic) moving heavy nucleus, the electron's energy level is Not split by fictitious spin-orbit interaction, which does Not exist in this normal frame.
If they claim relativistic spin-orbit interaction actually occurs, in any frames regardless of an electron is moving or at rest, spin-orbit interaction or fictitious magnetic field caused by an allegedly moving heavy nucleus must always exist to avoind serious paradoxes of Einstein relativity.
↑ In the normal frame of a nucleus at rest, No spin-orbit interaction occurs. Only in the rest frame of an electron, (fictitious) spin-orbit interaction may occur. ← This is clearly a paradox, so false and does Not happen.
If a heavier nucleus can be unrealistically moving around a lighter static electron as crazy Einstein relativity claims, it clearly violates the total momentum conservation (= a heavier nucleus with a larger momentum is frequently changing its moving direction or momentum, rotating around a fictitiously-static electron = total momentum is Not conserved ! )
So Einstein relativity or spin-orbit effect allegedly caused by a fictitious heavy nucleus rotating around an static lighter electron or its spin is based on wrong and impossible assumptions.
This paradoxical spin-orbit interaction is caused by illogical Einstein relativistic world where all motions must be relative with No absolute frame. → The unrealistic electron's rest frame where a heavier nucleus is rotating around a ligher static electron violating momentum conservation must be considered.
This spin orbit relativistic effect is illusion due to its fatal paradox (= only in the rest frame of an electron, total momentum is Not conserved, and the fictitious spin-orbit magnetic interaction occurs, while in the natural rest frame of the center of mass or nucleus, total momentum is conserved and the spin-orbit interaction does Not occur ) ← depending on observers' viewpoints or different frames, the spin-orbit interaction occurs or doesn't occur = paradox !
To avoid this fatal paradox, we need to dismiss fantasy Einstein relativistic world and admit the "single absolute frame (= rest frame of the center of mass )" where the momentums and velocities of different particles with different masses are correctly defined and measured with respect to the static space medium, so that the total momentum is always conserved.
(Fig.9) ↓ Unreal spin has No relation to energy levels
When excited atomic electron energy levels are split into more energy levels under external magnetic field in larger atoms, quantum mechanics claimed the electron's spin or its unrealistic spin-orbit interaction may cause these further splitting of energy levels. ← This is wrong.
These more splitting energy levels under magnetic field is called anomalous Zeeman effect.
This anomalous Zeeman effect is known to happen especially in large atoms (= with many electrons ) such as sodium, while smaller atoms (= with fewer electrons ) such as hydrogen and lithium show normal Zeeman effect pattern.
This fact means anomalous Zeeman effect is caused by complicated interaction between inner electrons and excited valence electron instead of unphysical spin.
We can easily disprove the electron spin's involvement in anomalous Zeeman effect.
Textbooks often use sodium D line doublet as a typical example of anomalous Zeeman effect, which allegedly represents energy transition from two excited 3p3/2 and 3p1/2 (= split by spin ? ) energy levels to lower 3s1/2 energy levels.
But in fact, this sodium D line has nothing to do with electon spin from the beginning, which means anomalous Zeeman effect has nothing to do with spin, either.
Because an electron spin-orbit interaction, which allegedly causes sodium D line energy splitting, is too weak to separate two energy levels between 3p3/2 and 3p1/2 as widely as experimental energy separation.
Furthermore, if anomalous Zeeman effect is due to spin, its energy splitting must obey Lande-g-factor (= gj ) spin theory which should split the original line symmetrically (= just equal interval ) with respect to the direction of external magnetic field.
But actual anomalous Zeeman effect disobeys Lande-spin-g-factor theory, and energy line splits into more complicated unsymmetrical lines ( this p.3 lower, this p.38-39 ) relative to the direction of external magnetic field in anomalous Zeeman effect which should be theoretically symmetrical relative to external magnetic field .
Actually, in alkali atoms such as potassium (= K ) and rubidium, there are No experimental data of Lande g factor (= gj, this p.9 Table.10, this p.28 lower ). ← This is an excuse, because their experimental results of anomalous Zeeman effect were significantly different from prediction of quantum mechanical spin-based Lande g factor theory.
(Fig.10) Spin is too weak to cause Big Na splitting. ↓
Hydrogen 2p energy level is split into two 2p3/2 and 2p1/2 states, which small energy splitting (= called fine structure ) is said to be caused by relativistic effect = spin-orbit interaction. ← But this is untrue.
2p orbital has angular momentum ( l = 1 ), so the 2p electron moves around the nucleus. ← From the viewpoint of 2p electron (= rest frame of an electron ), the hydrogen nucleus unrealistically appears to be moving around the fake stationary electron (= though, such an unphysical thing never happens ) according to irrational Einstein relativity.
And this fictitious nucleus orbiting around the stationary electron should generate pseudo-magnetic field at the position of the electron, which could split electron's 2p state into two energy levels based on the electron's spin direction (= up or down, by electron's spin-nuclear-orbit magnetic interaction ) relative to the direction of this pseudo-magnetic field allegedly produced by orbiting nucleus.
But Einstein relativity suffers from fatal paradoxes, and the electron spin needs faster-than-light spinning, hence, this spin-orbit interaction contradicts Einstein relativity from the beginning, so it is unreal.
Sodium (= Na ) also has one valence electron like hydrogen (= H ), so sodium D-line, where 3p Na energy level splits into two 3p1/2 and 3p3/2 states, is said to be due to the same (fictional) spin-orbit interaction as hydrogen's fine structure splitting.
The problem is electron spin is too weak to cause very wide energy splitting as seen in sodium D-lines, hense, spin has nothing to do with fine structure energy splitting or anomalous Zeeman effect.
The magnitude of energy intervals between two energy levels (= between 2p3/2 and 2p1/2 in hydrogen, and between 3p3/2 and 3p1/2 in sodium ) in fine structure is known to be proportional to Z4 (= Z denotes the average entire central charge putting a positive nucleus and all inner negative electrons together, except for one valence electron ) and inversely proportional to n3 (= n is valence electron's quantum number ).
So the magnitude of fine structure energy splitting is proportional to Z4/n3 ( this p.7, this p.14. Other angular quantum number such as j and l are common to hydrogen and sodium fine structure energy states, so we can ignore them.
( Both hyrogen-2p1/2-2p3/2 and sodium-3p1/2-3p3/2 have the same angular quantum number l = 1, j=1/2 or 3/2 )
Hydrogen fine structure energy splitting is very small = energy difference between 2p3/2 and 2p1/2 is only 0.000045 eV.
On the other hand, sodium fine structure energy splitting is very big = energy difference between 3p3/2 and 3p1/2 is as big as 0.0021 eV.
↑ This huge discrepancy between hydrogen's and sodium's fine structure energy splitting shows the spin-orbit interaction, which allegedly causes both hydrogen's and sodium's fine structure, does Not occur in actual atoms.
Using these two energy splitting values, quantum number (= hydrogen 2p is n = 2, sodium 3p is n = 3 ) and hydrogen central charge (= Z = 1 ) in upper spin-orbit formula, we can get sodium average central charge is as big as Z = 3.54 ( this p.3 ).
As I said, this average central charge Z is the sum of charges of a positive nucleus and all other inner negative electrons than one outer electron, so Z should be close to "1".
( total charge of Na 11e+ nucleus and all inner -10e electrons are - +11e -10e = +e = Z = 1 ).
The value of Z = +3.54e ( instead of 1 ) needed for generating very wide sodium fine structure energy splitting is unrealistic, so electron spin has nothing to do with fine structure energy splitting or anomalous Zeeman effect in sodium.
It is more natural to think this very wide energy splitting in sodium fine structure is caused by "Coulomb electric interaction" between inner electrons and an outer electron, Not by fictional relativistic spin-orbit magnetic interaction.
If quantum mechanical spin-orbit formula is true, sodium's energy splitting between 3p3/2 and 3p1/2 states has to be smaller than hydrogen's energy small splitting between 2p3/2 and 2p1/2 ( this p.9 lower ) which quantum mechanical spin theory diagrees with experimental results. ( this p.13 )
(Fig.11) Na+ ion average charge is Z = 1.84 diagreeing with spin.
An outer electron, which causes the very wide fine structire energy splitting in sodium, can be considered as orbiting around the effective central charge Z (= close to +1 ) that combines a positive sodium nucleus and all other inner electrons except one outer electron.
So a sodium's outer (= valence ) electron is moving around an singly-ionized sodium (= Na+ = effective central charge Z = 1 ).
Electrons are avoiding each other by Coulomb repulsion, so this effective central charge Z ( felt by an outer electron ) tends to be bigger than +1.
We can know true effective central charge of this Na+ ion (= Na nucleus + all inner electrons except one outer electron ) using experimental ionization energy values.
Both hydrogen and sodium atoms have the similar structure with only one valence (= outer ) electron, so we can use the common ionization energy formula where the total energy is proportional to Z2/n2.
In hydrogen atom, the nucleus is +e, so Z = 1, and ionization energy is 13.6 eV ( enegy level quantum number n= 1 ).
In sodium atom, the ionization energy of outer electron ( n = 3 ) is 5.14 eV.
Putting all these experimental values and quantum numbers into the energy formula, we can get the true effective central charge of sodium equal to +1.84 (= based on experimental ionization energy, this p.5 upper ), which is far smaller than Z = +3.54 (= obtained by assuming fictitious spin-orbit interaction causes very wide Na fine structure energy splitting ).
This huge discrepancy in effective central charges Z between experimental value and quantum mechanical spin theoretical value clearly proves that sodium D-lines = fine structure energy splitting is Not caused by fantasy electron spin, but by stronger Coulomb interaction between inner and outer electrons.
All other alkali and alkaline-earth atoms also show remarkable discrepancy between experimental values and prediction by quantum spin's theory (= spin-orbit or spin-spin magnetic interaction is too weak to cause wide energy splitting of alkali and alkaline-earth atoms ).
Hence, all quantum mechanics, spin and relativistic spin-orbit interaction turned out to be false, diagreeing with experiments.
(Fig.12) Spin-spin magnetic energy (= 0.0001 eV ) is too small !
Quantum mechanics claims the 3rd electron of lithium cannot enter inner 1s orbital, instead, the 3rd electron is kicked out to outer 2s orbital against strong Coulomb attraction of the nucleus, due to mysterious repulsive force called Pauli exclusion principle allegedly acting between two electron spins.
Pauli principle says two electrons with the same spin cannot enter the same orbital. ← But No more detailed physical mechanism is given by quantum mechanics, because serious contradiction will be exposed if you try to delve into Pauli principle. ← Science stops progressing now.
This repulsive force by Pauli exclusion principle must be strong enough to cancel out Coulomb attraction. Electron spin was introduced as a tiny magnet. But the magnetic interaction between two electron spins is too weak to explain powerful Pauli exclusion force. ← So the electron spin diagrees with facts.
This ( p.2 upper ) says "Since the magnetic dipole-dipole interactions .. is two or three orders of magnitude smaller than estimated from the observed value."
This (p.5) says "Magnetism comes from the interaction among the electrons: the classical magnetic dipole-dipole interaction is too weak to explain it ( this p.7 )."
So the magnetic force of electron's spin is completely useless for explaining strong Pauli repulsive force.
If there was not Pauli repulsive force, the 3rd electron can enter inner 1s orbital together with other two electrons (= generating fictitious lithium with 3 × 1s electrons ), getting total energy lower than the experimental ground (= lowest ) state energy of lithium by Coulomb attractive energy caused by fictitious lithium atom getting all three electrons into 1s orbital closest to a positive nucleus.
The total energy of this fictitious lithium of three 1s electrons becomes much lower = -230 eV (= -8.4609 Eh, this p.2 )
The actual total energy of lithium is -203 eV (= sum of 1st-3rd ionization energies of lithium ).
Therefore, Pauli repulsive energy is as big as 27 eV (= 230 - 203 eV ).
On the other hand, the magnetic energy between two electron spins is just 0.0001 eV, which is far smaller than Pauli exclusion force ( this p.6, this p.17 ).
Quantum mechanics discarded the original definition of spin introduced as a tiny magnet, which turned out to be too weak to cause strong Pauli repulsive energy, and made up another new unphysical concept called "exchange interaction."
This "exchange interaction (= which has nothing to do with actual electric or magnetic forces )" is an unrealistic ghost-like concept, which cannot even be a force, and it lacks force carrier.
Quantum mechanics can Not explain the mechanism of this mysterious Pauli repulsive force using real objects ( this p.6 ), and the dubious exchange interaction unrealistically requires each electron to exist in multiple different places at once, violating energy conservation law, so false.
(Fig.13) Spin magnet is too weak to explain ferromagnet.
Ferromagnetism is said to be caused by electron spins aligned parallel to each other.
But in fact, ferromagnetism (or antiferromagnet, paramagnet .. ) has nothing to do with electron spin, because the magnetic interaction between electron spins is too weak to keep ferromagnetism stable even at room temperature.
This 3rd paragraph says "Such an interaction (= spin magnetic dipole interaction ) is, in general, much too small to produce ferromagnetism. Instead, the predominant interaction is known as the (unphysical) exchange interaction ( this p.4, 5 )."
Ferromagnetism of iron (= Fe ) is known to keep stable even at high temperature = the critical temperature 1043 K.
But if electron spin-spin magnetic interaction is the origin of keeping ferromagnetism, the iron easily loses its ferromagnetic property even at extremely low temperature (= 0.1 K, this p.4 ).
So the electron spin is Not the origin of keeping ferromagnetism stable.
Electron orbital motion (= causing magnetic field of ferromagnet ) interacting and meshing with other neighboring electron's orbital motions through Coulomb electric force can keep ferromagnetism stable even at high temperature.
(Fig.14) ↓ Lucky coincidence or quantum mechanics cheated ?
Textbooks often say small energy splitting of hydrogen atomic energy levels ( 2p orbital splits into closely spaced 2p3/2 and 2p1/2 energy levels ) called fine structure is an evidence of quantum mechanical spin. ← This is Not true, as I said.
Miraculously, Bohr-Sommerfeld model without spin could successfully obtain the same fine structure energy formula (= agreed with experimental results ) before quantum mechanics was born ( this p.2 lower ).
Later, quantum mechanics and Einstein special relavtivity were united into a new unphysical theory called Dirac equation with spin, and it could get exactly the same fine structure formula as old Bohr-Sommerfeld model by chance.
Though these two atomic models use completely different mechanisms. ← One model (= quantum mechanical Dirac equation ) has spin, another model (= Bohr-Sommerfeld mode ) doesn't have spin, but both happened to give the same energy results ! ← Impossible.
This unbelievably "lucky coincidence" indicates quantum mechanical Dirac theory "cheated" and copied old Bohr-Sommerfeld's successful fine structure model which gave excellent results.
Quantum mechanical fine structure artificially stealing the old right model is illegitimate and false.
This (p.2) says "Sommerfeld’s 1916 derivation of the fine structure energy levels of hydrogen. Not only were his predictions good, he derived exactly the same formula that would later drop out of Dirac’s 1928 treatment."
This last part also says "When Dirac developed relativistic quantum mechanics, the relativistic Coulomb problem proved to be exactly solvable ...But the resulting formula for the energy levels was truly a surprise: The new answer was precisely the old Sommerfeld formula !"
Compare Bohr-Sommerfeld fine structure formula ( this p.12 ) and quantum mechanical Dirac fine structure formula ( this p.1 ). You will find these two formulas are exactly the same, accidentally !
See detailed methods of calculating fine structure energy levels using Bohr-Sommerfeld model and quantum Dirac equation.
Bohr-Sommerfeld model is often said to use so-called "relativistic effect". But this relativistic effect has nothing to do with Einstein relativity or quantum Dirac equation.
Dirac equation = relativistic version of quantum mechanics uses unphysical "spin" whose spinning speed must far exceed light speed c to generate the observed magnetic field, hence its relativistic spin contradicts Einstein relativity which forbids any faster-than-light motion.
Bohr-Sommerfeld model without unreal spin used the effect where an electron moving faster becomes harder to move as if an electron's mass appears to increace, which seems compatible with Einstein relativistic mass increase.
But of course, it's impossible to increase the electron's mass without adding any other masses or things to the original electron, because it violates mass conservation law (= additional mass pops out of nothing, when an electron moves faster according to Einstein !? )
In this crazy Einstein relativistic world, an object's mass appears to be heavier and lighter depending on "observers", which is clealy a paradox disproving Einstein relativity.
We can more naturally think that as an electron moves faster, more resistance the faster electron experiences from the surroundings, which increasing resistance is detected as if the electron mass appears to increase.
The important point is Einstein's energy-mass relation (= mc2 = As an electron's energy increases, its mass increases ? ) was originally derived by classical Maxwell theory based on electromagnetic wave propagating in the medium, and Einstein stealed and "copied" the original Maxwell mc2 in the wrong way.
Famous atomic nuclear energy, which allegedly proved Einstein mass relation, is a kind of potential energy, which means "mass-increasing energy" is stored in the medium surrounding particles (= potential energy exerting forces at a distance is usually stored in the space between particles )."
Einstein relativity obstinately refusing to accept real medium needs unreal virtual particles with imaginary mass as fictitious force carriers, and parallel worlds for explaining a single electron interference.
Therefore, unphysical mass increase effect seen in a faster electron is caused by more resistance a faster electron feels from the surrounding medium, which is compatible with original Maxwell electromagnetic wave theory based on light medium, and the fact that the mc2 energy is stored as nuclear "potential energy between particles."
(Fig.15) ↓ This was really a lucky coincidence ?
In fact, quantum mechanical Dirac equation for hydrogen fine structure includes too many lucky dubious conincidences.
In Bohr-Sommerfeld model, fine structure energy splitting is caused by an electron's velocity difference (← a faster electron feeling more resistance from the surroundings is harder to move ) without spin.
On the other hand, quantum mechanical Dirac equation claims fine structure energy splitting is caused by unphysical "spin."
Historical magic = coincidentally, both these Bohr-Sommerfeld model and quantum Dirac hydrogen gave exactly the same energy formula for fine structure energy splitting, like Bohr model and Schrödinger equation gave exactly the same hydrogen energy solution ?
But originally, Dirac hydrogen with electron spin should give a larger number of splitting energy levels than experimentally observed energy levels which were precisely predicted by Bohr-Sommerfeld model.
Quantum Dirac hydrogen depends on too many "lucky coincidences" which cancel out too many originally-existing splitting energy levels to artificially match experimental results. ← Too good to be true, and showing quantum Dirac equation is illegitimate.
For example, 2s1/2 and 2p1/2 orbitals with different angular momentums (= 2s1/2 has no angular momentum, only 2p1/2 has angular momentum ) must coincidentally have the same total energy in Dirac hydrogen to artificially agree with experimental results or Bohr-Sommerfeld model, though an electron's motion is completely different in these two energy levels.
So the unnatural Dirac's hydrogen model with spin requires that originally-different energy levels should have the same energy, coincidentally, many, many times !
Quantum Dirac hydrogen needs too many lucky coincidences of energies of different orbitals like 2s1/2 = 2p1/2, 3s1/2 = 3p1/2, 3p3/2 = 3d3/2, 4s1/2 = 4p1/2 ... ← This too many coincidence is too unnatural to believe.
Also in nist hydrogen energy leveles (= considering quantum Dirac spin model ), too many different electron's orbitals are supposed to unnaturally give the same energy levels ( 2p1/2 = 2s1/2, 3p1/2 a= 3s1/2, 4p1/2 = 4s1/2 .. )
On the other hand, Bohr-Sommerfeld fine structure does Not need to rely on too many unnatural coincidences, hence, we can safely say quantum mechanical fine structure model is illogical and incorrect.
In quantum mechanical Dirac hydrogen, if two different orbitals have the same total angular momentum j (= the sum of orbital angular momentum l and spin s expressed as j = l + s, this p.11 ), these two different orbitals are supposed to have exactly the same energy level (= lucky coincidence ) without showing detailed physical mechanism except nonphysical math.
For example, 2s1/2 (= without orbital angular momentum, l=0 ) and 2p1/2 (= with orbital angular momentum, l=1) have the same energy level, because these two different orbitals have the same total angular momentum j ( j = 1/2 = 0 + 1/2 in 2s1/2, j = 1/2 = 1 - 1/2 in 2p1/2, ← This is just an artificial math trick with No relation to our real world ).
This quantum mechanical spin angular momentum 1/2 is meaningless. As shown in this p.17, Dirac hydrogen's energy levels always use only an integer angular quantum number (= Dirac's energy includes only the form of "j+1/2 = integer" in angular momentum part, because j is half-integer ), which is why Dirac equation gives exactly the same energies as Bohr-Sommerfeld model.
In much smaller energy splitting such as Lamb shift, quantum mechanics uses unrealistic math trick called renormalization where infinity caused by unreal virtual particles minus infinity gives some finite value (= very tiny Lamb shift energy ? ) ← Two kinds of "infinite values" can be artificially manipulated to give convenient finite values, so this dirty method discredits quantum mechanics.
We can think of other more realistic possibilities such as an electron and nuclear tiny fluctuation or something. than unreal virtual particle QED to explain such a small negligible energy splitting Lamb shift (= which is too weak to need, useless for our daily life )
Also in very small hyperfine structure (= tiny enegy splitting by nuclear spin ), quantum mechanical model is unrealistic and just artificially manipulating freely-adjustable parameters such as nuclear spin g-factor (= this value cannot be predicted by quantum mechanics, it must be determined by experiment ).
So there is No evidence indicating that quantum mechanical unphysical model is right in regard to atomic energy levels.
(Fig.16) Double-slit experiments proved electron's wave interference obeying de Broglie wavelength.
Many experiments confirmed that an electron has wave nature where an electron can interfere with itself obeying de Broglie relation wavelength in the same way as ordinary light wave.
Quantum mechanics claims even a single electron can interfere with itself, but if there is only a single electron in "completely empty space", it's impossible to cause interference fringe pattern, because an electron cannot voluntarily push or pull itself to change its own moving direction to cause interference fringe patterns on the screen.
So there must be some "external things or medium" exerting force on an electron by pushing or pulling an electron to cause fringes responding to destructive or constructive interference of de Broglie wave occurring around an electron.
Actually, Bohr model could successfully obtain atomic energy levels which just agreed with experimental results using de Broglie wave theory.
Later, quantum mechanics also used de Broglie wave theory and got exactly the same results as Bohr model.
(Fig.17) A single electron splits into parallel worlds !?
Of course, each electron is obviously a charged particle with unbreakable mass and charge, which can Not be divided into multiple smaller charges also in two-slit experiments.
Each single electron is known to interfere with itself in two-slit experiment. ← Each single electron cannot be divided, then, how can we explain this two-slit interference of a single electron ?
The only realistic explanation is that a single electron generates de Broglie wave in the "external medium" around it, and the wave naturally splits into two waves at two slits, which interfere with each other, and affect the electron's motion, causing interference pattern.
But the current mainstream theory = Einstein relativity rejected the concept of the real medium filling space a long time ago. And recently, physicists try to restore such medium filling space under a changed name of "dark matter." ← nonsense.
Quantum mechanics barefacedly says fantasy things "a single electron has to split to pass through two slits at once using illusory parallel worlds for interfering with itself." ← Impossible !
The real medium is indispensable for explaining all observed phenomena such as interference, diffraction, medium-dependent light speed change.
Without space medium, quantum mechanics has to rely on unreal virtual particles with imaginary mass as fictitious force carrier ( this p.3 ).
Without the medium, Einstein relativity is haunted by fatal paradoxes such as de Broglie wave interference.
(Fig.18) Schrodinger's orbital is n × de Broglie wavelength.
Bohr atomic model succeeded in explaining energy levels of all hydrogen-like atoms, and Schrödinger equation of quantum mechanics also agreed with results of Bohr model. Why ?
Bohr model uses the assumption that electron' orbital length is just an integral multiple of de Broglie wavelength to avoid destructive interferene, which was experimentally confirmed.
Schrödinger equation also uses de Broglie wave theory for obtaining electron's momentum and kinetic energy.
Furthermore, in fact, the electron's orbital of Schrödinger wave function is also an integer multiple of de Broglie wavelength ( this last ), which is the reason why both Bohr model and Schrödinger equation give exactly the same results and use the same Bohr radius concept in hydrogen.
We can visualize any Schrödinger's orbitals just equal to an integer times de Broglie wavelength like Bohr's atomic model.
Fig.18 is hydrogen's 1s, 2s and 3s wave functions.
If we use the solution χ = rR ( R is radial wavefunction, r is the distance between an electron and nucleus ), Schrödinger equation just becomes the simple second derivative form where Schrödinger's "radial wavefunction" exactly means "de Broglie wave" like Bohr model ( this p.3 ).
In this radial wave function (= rR ), 1s, 2s and 3s orbital are just integers = 1, 2, and 3 times de Broglie wavelength.
This is a hidden trick of the only solvable Schrödinger's solution = hydrogen atom, which results just agree with Bohr's hydrogen.
But only Schrödinger wave functions include unphysical orbitals, so false.
Because Schrödinger equation always has to include unrealistic zero orbital angular momentum, where an electron crashes into a nucleus, moving in a linear orbit.
In the linear orbit where an electron is moving back and forth on the same one-dimensional path, the electron's de Broglie wave interferes with itself destructively, hence, Schrödinger's electron's motion becomes unstable and chaotic, while Bohr's atomic electron's motion is stable.
(Fig.19) Quantum mechanical wavefunction is unreal.
Quantum mechanics is false in hydrogen's wave function.
Because the square of momentum p of Schrödinger's electron is Not equal to p2, so, the equation of p2 = p2 is Not satisfied in quantum mechanics ? ← Why does such an irrational thing happen ?
Schrodinger equation adopted de Broglie relation as "derivative" form.
The first derivative of momentum operator acting on wavefunction gets the momentum p, and the second derivative of wavefunction gets the square p2.
Of course, when momentum p is zero, its square p2 must be zero, too.
But only when a wavefunction has basic " cos" or "sin" form, it holds true.
The point is quantum mechanical wave functions distort original de Broglie relation. Figure above is hydrogen 2p radial wavefunction ( this, this last ).
"2p" wavefunction has unreal negative kinetic energy on both sides.
On these boundaries (= two positions where electron's kinetic energy is zero ), the second derivative is zero ( p2 = 0 ), but first derivative (= p ) is not zero (= the slope of wave function is not zero, which means the momentum p is not zero ) ! This is ridiculous.
It's quite natural that when p is zero, its square p2 is zero, too !
So quantum mechanics distorts original de Broglie relation with wrong math.
(Fig.20) No solution → just "choose" fake solution ! = useless
In Schrödinger equation of quantum mechanics, the sum of an electron's kinetic energy and Coulomb potential energy equals total energy E which total energy must be conserved and constant.
Under this total energy conservation (= E is a constant value ) law, Schrödinger equation can be solved only in one-electron hydrogen atom which results happened to equal Bohr model.
In any other multi-electron atoms or molecules, Schrödinger equation can never be solved. = There are No exact solutions or wavefunctions of any multi-electron atoms in quantum mechanics.
So quantum mechanics gave up solving Schrödinger equation, and it just chooses fake solutions (= wavefunction ) called trial function or basis set, and integrates chosen fake solution with Schrödinger equation to obtain fake total energy.
There is 100% freedom in selecting the form of trial wavefunction (= fake solution ). There is No limit to the number of parameters of trial wavefunction.
↑ You can freely choose any arbitrary fake solution giving any arbitray fake energies, which quantum mechanical methods cannot predict any true energies, hence it's a kind of "art", Not science.
Textbooks often say impractical things; if you take infinite time to pick up some fake solution consisting of infinite freely-adjustable parameters and infinite terms, you may find true solution ( this 12th paragraph ). ← But this is Not true.
We can prove it is impossible for any multi-electron Schrödinger equation to have exact solution, hence, quantum mechanics is wrong.
Quantum mechanics says even a single electron must always exist everywhere as a vague electron cloud spreading all over space, which unrealistic property exposes a fatal flaw of Schrödinger wavefunction.
In helium atom, two electrons are supposed to be always everywhere (= because electron probability is Not zero in any positions of Schrödinger wavefunction ) regardless of the other electron's position.
It means three Coulomb energy terms (= Coulomb energy term between each electron 1,2 and a nucleus, and between two electrons ) of Schrödinger equation can be randomly and independently changed in unrealistic quantum mechanical helium atom.
So for the helium to have exact solution (= total energy must be constant and conserved in any two electrons' positions ), three Coulomb energy terms of helium (= independently-changing ) must be independently canceled out by three independent kinetic energy terms.
It means a helium true solution (= if it existed ) must split into three independent fictitious hydrogen atomic wavefunctions (= two electron-nucleus hydrogens and one unreal electron-electron hydrogen ), which is impossible.
Therefore, Schrödinger equation for multi-electron atoms can never find true solution, no matter what forms of fake solutions you choose, and this fact proves quantum mechanics is intrinsically false.
(Fig.21) ↓ One electron exists in both H-atoms a and b at once ?
According to unphysical quantum mechanics, all electrons lose their specific positions, and exist in every place simultaneously as if all different electrons are a indistinguishable ghost particle.
For example, when an electron-1 exists in H-atom-a in the position-a, and an electron-2 exists in H-atom-b in the position-b, these two electrons are distinguishable from different positions of two different H atoms. ← This is normal, but such a normal state is Not allowed in quantum mechanics.
In quantum mechanical hydrogen molecule, an electron-1 must always exist in both two different H atoms in different positions simultaneously using fictional parallel worlds. An electron-2 also exists in both H atoms simultaneously, too.
So all electrons exist in all different atoms and different places simultaneously without any distinction. → Indistinguishable electrons with respect to places, which unrealistic state is required by quantum mechanics.
Why does quantum mechanics make such a crazy demand ?
Quantum mechanical electron must always spread symmetrically around a nucleus like a cloud, so the electron cloud, which is Not a moving charged-particle, cannot approach the other nucleus or avoid the other electron to generate powerful Coulomb attraction enough to form molecular bond by lowering Coulomb potential energy between electrons and nuclei.
This is a serious problem, hence, quantum mechanics has to find some other dirty tricks to lower total energy for forming fictitious molecular bond without lowering Coulomb potential energy which is unavailable for quantum electron spreading cloud.
Quantum mechanics cannot use normal Coulomb force or lower Coulomb potential energy in molecular bonds, so it tries to lower only an electron's kinetic energy without changing Coulomb energy, which clearly violates total energy conservation law, and disproves quantum mechanical molecular bonds.
Even this dirty trick is Not enough to lower total (= kinetic ) energy for forming fictitious molecular bonds.
So quantum mechanics started to rely on unrealistic state where all electrons exist in all different atoms or places simultaneously in the name of "indistinguishable".
Because in this unrealistic indistinguishable state, integral of chosen (fake) wavefunction includes unphysical exchange integral, which uncanny integral or exchange fictitious force cannot be described by any real things or electric force ( this p.11 ).
This nonphysical exchange integral can further lower electron's kinetic energy in an illegitimate way violating total energy conservation law, so false.
(Fig.22) ↓ Each electron exists in both atoms. → Pauli principle ?
Pauli exclusion principle is known to generate mysterious powerful repulsive force enough to resist Coulomb force and exclude the 3rd electron of lithium to outer orbit, involving electron spin.
In fact, unphysical quantum mechanics cannot describe this Pauli exclusion principle or repulsive energy using any real things or forces.
So Pauli exclusion principle by quantum mechanics is based on wrong physics using fictitious concepts such as "exchange energy" and "antisymmetric wavefunction", which have nothing to do with real world.
Irrational quantum mechanical rule forces all electrons to be indistinguishable, existing in all different atoms simultaneously. Furthermore, quantum mechanical wavefunction must take an artificial, unphysical form called antisymmetric.
In antisymmetric wavefunction, when we exchange any two electrons, the sign of the entire wave function is supposed to change ( this p.3 ). ← No more detailed mechanism of Pauli principle is given by quantum mechanics !
As shown in Fig.22 middle, the wavefunction is divided into two parts; electron's space part (= Schrödinger equation ) and spin part.
In two-electron hydrogen (= H2 ) molecule or helium atom, the spin part is antisymmetric (= one electrons spin is up, the other spin is down ), so their Schrödinger equation part takes "symmetric" form where a illegitimately-lowered electron's kinetic energy is used as fake molecular bond energy in quantum mechanics.
In antisymmetric wavefunction (= Pauli principle ), the sign of this illegitimately-lowered electron's kinetic energy is flipped, which means the electron's "kinetic energy is illegitimately increased" in unphysical quantum mechanical Pauli principle.
So the origin of quantum mechanical Pauli exclusion force is nonsense = illegitimately-increased kinetic energy (= without using normal Coulomb repulsion or other forces, instead, using only unphysical "exchange" ) violating energy conservation law, so this unphysical Pauli repulsion can neither be admitted as real force nor given any realistic physical interpretation ( this p.6 ).
And quantum mechanics cannot give real force carrier to Pauli exclusion repulsion, while realistic atomic model with electrons and de Broglie waves can treat Pauli repulsive force as real force generated by real force carrier.
(Fig.23) Unreal indistinguishable electron → One pseudo-electron DFT approximation in quantum mechanics.
Every electron spreads and exists in all atomic different places simultaneously in fantasy parallel worlds according to quantum mechanical illogical rule requiring all atomic wavefunctions should be nonphysical antisymmetric without showing any concrete physical mechanism.
If all electrons are unrealistically existing everywhere (= indistinguishable electrons ), physicists need to pick only one electron from among many indistinguishable parallel-world electrons in quantum mechanics.
So quantum mechanics outrageously treats the whole many-electron material as unreal one single pseudo-electron model ( this p.2 upper ) called band theory.
Quantum mechanical band theory expresses the whole many-atomic materal as unphysical linear bands which represent fictitious electron called quasiparticle with fake (= effective ) mass (= even unreal negative electron mass is possible ) and pseudo-momentum.
In this nonphysical quantum mechanical band model, each particle's position, shape and size are unknown and meaningless, because all electrons are changed into fake electrons or quasiparticles with fake masses, and they must always exist everywhere using parallel worlds.
To calculate this fictitious indistinguishable electron spreading over all places, an unrealistic quantum mechanical approximate method called density functional theory (= DFT, or Kohn-Sham theory ) was artificially invented replacing useless many-electron Schrödinger equation by "one pseudo-electron model" ( this p.3 ) with fictional effective pseudo-potential.
(Fig.24) Exchange, correlation functionals can be "freely" chosen.
Quantum mechanical rough and false approximation called DFT uses only one fictitious electron, so it needs to replace ordinary Schrödinger equation's potential energy among many electrons by fictional non-interacting pseudo-potential ( except one pseudo-electron in DFT causes unphysical self-interaction ) called exchange-correlation functional.
The problem is there is No universal, legitimate rule to choose this pseudo-potential = exchange-correlation functional. It means we can choose any forms of fake potential energy, which cannot predict any real values.
In DFT, we need to artificially choose
No matter what fake potential and solution you choose, you always encounter many cases where DFT calculation is unable to explain experimental values ( this p.17, this p.1 left ).
Each time DFT calculation fails to predict physical values, physicists have to invent and choose other pseudo-potentials = new exchange-correlation functionals, artificially adjusting free parameters by comparing them with experimental results ( this p.3 ).
So DFT is useless with No ability to predict any physical values ( this p.21 ), though almost all the current condensed matter researches rely on this unphysical DFT as the only quantum mechanical calculation tool. → Science stops progressing now.
(Fig.25) ↓ A single photon is bigger than 1000 meter !? ← unreal
A photon is often said to be an elementary particle of light or electromagnetic wave.
But No one can answer even basic questions "What size and shape is each photon particle ?"
Textbooks always show the picture of electromagnetic wave, and call the light wave "photon", perfunctorily.
If there was a rigid particle called "photon", the photon particle could be as Big as 1000 meter in a radio wave (= one of electromagnetic wave, so a photon ? ) with extremely long wavelength ?
We could easily touch and see such an uncanny photon (= if it existed ) as Big as 1000 meter = wavelength of long radio light wave ! ← It's impossible.
So a photon is Not a particle but just a light wave traveling through medium like other sound and water waves.
All observed phenomena such as light interference, diffraction, refraction, light speed change based on medium prove light is wave, a photon particle cannot explain any of these phenomena including light polarization (= an illusory photon has a sharp shape, and points in various directions mimicking observed polarized light wave ? ← Impossible ! )
In fact, a photon was introduced as a kind of fictitious quasiparticle interacting with other unreal quasiparticles in the current imaginary condensed matter physics or quantum mechanics.
So there is No such thing as a photon. A photon is just light wave.
(Fig.26) Electron is ejected at some light "wave" frequency.
Textbooks often insist Einstein photoelectric effect proved light is a (fictitious) photon particle. But this claim is completely baseless and unscientific.
In photoelectric effect, when light with energy proportional to "light wave frequency" shines on a metal, the high-energy light is absorbed into a metallic electron which is resultantly ejected from the surface of a metal.
All they can detect is this "electron (= Not a fictional photon ! )" ejected by light wave. A photon particle itself can never be observed or detected.
Photoelectric effect has a close relationship with light wave frequency which equals light speed divided by light wavelength. ← All these concepts such as light wave frequency and wavelength show photoelectric effect proved "light is wave", Not an imaginary photon particle.
In fact, according to quantum field theory, each electron cannot interact with a real photon. A electron absorbs or emits only an unreal virtual photon with imaginary mass also in official interpretation of photoelectric effect, hence a real photon has nothing to do with photoelectric effect.
Because the ratio of an incident photon's (= light ) momentum to energy is completely different from the ratio of a target electron's momentum to energy. ← Conserving both total energy and momentum is impossible when an electron absorbs a real photon (= light ). → Unreal virtual photon must be absorbed by an electron in photoelectric effect !
Compton light scattering or effect is also said to prove the existence of an imaginary photon particle. ← This is untrue Compton effect has No connection to a photon particle, either.
In Compton scattering, when incident light hits and reflects off an electron, the light wavelength becomes longer, losing energy, but keeping the constant light speed c.
↑ If a photon is a rigid particle, a photon losing its energy by hitting and bouncing off an electron has to decelerate, decreasing its light speed instead of elongating its wavelength (= a rigid photon particle cannot shrink or be elongated just by bouncing off something ! ).
As a result, both photoelectric and Compton effect proved light is "electromagnetic wave", Not a photon particle which completely contradicts actually-observed phenomena.
To understand both these important phenomena correctly, we need to consider light as a kind of "oscillating wave" in the medium both in the transverse and longitudinal (= moving ) directions.
The light oscillating energy stored in the transverse (= polarized ) direction which is perpendicular to the light moving direction tends to be absorbed in an electron (= an electron also stores its kinetic energy as a form of de Broglie oscillating wave in the common medium ) in photoelectric effect.
Light oscillating in the transverse direction (= perpendicular to the light moving direction ) has almost zero average momentum (= due to moving back and forth in transverse direction = total average momentum of light in the transverse direction is almost zero, because two momentums in the opposite directions = back and forth cancel out each other to be zero ).
But the light oscillation in the transverse directon has high energy enough to excite an electron through interaction between light and de Broglie wave, which is compatible with conservation of total energy and momentum without relying on unreal virtual photons.
The average momentum of an electron orbiting around a nucleus inside an atom is also zero, because an electron is moving back and forth around a nucleus (= two momentums in the opposite directions = back and forth, cancel out each other, giving zero average electron's momentum like light oscillating in the transverse direction ).
As a result, using classical light wave and electron's de Broglie wave, a real electron can naturally absorb and emit real light wave in photoelectric effect conserving energy and momentum, without relying on unreal virtual photons of quantum mechanics.
And light propagating in the longitudinal direction hits and reflects off a target particle in Compton effect which does not absorb the whole light (= so light reflects off an electron without being absorbed ), except that the light hitting an electron slightly loses its energy ( by pushing the target electron a little ) and elongates light wavelength.
This is a realistic interpretation of photoelectric and Compton effects by light wave interacting with an electron with No contradictions or virtual particles.
Quantum mechanics avoids detailed mechanism of how exactly a fictitious photon interacts with an electron due to contradictory quantum mechanical picture.
(Fig.27) electric current illuminated by light = a photon ?
In fact, the so-called single photon detector can Not detect a photon particle itself.
A photon detector uses photoelectric effect, which means it just detects electrons ejected by light wave (= imaginary photon ? ) as electric current ( this p.7 ).
So the claim that a photon particle could be detected using photodetector is a total lie. All they can detect is just "electrons" illuminated by light wave.
As a result, there is No evidence of a photon particle.
Light is just electromagnetic wave.
The photodetector can detect the very weak light as a photon, when this weak light's intensity exceeds the "detection threshold" of the photodetector (= some amount of light energy or intensity is necessary for the photodetector to respond to the incident light ).
↑ If a photon is just a weak classical light wave, it can naturally explain why even a single photon can interfere with itself in the two-slit experiment, while a "photon particle" cannot interfere with itself.
Instead of a unbreakable photon particle splitting into fantasy two different quantum parallel worlds, the weak light wave can naturally splits into two weaker waves at two slits and interfere with each other. →The intensity of the constructively interfered light can exceed the threshold needed to trigger the photodetector. → the light wave after interfering is detected as a photon ( by seeing electrons ejected by classical light ).
If the total amount or light intensity of the weak classical light in the system is very small, it looks like we can detect only "one photon (= a photon is just "weak classical light" with some light intensity which exceeds the detection threshold of the photodetector )" at the photodetector at the same time.
But actually the seeming photon (= just weak classical light "wave", Not a unbreakbale photon particle ) can split into multiple weaker lights ( most of these split weaker lights are too weak to detect at the photodetector, only one of split weaker lights can be detected as a seeming photon at the photodetector by exceeding the light intensity detection threshold ) and interfere with earh other.
This is a "photon" trick. There is No such thing as a photon particle. A photon is just a very weak classical light wave which can split into multiple weaker lights (= one of which weaker lights may exceed the light intensity detection threshold and be detected as a photon ) and interfere with each other without fantasy quantum parallel worlds.
This 4th paragraph about the detection threshold of a single photon detector says,
"The single photon generates charge carriers in the optical detector, which is the most important component in the single photon sensor. The photocurrent caused by these charge carriers is amplified by a broadband low-noise amplifier. The output of the amplifier is a voltage pulse that can typically have an irregular shape. Once a portion of this pulse exceeds a threshold voltage, it is usually assumed a single photon has been detected."
Depending on the different incident light intensity (of weak classical light wave or a fictitious photon ), the detection threshold voltage (= which can be adjusted artificially ) of a single photondetector changes ( this p.5-6 ) to detect weak light as a ( fictitious ) photon.
(Fig.28) An orbiting electron does Not lose energy.
You may often see the boring cliche "all accelerating electrons radiate and lose energy in classical orbits", so Bohr's hydrogen could be unstable.
This logic is completely unscientific and wrong. So Bohr's orbit is stable, Not radiating energy, as long as an electron is orbiting around a nucleus in a normal orderly way.
To be more specific, "a single accelerated electron ( like in Bohr's hydrogen ) does Not radiate or lose energy."
Only when many electrons are accelerated and colliding with each other in a disorderly way, as seen in alternating currents, they radiate and lose energy.
So the misconception that "accelerating" electron losing energy does Not apply to the Bohr model, as long as its electron is moving in an orderly and stable way conserving total energy between a nucleus and an electron, avoiding destructive interference of electron's de Broglie wave.
Actually, Bohr model won the most prestigious Nobel prize, after its scientific legitimacy was admitted as correct by the then academia. ← The misconception that Bohr's atom losing eneregy was just an excuse made up later to justify unrealistic quantum mechanics.
If the textbook's explanation that every accelerating electron becomes unstable losing energy is right, even quantum mechanical electron which also has kinetic energy (= so quantum mechanical electron is also moving around accelerated by a nucleus ! ) becomes unstable radiating energy. ← self-contradiction.
(Fig.29) Bohr model electron is Not falling into nucleus.
In fact, if a single accelerating electron loses energy, the single electron must consist of many smaller fictitious charges as seen in a spherical conductor in the upper figure.
So Bohr's atomic electron which is an indivisible negative charge does Not radiate or lose energy just by moving around the nucleus in an orderly and periodic way.
The theory of an accelerated charge radiating energy uses "electric energy density field" (= energy = 1/2εE2 ) stored in vacuum around spherical conductor packing many smaller repulsive charges ( this p.4 ).
This energy density in electric field equals the amount of energy required to pack many repulsive smaller charges into the same spherical conductor.
So if a single accelerated electron really radiates and loses energy while it orbits around a nucleus, this single electron must be like a fictitious spherical conductor which collects and packs many smaller negative charges into a single electron's tiny body. ← It's imossible and inconsistent with the fact that a single electron is very stable and unbreakable.
A single electron is an indivisible charged particle, which is Not like a spherical conductor packing many smaller illusory negative charges inside a single electron.
As a result, the idea that Bohr's atomic accelerated electron radiating energy is untrue, based on the false assumption.
(Fig.30) ↓ A electron radiates a virtual photon with imaginary mass !?
In the current mainstream quantum field theory, all interactions between elementary particles are expressed using unphysical abstract lines called Feynman diagrams which tell us nothing about detailed mechanisms of how particles actually touch or interact with each other.
Quantum mechanics says an electron can interact only with unreal virtual photons (= Not real photons ! ) with imaginary mass, when electrons emit, absorb (virtual) photons, or apply electromagnetic forces to other charged particles.
Why cannot each electron interact with a real photon (= light ) according to unrealistic quantum mechanics ?
Because the ratios of energy (= E ) to momentum (= p ) are different between an electron and light (= a photon ? ) due to different masses of an electron and a photon (= an electron is much heavier than a photon ).
Mexwell first discovered classical light also has momentum (= p ) equal to E/c (= E is light energy, c is light speed ), so the famous photon's momentum and energy relation p = E/c was first introduced by Maxwell (= Not Einstein ) using classical electromagnetic wave.
Using the original momentum relation ( p = mc, m is mass ) and p = E/c, we can conclude light also has mass expressed by E = mc2 (← this is Maxwell's version of authentic mc2, Not Einstein's phony mc2 ).
This mass of light wave is stored in the medium as oscillating energy which can perfectly explain atomic potential energy (= potential energy is stored in the medium surrounding particles ) and apparent (relativistic) mass increase (= as an electron moves faster, its kinetic energy is increasingly stored in the medium as de Broglie oscillating wave energy, increasing resistance and apparent electron's mass ) of a faster electron related to Bohr-Sommerfeld' fine structure energy splitting.
Einstein unreasonably copied and modified Maxwell's original light wave energy equation of E = mc2 in the wrong way, started to say contradictory things; "Light has zero mass, but has momentum !" ← Nonsense.
↑ This Einstein crazy idea that even light with zero mass has momentum is self-contradictory, hence, wrong, because the momentum is expressed as a particle's mass times velocity (= when the mass is zero, the momentum must be zero according to the original definition of momentum ).
Even if we insert light's zero rest mass ( m =0 ) and constant light speed v = c into Einstein relativistic energy and momentum relation, contradictory things happen = any light waves with any different wavelengths (= which should have different light energies and momentums ) turn out to have the same common constant light energy and momentum regardless of light wavelengths or frequencies.
↑ So if Einstein relativistic mass relation is true, various different lights with different wavelengths cannot have different energies or momentums. ← All lights have the common same energy ! ← Impossible.
When two electrons interacting with electric force or light (= both of which are unreal virtual photons ), the total energy and momentum must be conserved.
But an electron cannot emit or absorb a photon with different ratios of momentum to energy by conserving both momentum and energy, so a virtual photon interacting with a real electron has to have unreal imaginary mass to conserve both total momentum and energy.
To avoid unreal virtual photons interacting with electrons, we have to accept the idea that electromagnetic wave's oscillating energy in the transverse (= polarization ) direction is absorbed ( or emitted ) by an electron moving around a nucleus via de Broglie wave, which is also storing electron's kinetic energy as oscillating energy.
An atomic electron is moving back and forth around a nucleus, so total average momentum of an electron orbiting around a nucleus is almost zero (= two momentums in the opposite directions = back and forth cancel out each other to be zero average momentum of an orbiting electron ), which is close to the ratio of light's (almost zero ) momentum to (large) energy.
Hence, using real light wave model whose energy is stored in the medium, an electron can naturally absorb real light wave where both of an orbiting electron and light wave have the almost same ratio of momentum to eneregy inside an atom, without relying on virtual photons.
(Fig.31) ↓Coulomb, Higgs depend on fictional virtual particles.
In fact, according to today's mainstream quantum field theory, all interactions and forces between all particles are said to happen through unreal virtual particles with imaginary masses which disagree with Einstein relativistic mass energy relation ( this p.5 ).
All these forces are described by unphysical Feynman diagrams which are too abstract to clarify detailed underlying mechanism. ← So the basic science stops progressing, stuck in unrealistic model.
For example, when a neutron decays into a proton and an electron in beta decay, fictitious weak force and virtual weak (= W ) boson are said to be generated in this neutron beta decay.
Quantum mechanical explanation of this beta decay is so unrealstic that they claim a neutron can decay into a almost-same-mass proton and far bigger W boson which is said to be 80 times heavier than the original neutron !
↑ This is impossible, because a ligher particle (= neutron ) cannot emit a heavier particle (= W boson ) due to violating mass conservation.
But the current insane particle physics claims much heavier W boson can be produced from much ligher neutron ( or proton ), flagrantly.
So this dubious extremely heavier W boson allegedly involved in neutron beta decay must be an unreal virtual particles which can never be detected like a ghost, so weak force or W boson are scientifically meaningless, and Not proved yet.
Imaginary fracional-charge quarks which can never be isolated or identified are also said to rely on unreal virtual gluons and sea quarks for generating nuclear strong force (= this true detailed mechanism remains unknown due to undetectable fractional-charge quarks and unreal virtual gluons ).
Also inside wasteful gigantic particle colliders, collisions of protons (= composed of unseen quarks ) are said to produce unreal virtual particles before they quickly change into other particles such as Higgs which is also undetectable, too.
Furthermore, also in condensed matter physics, fictitious virtual quasiparticles are said to mediate other electrons and nuclear interactions inside superconductors and semiconductors. ← nonsense.
As shown here, the current mainstream quantum mechanics relies so heavily on fictional virtual particles in all interactions that clarifying underlying true physical mechanism is an impossible dream forever, as long as we accept contradictory, useless quantum mechanical virtual concepts.
(Fig.32) Quantum mechanics cannot handle multi-electron material.
Schrödinger equation of quantum mechanics has fatal flaws, it cannot handle any multi-electron materials, because it cannot generate even the most important Coulomb electric force enough to form molecular bonds.
So quantum mechanics has to rely on "cheating" even by violating energy conservation law and outrageously assigning each single electron to all different atoms inside a material simultaneously using fantasy parallel worlds to generate fake molecular bond and Pauli repulsive energies through artifically-introduced unphysical concept called "exchange interactioon."
This fictitious exchange energy which cannot be described by any real objects or forces such as electromagnetic forces, demands that all electrons should unrealistically exist in any different places (= called superposition ) at once as uncanny indistinguishable particles.
So quantum mechanics started to use very rough and inaccurate arpproximation called "band model and DFT calculation", where all different electrons inside material are treated like one single illusory particle floating in all atoms at once.
This unrealistic quantum linear band model allegedly contains only one pseudo-electron with fake (= called "effective" ) mass designated by pseudo-energy and quasi-momentum, which means the band model cannot specify each particle's position (= because there is only one fake electron spreading over all atoms inside material ), hence impractical quantum mechanical model.
To explain various physical phenomena of material under various electromagnetic fields and temperatures, useless quantum mechanics, which is unable to handle more than one real electrons, has to artificially fabricate unreal quasiparticle model with fake mass and charge ( this p.2 ).
So the current mainstream quantum mechanics has had No ability to describe physical phenomena using real electrons with real mass for a long time, which pseudo-science dominating the current academia and journals stops our real science technology from advancing forever.
(Fig.33) Observe phenomena → Fake quasi-particles model ?
The current condensed matter physcs based on quantum mechanics is filled with fictional concepts such as quasiparticles with negative mass, fractional-charge, magnetic monopole, massless fermion, charge-orbit separation ..
Quasiparticle is a fictitious ghost-like particle which can neither exist nor be isolated from material.
How could physicists conclude that such illusory quasiparticles were found ? ← impossible !
In fact, all physicists can measure is just realistic phenomena such as classical electromagnetic fields and light absorption. ← When they try to explain underlying physical mechanicm behind it, the current only atomic theory = quantum mechanics deliberately misinterprets such real macroscopically-observed phenomena as ones caused by unreal quasiparticles or fictitious negative ( effective ) mass.
For example, they just misinterpreted some measured "electric conductance" as a result of fictitious "fractional-charge quasiparticles."
And by illuminating various materials with classical laser lights and measuring the optical response, physicists jumped to the wrong conclusion that they might have found (unreal) negative mass, charge-orbit separation ( this 4th paragraph ), massless pseudo-particle ( this 8th paragraph ), and solar cells driven by illusory quasiparticles..
So all quantum mechanical researchers are doing now is just measure classical electromagnetic properties such as electric conductance, resistance and absorption of light, and intentionally try to associate those actually-observed physical phenomena with fictitious quantum mechanical model such as quasiparticles with unreal mass or charge. ← nonsense.
Because quantum mechanics has No ability to describe microscopic underlying mechanism using real electrons with real fixed mass and charge from the beginning. → Quantum mechanics had No choice but to rely on "illegitimate cheating", as seen in unphysical exchange energy or virtual particles.
(Fig.34) Quantum mechanical particles (= a†, b†, c† .. ) are just nonphysical symbols with No shape or size.
Quantum mechanics needs fictitious quasiparticle model to explain various observed phenomena.
How does quantum mechanics describe each quasiparticle ?
What shape and size is such a ghost-like quasiparticle ? Is it called science ?
Quantum mechanics can only describe each many-electron material as nonphysical band model which allegedly contains only one single pseudo-electron with fake (= effective ) mass, quasi-momentum and energy. ← Hence, quantum mechanical particle has No position.
Such a quantum mechanical band model with energy-momentum space has No concept of each particle's position (= where each electron exists is uncertain forever ).
So it's meaningless to think about each particle's position, shape, size or how a particle concretely interacts with other particles in a realistic way in quantum mechanics ! ← Such an impractical quantum mechanical model cannot be utilized in any applied science.
In such an unphysical quantum mechanical world, all physicists can to is express each particle such as an electron and a photon (= light ) only as a nonphysical math symbol without giving any physical shape, size or position to each particle.
This means all other fictitious quasiparticles such as phonon ( this p.4 ), Cooper pair, Bogoliubov quasiparticle ( this p.9 ) and exciton ( this p.3 ) are also expressed as nonphysical math symbols with No physical figure.
Such unreal quasiparticles are supposed to have their illusory (= effective ) mass. Even a photon (= a particle of electromagnetic wave ? ) is also known as one of fictitious quasiparticles with unreal effective mass, which were artificially introduced by irrational quantum mechanics.
So there is No realistic picture in any particles or materials depicted by quantum mechanics.
Even now, academia and journals continue to invent new illusory quasiparticles in vain to explain various physical phenomena which useless quantum mechanics cannot explain using real particles.
(Fig.35) Multiple computations using parallel worlds ?
Quantum mechanics is so unscientific as to claim a thing can be in multiple different places simultaneously splitting into fantasy multiple parallel worlds.
This crazy basic physics created a fictional future target called quantum computer which is said to carry out multiple calculations simultaneously using the power of imaginary parallel worlds.
As a result, these illusory quantum computers based on fictional quantum parallel worlds for their illusory speed-up will never be realized or faster than ordinary classical computers we use now.
An ordinary computer bit can takes only one state = 0 or 1 at the same time.
But a quantum bit called qubit is said to be in two different states (= 0 and 1 ) at the same time using splitting parallel worlds, like an illusory dead and alive cat.
But of course, it is impossible to see a single object being in two places or a grotesque dead-alive cat at once. Quantum mechanics makes an excuse that the instant we try to observe such an unrealistic quantum state, it suddenly changes into a single realistic state (= a cat is dead or alive ) from the original imaginary multiple states (or places ). ← Too good to be true.
As a result, all we can observe is a single realistic state or world. ← There is No direct evidence of quantum mechanical parallel worlds or superposition where a thing can be in two different places at once.
Things used as quantum bits (= qubit ) include a photon (= just classical light wave, for example, horizontally polarized light is denoted as "0", vertically polarized light is denoted as "1" ), atomic (= or ion's ) two energy states (= ground state is "0", excited state is "1" ), superconducting two-directional currents (= for example, clockwise current = 0, counterclockwise current = 1 )..
(Fig.36) ↓ No evidence of faster quantum computer
Quantum computer is still useless, Not faster than ordinary classical computers despite an enormous amount of world's taxpayers' money wasted in this fictional quantum computer research for a long time.
The point is the current so-called quantum computer is Not a calculator or computer at all. They are doing completely different things irrelevant to computation.
D-Wave quantum computer turned out to be useless and slower than ordinary computers, contrary to the media-hype.
D-Wave machine is Not a real quantum computer, it's called "adiabatic computer" where physicists just set the system's lowest energy state as solution in advance, and then, gradually let the machine settle down to the lowest-energy state, which primitive process they call "finding solution".
↑ They did Nothing of computation in this D-Wave machine, except they got the machine's state into the most stable (= lowest energy ) state gradually and slowly without any computing.
Google quantum computer allegedly achieving "supremacy" is also useless, not faster, because all they did was just "output random disorderly numbers" (= Not computing any meaningful numbers, hence Not a calculator or computer at all ).
The 3rd last paragraph of this news says "Quantum computers are not ‘supreme’ against classical computers because of a laboratory experiment designed to essentially … implement one very specific quantum sampling procedure with no practical applications."
So they just "output random meaningless numbers" without calculation. ← No quantum computer supremacy in these recent researches.
Just "outputting random numbers" is easy like in these researches.
But calculating and predicting precise "probabilities" of getting those random numbers are extremely difficult and take a great deal of time.
Because there are many factors and different patterns leading to those random numbers. And they claim if ordinary computers try to calculate all probabilites and all patterns resulting in the output random meaningless numbers, it would take an enormous amount of time ( this 4-5th paragraphs ).
↑ This is an unfair comparison, hence they did Not prove quantum computer supremacy at all, because they try to make quantum and ordinary computers do completely different things.
They made the so-called quantum computer do much easier task (= just output meaningless random numbers, which is Not calculation at all ), and made ordinary computers do far more difficult calculation of all probabilities of outputting random meaningless numbers.
So one is just output random numbers, another is calculating the probabilities of outputting random numbers. ← These are completely different tasks which would take different amounts of times.
It's a very unfair comparison. The recent Chinese quantum computer research treating classical light as fictitious photons to claim supremacy is also just outputting random meaningless numbers without calculation. ← these so-called quantum computers are useless and Not faster than ordinary computers at all.
If we make quantum computer do the same calculation (= though still quantum computer cannot do such a practical calculation ) as ordinary computers, and compare their speeds, ordinary computers would surely do calculation much faster and more accurately than fictional quantum computer.
The original goal in quantum computer was to factorize some numbers by calculating mutiple equations simultaneously using imaginary parallel worlds and Shor's algorithm.
But so far, the largest number factored by the so-called quantum computer is just 15 = 3 × 5 or 21 at most (= too small numbers, and No quantum speed-up, this p.2 ).
Furthermore, even this simplest factoring did Not use the original idea of parallel-worlds speeding up quantum computing. So Not faster at all.
Instead, they just classically "recycled" and reset each qubit, doing only one calculation at a time, giving up the original high goal = carrying out many calculations simultaneously using quantum mechanical parallel worlds. ← Hence, it cannot be called "quantum computer".
Other factoring of seemingly large numbers did not calculate Shor's algorithm at all, instead, like D-Wave adiabatic machine (= not faster ), they just set the system's lowest-energy state as fictitious ( already-known ) solutions of factoring in advance ( this p.2 ), and gradually changed the system into the afore-set lowest-energy state ( which destination they call "solution" ) without any computation ( this 6th paragraph ).
In conclusion, the current so-called quantum computer is useless, Not a calculator or computer at all, their research is deadend, making No progress except for the media's fake news misleading people into believing (fictional) quantum computer may be realized in near future, like quantum internet or communication.
(Fig.37) ↓ Electron, photon are just meaningless math symbols.
Quantum mechanics failed to describe actual physical phenomena using real particles or objects.
So quantum mechanics insanely forbids all particles such as an electron, a photon (= light ) and even fictitious quasiparticles from having concrete physical shape. ← Faceless meaningless particles.
Each electron and a photon is described just as a nonphysical meaningless math symbol with No physical figure ( an electron or photon is expressed just as a†, b†, c† .. with fake effective mass, this p.3 ), which too abstract quantum mechanical model tells us nothing about detailed mechanims of atomic behavior.
But quantum mechanics, which obstinately refuses to give concrete shape or size to each electron or a photon (= concrete mechaism of how particles are touching and interacting with each other is unknown forever ! ), is the largest obstacle to development of our science technology now.
(Fig.38) ↓ Anticommutation = Pauli exclusion principle ?
Relativistic quantum mechanics or quantum field theory allegedly combining quantum mechanics and Einstein special relativity becomes more unrealistic and unphysical.
Quantum mechanics refuses to give concrete physical mechanism of Pauli explusion principle, except for just saying Pauli principle was expressed just as nonphysical antisymmetric wavefunction.
In quantum field theory using relativistic Dirac equation which expresses each electron as a mere abstract math symbol, the mechanism of Pauli exclusion principle is also expressed just as meaningless abstract math relation called anticommutation ( this p.2, this p.2 upper )
In anticommutation relation allegedly denoting Pauli principle, when two electrons (= c1 ↔ c2 ) are exchanged, the sign is changed. ← That's all. No more detailed explanation of Pauli exclusion repulsion is given by quantum mechanics.
What causes Pauli principle is unknown forever, as long as unphysical quantum mechanics continues to be the mainstream theory.
As you see, unscientific quantum mechanics has given up pursuing deeper physical mechanism for a long time, fearing many self-contradictions and unrealistic aspect inherent in quantum mechanics will be exposed, when we start to look into true underlying mechanism.
(Fig.39) Quantum field theory or electrodynamics (= QED )
In 1920s~, quantum mechanics and Einstein special relativity were united into ( relativistic ) quantum field theory or quantum electrodynamics (= QED ).
In this quantum field theory, all interactions and forces are expressed using abstract Feynman diagrams where unreal virtual particles with imaginary mass are supposed to mediate fictitious forces, which unphysical quantum model can give No more detailed physical mechanism ( this p.7 ).
Quantum field theory depends on nonphysical Dirac equation to describe all fermions such as electrons, unseen quarks, antimatters and neutrino.., ← Each particle is given No concrete physical picture by Dirac equation.
The point is the current mainstream quantum theory has No ability to describe each particle as a real particle with concrete physical shape or size, so true underlying mechanism of relativistic quantum particles remains unknown.
Quantum field theoy exresses each electron ( this p.6 ) and a photon ( this p.21 ) just as nonphysical math symbols (= a†, b†, c† .. = electron or photon ? ) with No physical shape or size.
Using this nonphysical meaningless description of electrons, Pauli principle is also expressed just as nonphysical relation called anticommutation, which abstract mathematical relation tells us nothing about detailed mechaism of how Pauli repulstive force acts on electrons, except for saying exchanging two electrons flips the sign = Pauli repulsion ? ( this p.5-6 ).
This unrealistic quantum field theory leads to the current fantasy extra-dimensional unified theory, a.k.a. "theory of everything" and fictional cosmology, which is useless forever, obstructing our science development, hence preventing curing disease.
(Fig.40) ↓ Unrealistic picture of quantum field theory
The current unphysical quantum field theory describes particles such as electrons and photons just as nonphycial simple math symbols with No physical figures except abstract Feynman diagram ( this p.7 ), so useless.
So interaction between electrons and photons (= when an electron emits or absorbs light = virtul photon, this p.3 ) is also described by nonphysical representation where an electron symbol and a photon symbol are just put side by side with No more explanation of true physical mechanism ( this p.13, this p.4 ).
Therefore, the current quantum field theory or QED can never clarify concrete physical mechanism of how electrons emit ( virtual ) photons for causing Coulomb force or photoelectric effect. → Quantum field theory and QED are harmful, just stopping our science from progressing forever.
(Fig.41) Fractional-charge quark, Higgs field cannot be detected !
Current standard physics claims there are an unnaturally large number of elementary particles. Most of them are unnecessary illusory particles which do Not even exist, except in particle physicists' heads or the media.
Real elementary particles necessary for our daily life are only electrons and protons ( neutron = proton + electron ). Just these two particles are enough to explain almost all physical phenomena in the universe.
Light wave and neutrino, which always travel at light speed c without slowing down, different from a particle ( as long as traveling in the same medium ), can be considered as "waves" like de Broglie wave produced in the medium around a moving electron, these are Not particles but waves.
All other doubtful particles such as Higgs, quarks, weak bosons, supersymmetric particles, antimatter, muons .. are just illusion. ← Actually, Nobody uses these dubious particles in our daily life. ← Unnecessary particles means unreal particles.
Physicists can never isolate those doubtful particles from particle colliders on the pretext that these particles are too unstable, short-lived to isolate. ← nonsense.
Fractional-charge quarks can neither be isolated nor observed.
Physicists falsely and baselessly claim just by colliding electrons or protons with nuclei, they could "conjecture" the existence of illusory fractional-charge quarks.
Particle collision experiment is generally too chaotic, changeable and unstable to jump to a hasty conclusion that new dubious unstable particle might have been found. Today's physics artificially fabricated many unreal particles such as virtual sea quarks to explain complicated observed results of nuclear collision experiments ( this p.4 ).
New heavy top quark is said to appear only once in several billion collisions, and soon decay (= lifetime is too short = 10-24 s to confirm directly ). ← too unstable, short-lived to believe, hence it is unreasonable and unscientific to claim new particle was found only from these unrealiable and chaotic particle collision experiments including many irrelevant particles.
When a neutron decays into a proton and an electron in beta decay, very heavier weak (= W ) boson is said to pop out for an extremely short time (= W boson is unseen ).
This weak boson clearly violated mass conservation law, because it is impossible for a lighter neutron to emit far heavier weak boson (= 80 times heavier than a neutron or proton ! ).
So contradictory weak boson, which allegedly appears in neutron beta decay, is just an unreal virtual particle which is irrelevant to very massive weak boson which is said to be indirectly detected inside particle colliders. ← so particle collider experiment irrelevant to actual beta decay is meaningless.
God particle Higgs boson allegedly discovered in LHC is said to give "mass" to other particles. But correctly, Higgs boson has nothing to do with mass, so LHC research is meaningless, again.
The 3rd paragraph of this news says "The Higgs boson does not technically give other particles mass. More precisely, the particle is a quantized manifestation of a field (the Higgs field) that generates mass ( this 5-6th paragraphs )."
↑ So Higgs boson, which was too short-lived to detect directly without giving mass, is meaningless. "Higgs field" around us is supposed to be invisible and undetectable whatever instruments are used. ← Higgs field is also meaningless.
Therefore, all experiments in the present and future gigantic particle colliders are useless and just a waste of huge taxpayers' money, pursuing illusory particles.
Physicists started to pursue new fictional things such as dark photon and fifth force just by looking at irrelevant nuclear reaction in vain.
Unnecessary elementary particles such as muons are said to be very unstable, short-lived, easily decaying into other real particles (or wave ) such as electrons and neutrinos (= hence, an easily-decaying muon is Not an elementary particle but just a transient composite particle or high-energy electrons or protons whose motions are constantly changing by being scattered by other particles inside colliders like fictitious effective masses ).
The only difference between an electron and a very unstable muon is said to be their masses. But knowing an accurate mass of a fictional muon is impossible.
Because isolating such a very short-lived elementary particle as a muon, which is said to appear extremely rarely for just a very short time, from other irrelevant more abundant and stable particles such as electrons, protons, ions is impossible.
A doubtful muon was discovered inside a photo of high-energy cosmic rays in the cloud chamber under magnetic field where many other irrelevant high-energy electrons and protons (= more abundant than rare, short-lived muons ) are flying and mixed. ← A muon can Neither be separated from other irrelevant particles nor confirmed as an independent particle in a mess of cloud chambers ( this p.2 ).
This means each particle is always scattered by other ions, electrons and protons by Coulomb electric force inside a cloud chamber which cannot separate or identify a rare muon only by magnetic field.
Furthermore, even if a muon could be isolated from other irrelevant abundant particles (= though, it's impossible ), the motion of the muon under magnetic field gives only information about the particle's momentum, Not about each particle's mass, charge or velocity, hence, we cannot identify a muon as a new elementary particle with a mass different from an electron or proton only from the particle's motion under the magnetic field inside cloud chambers.
When producing such a doubtful muon, physicists just collide high-energy protons with target nuclei (= such as graphite and beryllium ), try to isolate muons only under some magnetic field, and claim they might find muons, though they actually do nothing about separating muons from other irrelevant abundant particles ( this p.4, 5 ).
As a result, there is No conclusive evidence that such unnecessary, very short-lived particles as muons were isolated or confimed ( except inside particle physicists' heads ).
If we really confirm the accurate mass of a (fictional) muon, we need to conduct different experiments such as Millikan's oil drop, which experiments are possible only in the most abundant stable electrons, and impossible in very unstable and "rarely-appearing" muons.
So it's safe to say only stable particles and wave such as electrons, protons, light and neutrino are real, all other doubtful unstable elementary particles such as quarks, Higgs, antiparticles, muons, supersymmetric particles .. are unreal and unnecessary for our daily life (= there will be No trouble even if we forget those unneeded particles ).
Quantum chromodynamics (= QCD ) is also an useless, meaningless science just manipulating artificial mass parameters of fictitious quarks, pions, mesons, baryons and nuclei in vain.
(Fig.42) "Symmetry" has NO physical meaning, Higgs is unreal.
Quantum field theory is unrealistic and its Dirac equation is so abstract as to describe all particles such as electron, Higgs, weak boson as nonphysical math symbols with No physical shape.
In order to develop theory in this too unphysical and abstract quantum field equation, physicists had no choice but to increase many illusory elementary particles like quasi-particles in condensed matter.
Another way to develop theory is to artificially set fake targets.
This fake target for useless particle physics is the so-called "symmetry."
According to this artificial rule = symmetry which has nothing to do with real world's phenomena, if under some transformation such as nonphysical phase transformation, the equation is unchanged, they call it "symmetry. ( this p.11 )" ← Just playing with meaningless concepts "symmetry".
There are three kinds of this artificial "phase transformation symmetry" based on different forms of matrix; U1 symmetry (= representing photon, electric force ), SU2 symmetry (= 2×2 matrix representing weak force, this p.12 ), and SU3 symmetry (= 3 × 3 matrix representing quark strong force, this p.9 ).
And if this symmetry is broken by adding unphysical mass term, it is called Higgs boson ( this p.4 ). ← This is just artificially-introduced rule, with No connection with our real world phenomena.
One of artificially-introduced transformations to change particles into imaginary shadow particles called supersymmetric particles (= SUSY ) is supersymmetic transformation with many freely-adjustable parameters ( this p.10 ), which cannot predict any physical values.
Using this artificial supersymmetry or shadow particles, the current only unified theory = 26-dimensional string theory was changed into 10-dimensional superstring, though it still lacks reality.
↑ In this way, the current particle physics just increases fictional particles just by setting "fake targets" called "symmetry" with No relation to actual physical phenomena.
(Fig.43) QED infinite virtual particles and bare (= real ? ) charge.
"QED (= quantum electrodynamics ) is the most successful theory to predict unbelievably accurate physical values." is a big lie.
All calculations of QED always diverge to meaningless infinity by infinite number of unreal virtual particles with infinite energy or momentum surrounding electrons ( this p.3 ).
To remove the unrealistic infinite calculation results, QED started to say unrealistic things; "unmeasurable bare (= real ? ) charge and mass of an electron may be also infinite ( this p.4 ), and these infinite bare charge and mass can artificially cancel out another infinite values caused by virtual particles (= self-evergy ) to get observed finite values ( this last, this p.2 upper )."
This artificial trick of cancellation of infinity from another infinity to get desirable finite values (= anomalous magnetic moment or Lamb shift .. ) is called "renormalization", which illegitimate trick like "sweeping infinity under rug" is criticized even by QED founders.
↑ This means QED just artificially chooses some infinite values as fictitious (directly-unmeasurable) bare charge and mass of an electron and subtracts this chosen infinity from the QED calculated infinite values to get desirable finite values ( ∞ - ∞ = finite values, this p.2 ).
But in normal math, infinity minus infinity should be zero ( ∞ = ∞ = 0, because there is No upper limit in any infinite values ) or infinity (= when one of infinite values increases much faster than the other infinite value ).
Subtracting infinity from another infinity to get freely-adjustable finite values is an illegitimate wrong math.
There is No legitimate rule or math validity in this unreasonable choice of arbitrary infinite values of bare charge and mass of an electron ( this, this ), and this fatal flaw is still unresolved even now.
For example, in calculating anomalous magnetic moment or electron's g-factor, QED uses illegitimate "change of variables (= changing infinite upper limit of virtual particle's energy into another infinite upper limit by an artificial finite value → affecting the finite results after cancellation )."
This dirty trick is what QED relies on, hence, QED is just a wrong math, Not successful theory at all.
In the two-loop virtual particle's infinite correction, QED artificially chooses another different kind of infinity or sets new illegitimate rule to cancel out original infinite values (= caused by infinite virtual particles of two-loop Feynman diagram ) for getting desirable electron's g-factor values. ← nonsense.
Extremely tiny energy splitting called Lamb shift value calculated by QED is said to be influenced by proton's radius, because quantum mechanics unrealistically insists s-orbital electron can penetrate a proton or nucleus.
But this QED calculation of Lamb shift turned out to be wrong ( this 4th last paragraph ).
Latest experiments showed a new actual proton's radius (= 0.84 fm ) is significantly smaller than the previous value (= QED value = 0.88 fm ).
In fact, even mathematically, relativistic QED calculation of Lamb shift was known to be invalid and false ( this p.5 upper, this p.4 ).
As a result, QED based on artificial illegitimate trick of subtracting infinity from infinity to obtain "desirable finite values (= anomalous magnetic moment or Lamb shift )" showed the current quantum field theory is undoubtedly false, cannot be trusted.
(Fig.44) ↓ Positron (= antiparticle ) emission is impossible.
Antimatter or antiparticle is also a ghost-like particle which can neither be isolated from virtual circumstances of particle colliders nor confirmed directly.
Positron (= antiparticle of an electron ) was said to be discovered inside cloud chamber where positron was strangely moving upward (= the opposite direction of cosmic rays that contain high-energy particles ).
There were many other irrelevant particles or ions (= excited by cosmic rays ) than a very rare antiparticle inside cloud chamber, so one of more abundant electrons (= going down ) could be deflected by other ions' electric field and misunderstood as a (illusory) positron which was said to be strangely going upward.
Antiparticles such as positrons and anti-protons are said to be generated rarely by colliding many accelerated protons or electrons with target heavy atoms under magnetic field.
These kinds of particle collision and cloud chamber experiments are very dirty and chaotic where isolating and confirming only a very rare, unstable particle such as antiparticles are impossible.
Under this condition, it's impossible to isolate or confirm a single rare antiparticle directly. Other more abundant stable particles such as electrons and protons are more likely to be detected and easily mistaken for one of illusory rare antiparticles. An electron could be scattered by many other atoms and ions, "mimicking" an illusory rare positron's trajectory.
Anyway, as long as we cannot isolate such rare elementary particles as antiparticles from other more abundant electrons or protons, thinking about such dubious antiparticles is meaningless.
The only practical application of antiparticle is said to be positron-emission tomography (= PET ).
In fact, the illusory antiparticle = positron emission can be safely replaced by another realistic particle reaction called "electron capture" which produces exactly the same neutron from the same initial particles = a proton and an electron.
On the other hand, positron emission needs an unrealistic reaction where a ligher proton has to emit a heavier neutron and a positron. ← This is impossible.
Anyway, for a pair of a positively-charged positron and a negatively-charged electron to be produced and separated from neutral light (= unreal virtual photon ) as pair production, it needs unrealistically infinite energy, so antiparticle generation from light is impossible.
Because inside an initial neutral light (= photon ), the distance between a positron and an electron is almost zero, which means Coulomb attraction between positron and electron is infinite inside the initial light, which Coulomb attraction is too strong to separate a particle from an antiparticle.
Neutral anti-neutrino cannot be distinguished from ordinary neutrino.
So we can conclude all these doubtful particles, which are too short-lived to isolate from colliders, are unreal and unnecessary for us, forever.
(Fig.45) Light medium moving "with" the earth is OK ↓
Michelson-Morley experiment showed light speed c is always constant on the earth regardless of directions, which is compatible with already-known phenomena such as sound wave traveling at a constant speed through the medium (= air ).
But Einstein jumped to the wrong conclusion that space contains nothing.
And he tried to explain the constant light speed c by introducing a new ad-hoc, unscientific theory called special relativity where every observer moving in any directions should always see the same light speed c by magically-distorted space-time.
This Einstein crazy relativistic transformation caused by supernatural power of observer's movement created serious paradoxes such as slower time of moving clocks.
As you see, what Einstein or Michelson-Morley experiment rejected was "aether" Not moving with the earth. They did Not deny the "medium" moving with the earth.
Actually, all things including floating "air" are moving with the earth's rotation naturally, which horizontally same-speed motion of all objects cannot be explained only by gravity vertical to the surface of the earch.
As shown in light refraction, light speed c, which was originally derived by classical Maxwell's wave equation, changes depending on the different medium which fact disagrees with Einstein relativity which demands the constant light speed c should be constant irrelevant to the medium.
All phnenomena such as light wave interference proved the existence of "medium" through which light travels at a constant speed like sound wave.
Without space medium, all forces have to be explained by unreal virtual particles which contradict Einstein mass-energy relation.
Furthermore, without medium, it causes serious paradoxes in electron's de Broglie wave interference and electromagnetic force.
If there is only gravitational force towards the center of stars, galaxy rotation with dark matter, which allegedly interacts only with gravity, also became like solar-system Keplerian motion, which is not the case in galaxy rotation.
The fact that the whole galaxy is rotating at almost the uniform speed (= as if dragged by the same uniform medium ) like all things including air molecules moving together with the earth means dark matter is surely a kind of "medium" filling space contradicting the original Einstein relativity.
So realistic explanation of the constant light speed depending on "medium", which is moving with the earth, fits all realistic phenomena without any contraditions, therefore, Einstein relativity with serious paradoxes is false.
(Fig.46) Different clock times in different positions.
Here we present a typical example of fatal paradox in Einstein relativity.
In Einstein relativity, a moving ovserver has an unrealistic power to bend even a rigid rod without touching it , no matter how hard the rod is, as seen in Lorentz contraction.
A rigid rod is moving upward at first and then turn to the left horizontally along the rigid square rail in the upper figure.
External forces are always applied to any positions of the long rod uniformly, in both leftward and upward directions (= at first, the rod cannot move to the left, blocked by the vertical rail on the right side. )
Surprisingly, as seen by a moving observer, this originally-straight rigid rod appears to be bent complexly, as seen in the upper figure right.
According to relativistic Lorentz transformation, events occurring in different positions (= x = 0, 1 ) at the same time (= t ) seen by stationary observer occur at the different times (= t' ) seen by a moving observer !
By inserting two positions x = 0 and 1 (= same time t by stationary observer ) into Lorentz tansformation, we find an moving observer sees the left end of rod turning to the left earlier than the right end of the rod.
Hence, a moving observer tends to see the future event of the left end of the rod and the past of the right end of the rod. which appears to bend the rod like in the upper figure right.
This occult world is Einstein special relativity.
(Fig.47) "Block" changes the rod "future" direction.
So in Einstein fantasy relativistic world, a rigid rod "can" foresee the future !
In Fig.47, the right end of the rod (= still existing in the past ) has Not arrived at the turning point, but the left end of the rod (= existing in the future ) has already turned to the left at the turning point.
If someone suddenly puts a new block onto the turning point, the whole rigid rod (= including left and right ends of the rod ) cannot move leftward (= the whole rigid rod cannot turn to the left ), meaning the left end of the rod already turning leftward suddenly changes its past event and its direction (= as if moving upward from the beginning without turning to the left at the turning point ) without touching the rod !
This is paradoxical and impossible, because the right end of the rod (= past ) has Neither arrived at the turning point nor known whether a block is there or not.
But the left end of the rod can automatically predict the future event (= can know whether a new block is put at the turning point without touching it ), and make a decision whether it will bend (= moving leftward ) or bend back (= moving upward without turning leftward ) !
This is one of fatal paradoxes of Einstein relativity which theory proved to be wrong just by this paradox.
Here we suppose external force is always applied to any points of the rod uniformly, so the moment the rod arrives at the tuning point without a block, the whole rod starts to turn to the left without delay simultaneously.
(Fig.48) Neutral current → "Positive" by observer's movement !
In fact, Einstein relativity includes serious paradoxes contradicting electromagnetic force, so, Einstein special relativity is wrong.
Even now, Einstein paradox incompatible with electromagnetic theory remains unresolved. All physicists who claim this paradox may be solved depend on some unrealistic assumption, which is Not a true solution.
The neutral electric current is flowing in the leftward direction generating magnetic field around the current.
An external positive charge (= + ) stops outside of the electric wire. This external stationary positive charge experiences No Lorentz magnetic force, because it is not moving.
But from the viewpoint of an observer moving rightward ( upper figure right ), the external positive charge appears to be moving leftward, hence, experiences downward Lorentz magnetic force, and starts to move downward ?
This is a pradox, because as seen by a stationary observer, an external positive charge experiences No magnetic force, hence keeps stationary, but as seen by a moving ovserver, the same external charge experiences Lorentz magnetic force and moves downward !
To solve this paradox, Einstein relativity requires the originally-neutral wire to change into a positvely-charged wire which causes fictitious upward electric force to cancel out downward Lorentz magnetic force, therefore, an external positive charge does not move downward also as seen by a moving observer.
So to solve Lorentz magnetic force paradox, the neutral wire seen by a stationary observer appears to be positively-charged seen by a moving observer. ← This insane world is what Einstein relativity claims.
(Fig.49) ↓ Einstein relativity exposes "fatal" paradox !
But in a case when there is an external negative charge (= - ) on the left side of electric wire through which electric current is flowing leftward like in Fig.49, this causes a serious paradox which cannot be fixed.
As seen by a stationary observer, this external negative charge also stops and experiences No magnetic (or electric ) forces from the neutral wire.
But as seen by a moving observer, the originally-neutral wire turns positively-charged, hence attracts the external negative charge by fictitious electric force.
This fictitious elecric force attracting an external negative charge toward the horizontal wire cannot be canceled out by Lorentz magnetic force, because the external charge moving leftward seen by a moving obsever does Not experience leftward Lorentz magnetic force.
This is clearly a fatal paradox of Einstein relativity, which is incompatible with Lorentz magnetic force.
To solve this paradox (= caused by generating fictitious electromagnetic forces seen by different observers ), we need the "medium."
When an electric charge is moving, it causes magnetic field around the moving charge. But in weird Einstein relativistic world, whether an electric charge is moving or not depends on the motion of observers watching a charge. → paradox happens.
So if the space is filled with medium, whether an electric charge is "moving" or not (= whether magnetic field is generated or not around the moving charge ) depends on whether a charge is moving relative to medium or not. ← Observers' motion has nothing to do with an observed charge's motion or magnetic field generation. → No paradox.
So when an external positive charge is at rest with respect to medium, even if a moving observer sees the external charge seemingly moving in the opposite direction (= like Fig.48 right ), the external charge is Not actually moving with respect to medium. → No Lorentz magnetic force caused by observer's movement. → No paradox.
(Fig.50) ↓ Mass (= energy ) change is "relative", NOT absolute value.
Einstein relativity claims the mass of an object moving appears to be larger than its original mass at rest relative to a observer. ← this causes a serious paradox.
In Einstein relativistic world, there is No such thing as an absolute value, hence everything is relative and appears to be affected and changed by observer's motion ! ← Though the observer does Not even touch an object.
Think about the case when an object A is moving relative to another stationary object B. The rest (= original ) masses of these two objects are the same.
As seen by a observer at rest relative to B, this object A appears to be moving and heavier than the object B according to Einstein ( A > B ).
But as seen by another observer moving with the object A, the object A appears to be at rest, and instead, the object B appears to be moving and heavier than the object A ( B > A ).
So depending on observer's motion, one object appears heavier or lighter than another object. ← This is clearly a paradox, hence Einstein mc2 is false.
Einstein mass energy relation mc2 was said to be involved in massive nuclear energy as seen in atomic bombs.
This nuclear energy is a kind of "potential (= Not kinetic ) energy" like Coulomb potential energy which has nothing to do with an object's motion or velocity associated with Einstein relativistic (= kinetic ) energy affected by observer's motion.
Because whether two charged particles are moving or stationary, when the distance between those two charges is the same, Coulomb potential energy is the same, regardless of particles' motion or velocity. ← So all potential energies such as nuclear energy has No relation to Einstein relativity or Lorentz transformation.
It means this kind of potential energy such as nuclear or Coulomb energies is stored in the "medium" surrounding particles, regardless of particles' motions.
Originally, Maxwell derived the relation of energy equal to mc2 using classical light wave ( this p.6 ). Later, Einstein copied Maxwell's mc2 in the wrong way.
So the potential energy equal to mc2 is stored in the medium through which classical light wave travels with the same amount of energy as mc2 in the form of "medium-oscillating energy" which exerts force in interference.
Also when an particle such as an electron is moving, it generates de Broglie wave around an electron in the common medium of light and de Broglie waves with the energy equal to mc2 (= electron's kinetic energy is stored in the form of de Broglie wave oscillating energy which affects the electron's motion in two-slit interference experiments ).
So as an electron moves faster, it generates de Broglie wave whose energy is increasing with the electron's speed, hence, the electron's mass appears to increase as a result of increasing energy stored in the medium as de Broglie oscillating energy which was felt as resistance (= mass appears heavier ) when accelerating the electron.
Einstein without the medium needs fantasy parallel worlds for explaining a single electron's interference, and relies on unreal virtual particles with imaginary mass as fictitious force carriers which completely contradits Einstein mass mc2 relation.
Einstein relativistic mc2 causes a serious paradox also in force transformation as seen by observers moving at different speeds, hence wrong.
(Fig.51) ↓ Electron's de Broglie wave vanishes !?
The important point is that Einstein relativity contradicts an electron's de Broglie wave theory.
An electron's de Broglie wavelength was confirmed in many experiments.
So if Einstein relativity is incompatible with de Broglie wave theory, Einsten relativity is surely wrong.
An electron moving at a speed of v generates de Broglie wave with the wavelength λ equal to h/mv ( v = electron's velocity, m is electron's mass, h is Planck constant ), which causes interference in two-slit experiments.
But as seen by an observer moving at the same speed as a moving electron, the originally-moving electron appears to stop, hence, generates neither de Broglie wave nor interference patterns.
This is also a paradox, because depending on an observer's motion, interference fringes of an electron's de Broglie wave appear or disappear on the screen !
This serious de Broglie wave paradox can be solved by accepting the existence of the medium.
If an electron is moving relative to the space medium, it generates de Broglie wave and the same interference pattern, regardless of any obsevers moving at different speeds.
(Fig.52) Which satellite clock ticks more slowly ? = paradox.
According to Einstein, a moving clock appears to tick slower relative to a stationary clock.
But in Einstein relativistic world, everything is "relative" = Not absolute.
So when two GPS satellites A,B are moving at the same speed in the opposite directions in the same orbit around the earth, as seen by the satellite A, satellite B is moving, hence the clock of satellite B appears to tick slower than the clock of satellite A.
But as seen by satellite B, the satellite A appears to be moving, hence the clock of satellite A appears to tick slower than satellite B. This is clearly a paradox, so Einstein relativity is false.
There are several other factors such as gravitational potential and fictitious centrifugal force potential influencing the clock time according to general relativity.
Both these gravitational and centrifugal potential time dilations depend only on the distance r between each satellite and the earth center ( this p.19 ), which is the same in two satellites moving in the same orbit.
Hence, there is No clock time difference between these two satellites by general relativistic effect of gravitational and centrifugal potentials, so we focus only on special relativistic time dilation by satellite's motion.
Only the relative velocity of a satellite influences time dilation, which causes twin paradox (= one satellite clock is slower than another satellite clock depending on seen from which satellite's viewpoint ).
Textbook's seeming solution to this twin's clock-time paradox always uses the special case where one of twin is left on the earth and the other twin flies out into the space against the earth's gravity in the direction parallel to gravitational force and after a while, makes a U-turn, returns to the earth.
↑ This case is No twin paradox, because Einstein general relativity was made to fix special relativistic time dilation (= caused by moving clock ) paradox using gravitational potential time dilation, hence, as long as one of twin is moving back and forth in the direction parallel to gravity, it causes no twin paradox.
But in the case of two satellites moving in the same orbit (= both satellites experience the same constant gravity ) in the direction perpendicular to the earth's gravity, it cannot use gravitational time dilation canceling out moving clock's time dilation, so twin paradox appears. → Einstein relativity is
GPS is said to be the only practical application of Einstein relativity, but in fact, GPS does not depend on Einstein relativity at all (= because of a serious time paradox of relativity and many other factors affecting GPS time error ).
There are many other bigger factors ( such as atmosphere ) influencing GPS clock time errors which must be corrected almost real-time compared with ground station's clock time on the earth. ← So Einstein relativity is meaningless in GPS time correction.
(Fig.53) Time stopping on black hole prevents its formation.
Despite extremely long time research, black hole is still useless, cannot be confirmed directly, because imaginary black holes are too far away from the earth to reach.
It is safe to say black hole does Not exist.
We have No trouble even if we forget about fictional black hole which is unneeded except for the fake academic research to get research funds, the media's advertisement or selling sci-fi books for authors to make money.
First, black hole cannot be formed. A clock time is said to slow down and stop by gravity at points close to black hole surface called event horizon, as seen by outside observers on the earth.
Furthermore, Einstein general relativistic time dilation by gravity causes serious paradox where things can far exceed light speed c with no energy.
Black hole, which absorbs everything, cannot be seen directly. Though the current physics claims the existence of black hole can be proved by watching the motion of stars allegedly orbiting around unseen black holes, it is untrue.
Because even stars around black holes in the galactic center cannot be seen hidden by very thick and dense clouds of dusts and gases.
So the recent black hole picture is fake, because No visible light can be detected near black hole due to very thick dusts.
Invisible stars' doubtful motion (= allegedly orbiting around a black hole ) inferred from other longer-wavelength lights than visible light has too many contradictions, so cannot be believed.
To guess invisible black hole, we need to prove black hole is very small for its massive body. But there is No way to estimate black hole size except that they falsely claim "rapid X-rays brightness fluctuation" may indicate black hole is very small. ← Baseless and unscientific claim.
Einstein general relativity claims light is slightly bent by fantasy gravitational time dilation by massive stars or Sun. But this bent light is much more easily and naturally explained by light refraction by dusts and molecules around stars.
The perihelion for Mercury is said to move only 0.012 degrees for 100 years due to doubtful Einstein relativity which effect is too tiny to believe, and we don't need too small Einstein relativistic effect for our daily life at all.
GPS, which is said to be the only application of Einstein relativity, does Not need Einstein, which is just useless and wrong.
(Fig.54) Driving force to expand universe is dark energy ← NOT diluted ? Unreal negative pressure ?
Big Bang and expanding universe are just fantasy.
There is No evidence indicating our universe is expanding so rapidly, as seen in the fact that our solar system is Not expanding at all.
The current cosmology claims the entire universe is expanding by fictional dark energy with unreal negative pressure, which is said to be Not diluted even by the space expansion. ← Dark energy is Not a real thing !
They baselessly conjecture that universe is expanding only from the fact that light emitted from more distant stars is redshifted (= longer wavelength ), which can be more naturally explained by lights from more distant stars tend to lose their energies, elongate their wavelength by being scattered by more dusts amd molecules while light is traveling an extremely long distance.
The most conclusive evidence of fantasy Big Bang is said to be an uniform cosmic microwave background (= CMB ) which is unrealistically misinterpreted as a remnant of the beginning of our universe.
But it's impossible for each microwave to keep an intact state of very ancient light wave from the early universe for as long time as 13.8 billion years !
So it is more natural to think that the uniform cosmic microwave filling all space is an evidence of uniform light "medium (= slightly oscillating at 3 K )" filling space.
The current astronomy focuses only on fictional science saying this cosmic microwave may indicate fantasy parallel universes. ← nonsense.
(Fig.54') ↓ Black hole, gravitational wave are illuson.
Gravitational wave is also unreal, too weak, so useless and meaningless forever.
Furthermore, gravitational wave itself contradicts Einstein relativity, so wrong.
Gravitational wave is too weak. They say too weak and dubious gravitational wave could slightly change 4-km arm only by 1000-times smaller than a proton = only one atom displacement in Sun-earth distance ! ← Too small change to detect correctly.
The wavelength of laser light to detect gravitational wave is far longer than arm's change. Longer light cannot detect smaller change ( this p.16, this p.3 ) !
Einstein general relativity has basic defects, it cannot conserve energy or carry wave. This is why they call gravitational wave "pseudo-tensor (= Not real tensor of Einstein relativity )" which contradicts Einstein theory ( this p.13-14 ).
So there is No gravitational wave defined by Einstein relativity.
(Fig.55) ↓ Weak light is destroyed = eavesdropping is detected ?
The so-called quantum internet, information and communication are all useless and Not faster than ordinary internet.
The only practical use of fictional quantum internet is said to be "unhackable internet", which is also Not useful enough to replace ordinary internet.
The 2nd paragprah of this site says "The only commercial application of quantum information currently is quantum key distribution (QKD).. measurements can’t be made without disturbing the system being measured.. we can detect eavesdropping attempts using this simple principle of quantum physics ?"
Quantum information or internet uses a photon, which is just a very weak classical light, as means of transmission of information.
So if some eavesdroppers try to steal information from this very fragile, weak light (= photon ), this light information (= stored as classical light polarization ) is easily disturbed and destroyed, hence we can find the existence of eavesdroppers by detecting those broken lights ( this p.4, this 13th paragraph ).
This destroyed weak light (= information ? ) is Not a quantum mechanical phenomenon at all. And the use of very fragile weak light (= photon ) for transmitting messages means this quantum communication technology is very unstable and impractical, which cannot replace the current ordinary stable internet.
As a result, contrary to the media-hype, the so-called quantum internet and quantum information technology are useless forever.
(Fig.56) ↓ Entanglement is nonsense, Not science !
Quantum entanglement or spooky action is said to be faster than light.
But this is untrue, and quantum entanglement or spooky action can never have practical application.
Because quantum entanglement cannot send any real informations, much less send faster-than-light information.
For example, even when a classical light is just split by some crystal into two lights with two polarizations, they call it "two entangled lights (= or photons )", though there is No quantum mechanics here.
Suppose we split classical light into two lights with the same polarizations (= whether those two lights have vertical-vertical light polarization or horizontal-horizonal polarization is unknown ).
When we measure one of light and confirm this light is vertically-polarized, it instantly (= faster-than-light entanglement ? ) determines that another light is also vertically-polarized.
So quantum entanglement is just about "measurement" of two light states (= ex. light polarization ) whose states are manipulated and prepared artificially in advance, Not about sending any information faster-than-light.
Quantum entanglement or spooky action, which can neither send real information nor do any work, is a completely useless and meaningless concept.
Its research is just a waste of money, except for publishing them in politicially-motivated journals.
Quantum teleportation, Bell inequality violation, and delayed choice quantum eraser use the same meaningless trick intentionally misinterpreting classical light as a fictitious photon.
So all (pseudo-)science researches, which claim spooky quantum entanglement effect was exploited, are just useless and impractical forever.
(Fig.57) Two de Broglie waves cross perpendicularly = stable Helium orbits.
Bohr's atomic model successfully explained energy levels of all hydrogen-like atoms and ions, but it could not explain two-electron Helium atom. Why ?
Hydrogen and Helium atoms are the smallest atoms which are known to have up to two 1 × de Broglie wavelength orbits ( which correspond to Schrödinger equation 1s orbital giving the same energies as Bohr model, this p.5 ).
1 × de Broglie wavelength contains a pair of opposite phases of wave crest (= containing an electron particle ) and trough which part contains no electron (= to be correct, de Broglie wave is a kind of longitudinal wave through medium ).
If the opposite wave phases = the crest part and trough part of an electron's de Broglie wave overlap each other out of phase, it causes destructive interference and kicks out the electron from destrucive wave, and its electron orbit becomes unstable.
So, when two 1 × de Broglie wavelength electron orbits overlap in the same circular orbit on the same plane (= upper figure, old Helium model ), opposite phases of two electron's de Broglie waves cancel each other, hence, this unstable old circular Helium atomic model is broken and impossible.
This is the consequence of destructive interference between two electrons' de Broglie waves out of phase, which was confirmed in many experiments.
To avoid this cancellation, two electrons' orbits have to be perpendicular to each other, which forms a realistic and stable Helium atom.
This new Helium model with two orbits crossing perpendicularly gives surprisingly accurate experimental energy values, hence, it proves to be a right Helium atomic model.
Different from the old circular orbit model, the calculation of two perpendicular Helium orbits is extremely complicated, so it needs modern computer (= Coulomb force and de Broglie wavelength are Not the same in any different electrons' positions ), which could Not be done in 1920s when they chose wrong theory = quantum mechanics.
(Fig.58) Old Bohr's circular helium = electrons are expelled, so wrong.
In Old Bohr's circular helium, electrons are kicked out from orbits due to destructive interference between opposite de Broglie wave phases.
Actually, this old Helium model with a single circular orbit containing two electrons gives wrong ground state energy (= -83.33 eV ) which is lower than true Helium energy (= -79.004 eV ).
Two 1 × de Broglie wavelength electron orbits must cross each other perpendicularly to avoid cancellation by destructive interference.
No more electron orbit can enter this new Helium, so it can explain Pauli exclusion principle using de Broglie wave interference.
(Fig.59) Hydrogen and Helium atoms.
All these orbits are one de Broglie's wavelength.
In this new helium, the two symmetrical orbits crossing perpendicularly are wrapping the whole helium atom completely.
The Bohr model hydrogen which has only one orbit, can not wrap the direction of the magnetic moment completely.
This new helium model is just consistent with the fact of the strong stability and the closed shell property of helium.
Quantum mechanics needs unrealistic electron spin (= faster-than-light spinning ).
Helium is said to contain up and down spins to cancel magnetic field.
But in fact, Helium atom is known to produce small magnetic field (= Helium is diamagnetic )
So Helium has magnetic moment = diamagnetic means quantum mechanical Helium with No angular momentum disagrees with actual Helium producing magnetic moment, so quantum mechanical helium model with unreal spin is wrong and disagrees with experimental facts.
(Fig.60) Two same-shaped orbits are perpendicular to each other.
Next we calculate the new helium's orbits using simple computer program.
Fig.60 shows one quarter of the whole orbits.
We suppose electron 1 moves on the xy plane after starting at the position of ( r1, 0, 0 ) in x-axis until it reaches y-axis, while electron 2 moves on the xz plane after starting at ( -r1, 0, 0 ) in x-axis until it reaches z-axis.
Because as I said, two electrons' orbits of helium must be perpendicular to each other to avoid destructive interference of two de Broglie waves.
This computing of Helium atom with two perpendicular orbits is complicated three-body problem which cannot be calculated without modern computers like in old 1920s. ← This is why physicists had to give up this realistic and reasonable Helium model, and instead, accepted unrealistic quantum mechanics 100 years ago.
In this computation, first, we input two arbitrary values: total energy of Helium and the starting x-coordinate of the electron-1 (= r1, this starting x-coordinate will be increasing gradually, and all values of all initial x-coordinates are calculated, so, the only chosen input value is "Helium total energy" ).
Then, two electrons keep moving until they move one quarter of an orbit (= until an electron reaches y-axis ).
After each electron has moved one quarter of its orbit, we get the output information about what de Brolgie wavelength one-quarter of the electron's orbit becomes, and the last velocity of each electron at the last point (= when the electron-1 moves one quarter of its orbit and arrives at the y-axis, this electron's last velocity must be perpendicular to y-axis for its orbital shape to be symmetrical around the nucleus ).
When one quarter (= 1/4 ) of the electron's orbital length becomes just 1/4 times de Broglie wavelength, it means one orbit is just one (= an integer ) times de Broglie wavelength, avoiding destructive interference, hence, we can consider this input total energy (= giving 1/4 de Broglie wavelength in 1/4 orbit ) as the Helium ground state energy.
↑ If the Helium energy value we input first gives just one times de Broglie wavelength equal to circumference of one orbit, and agrees with experimental Helium ground state energy value, this Helium model with two perpendicular orbits proves to be right. ← This will happen in this computation.
(Fig.61) Right r1 → electron-1 crosses y-axis perpendicularly
For an electron to return to its original position, the electron-1 orbit ( or electron-2 orbit ) must be symmetrical on the left and right sides of the nucleus.
So the electron-1 needs to cross y-axis at a right angle, and the electron-2 needs to cross z-axis at a right angle, after each electron moves a quarter (= 1/4 ) of its orbit.
Depending on the initial x-coodinate (= r1 = input value ) of an electron-1, whether the electron-1 can cross y-axis perpendicularly or not is determined.
So after inputting initial r1 value, and confirming the electron-1 moves one quarter of its orbit and crosses y-axis perpendicularly (= the electron-1's velocity is in the -x-direction, when the electron-1 passes y-axis perpendicularly ), we pick up this r1 value as the legitimate initial x-coordinate of the electron-1.
This input initial x-coordinate (= r1 ) of electron-1 is automatically increased by one per calculation of 1/4 orbit, until r1 becomes r1+100 for screening.
In any r1, this program computes values, and we can check all those values, so the first inputted r1 value needs not to be right one. As r1 automatically increases, you can find the right r1 (= when electron-1 crosses y-axis perpendicularly ) in them.
In this computer program, after we input two values; the initial x-coordinate (= r1 ) of electron-1 and total energy of helium, two electrons start to move, interacting with the other electron and a nucleus through Coulomb force, which Coulomb acceleration is computed at extremely short time intervals to gradually change electron's velocity and position until the electron moves one quarter of an orbit.
We prepared three types of computer programs to do the same caculation of Helium orbits; JAVA ( version 1.5.0 ), simple C languages and Python ( 2.7 ), as shown in the link below.
Sample JAVA program
C language program
As shown in Fig.60 and Fig.61, the helium nucleus is at the origin.
The electron 1 initially at ( r1, 0, 0 ) moves one quarter of its orbit and arrives at y-axis, while the electron 2 initially at ( -r1, 0, 0 ) moves until it arrives at z-axis.
As meter and second are rather large units for measurement of these electron's motion, so we use new convenient units
(Fig.62) New units of time and length.
From Fig.62, convert the old acceleration unit to new acceleration unit (= m/s2 → MM/SS2 ) like
If you copy and paste the above program source code into a text editor, you can easily compile and run this.
When you run this program ( for example, JAVA ) in command prompt, the following sentences are displayed on the screen.
First we input the initial x-coordinate r1 = r (in MM) of electron 1 (see Fig.64 ), and press "enter" key.
For example, in Fig.64, we input "3060", which means the initial x coordinate of electron 1 is 3060 MM = 3060 × 10-14 meter. The initial x coordinate of electron 2 becomes -3060 MM, automatically (= because, two electrons are symmetrical around the helium nucleus ).
Next we input the absolute value of the total energy |E| (in eV) of helium.
In Fig.64, when we input "79.0", and press enter key, it means total energy of this helium is -79.0 eV (= close to actual helium ground state energy = -79.005 eV ).
True helium ground state energy is obtained by putting minus to the sum of 1st (= 24.5873 eV ) and 2nd (= 54.4177 eV ) ionization energies of helium = -24.5873 - 54.4177 = -79.005 eV. ← this is experimental value of two-electron helium ground (= the lowest total ) energy.
(Fig.65) Initial states. "r" is initial x coordinate of electron 1.
From the inputted values of total energy of helium and initial x-coordinate of electrons (= initial Coulomb potential energy can be obtained ), we can know initial kinetic energy (= total energy - potential energy ) and initial velocity of the electron 1 in y direction and the electron-2's initial velocity in z direction.
For example, initial Coulomb potential energy (= V ) of the initial electrons' state of Fig.65 becomes
(Fig.66) Initial total Coulomb potential energy V.
The first term of right side in Fig.66 is Coulomb attractive potential energy between two electrons and 2e+ helium nucleus (= distance between each electron and nucleus is "r" ).
The second term is Coulomb repulsive potential energy between two electrons in the initial state (= distance between two electrons is "2r" ).
(Fig.67) ↓ Program gets electron's initial velocity "v" from input values.
Total kinetic energy of two electrons is given by total energy (ex. -79.0 eV ) minus potential energy (= V ).
So from input values of Fig.64, we can get the initial kinetic energy and velocity of each electron.
The initial velocity of electron 1 ( 2 ) is in y ( z ) direction.
(Fig.68) Change unit of velocity.
Using the new unit of Fig.62, this program changes "m/s" into "MM/SS" in the initial velocity.
Because it is convenient when calculating each acceleration and de Broglie wave at intervals of very short 1 SS (= 10-23 seconds ) instead of very long 1 second.
(Fig.69) Positions of two electrons (= perpendicular and symmetric )
At intervals of 1 SS (= 10-23 seconds ), we compute the Coulomb force among the two electrons and the nucleus based on their positional relashionship.
When the electron 1 is at ( x, y, 0 ), the electron 2 is at ( -x, 0, y ) due to their symmetric positions ( see Fig.60 ).
So the x component of the acceleration ( m/sec2 ) of the electron 1 by Coulomb force between electrons and nucleus is,
(Fig.70) x component of electron-1's acceleration by Coulomb force.
where the first term is the Coulomb force between the nucleus and the electron 1, and the second term is the force between the two electrons.
(rm) is an electron's reduced mass.
(Fig.71) Distances among two electrons and nucleus.
Due to symmetric positions of two electrons, when electron 1 is at ( x, y, 0 ), the electrons 2 is at ( -x, 0, z ), in which z = y.
As a result, the distance between electron 1 and nucleus is given by the first relation of Fig.71.
The second relation is the distance between two electrons.
Considering the finite helium nuclear mass (= alpha particle), we use here the reduced mass (= rm ) except when the center of mass is at the origin.
(Fig.72) Reduced mass (= rm ) of one electron.
where me is electron's original mass = 9.10938 × 10-31 kg
See also reduced mass of three-body helium.
In the same way, the y component of electron-1's acceleration (m/sec2) by Coulomb force between nucleus and electrons is,
(Fig.73) y component of the acceleration by Coulomb.
The 1st term of Fig.73 is Coulomb attraction between electron-1 and nucleus, the 2nd term is Coulomb repulsion between two electrons at each position.
Based on calculation of Coulomb force in each position, we slightly change the electron's velocity vector and position at intervals of 1 SS (= 10-23 seconds ) until the electron moves one quarter of its orbit.
We suppose electron 1 moves only on the XY-plane (= for avoiding destructive interference of two electrons' de Broglie waves ), so the z component of the acceleration of the electron 1 is not considered.
(Fig.74) de Broglie waves in each short segment of an orbit.
We also calculate de Broglie wavelength (= λ = h/mv ) of the electron from electron's velocity (= v ), mass (= m ) and Planck constant (= h ).
An electron's velocity is gradually changing in its different positions, as the electron is moving in its orbit, so the electron's de Broglie wavelength is also changing in different positions. ← This gradually changing velocity and de Broglie wavelength could Not be calculated in 1920s without computers.
Therefore, we need to divide the electron's orbit into many smaller segments where each short segment equals the distance an electron moves for extremely a short time 1 SS (= 10-23 seconds ).
Then, we compute the acceleration by Coulomb force, change the electron's velocity, obtain de Broglie wavelength and what de Broglie wavelength equals each short segment at intervals of 1 SS.
The number (= wseg ) of electron's de Broglie waves contained in each short segment (= each short segment is wseg × de Broglie wavelength ) is,
(Fig.75) Number of de Broglie wavelength in the short segment.
where (VX, VY) are x and y components of electron-1's velocity ( unit 1 MM/SS = 109 meter/sec ), the numerator of the right side of above equation Fig.75 means the moving distance (in meter) for 1 SS. the denominator is electron's de Broglie's wavelength (= h/mv, in meter ).
In the numerator, we change length unit from MM into meter using the relation 1 MM = 10-14 meter.
Here, the estimated electron's orbit is divided into more than one million short segments (= each short segment is moving distance for 1SS ) for this calculation.
When the electron 1 has moved one quarter of its orbit and reached y-axis, this program displays electron-1's last velocity (= VX, VY ) at the last point
(Fig.76) Computing results, when we input 79.0 eV, r1 = 3060 MM.
After moving a quarter of the orbit, the program displays the above values on the screen. The initial r1 automatically increases per each calculation of 1/4 orbit.
VX and VY are x and y components of the last velocity of electron 1 ( unit: MM/SS ).
preVY is y component of the last velocity 1ss before VY ( so preVY is almost the same as VY ).
We pick up the values when this last VY is the closest to zero (= which means electron-1 crosses y-axis at right angles = symmetrical orbit around the nucleus ).
(mid)WN means the total number of de Broglie wavelength in one quarter of the orbit. So, one quarter (= 1/4 ) of this electron's orbit becomes WN × de Broglie wavelength.
When one orbit is an integer = 1 × de Broglie wavelength, the 1/4 of the orbit has to be 1/4 (= midWN is close to 0.25000 ) × de Broglie wavelength.
(Fig.77) When helium total energy is just -79.0 eV, 1/4 electron's orbit is 0.250006 × de Broglie wavelength.
Each time an electron has moved 1/4 orbit and calculated 1/4 de Broglie wavelength, this program returns the electron back to the starting x-axis, and increases r1 (= initial x-coordinate of electron-1 ) by 1, until r1 changes from inputted value (ex. 3060 ) to +100 (= 3160 ).
As shown in Fig.76, when r1 is 3074 MM, last VY velocity of electron 1 becomes the smallest ( VY = 0.000000 ), which means electron-1 passes y-axis perpendicularly = symmetrical stable orbit.
This means when r1 ( initial x coordinate ) = 3074 × 10-14 meter, these electron's orbits become just symmetric around the nucleus, and we can know one orbit is 4 × WN (= 0.250006, when energy is -79.0 eV ) = 1.000024 de Brolgie wavelength.
In this case where we input -79.0 eV as helium ground state energy, the number of de Broglie wavelength contained in a quarter of its orbit becomes 0.250006.
So, one orbit is 0.250006 × 4 = 1.000024 de Broglie wavenlength. ( ← NOT 1.000000 )
As shown in Table 1, when input energy is -79.0037 eV, de Broglie wave becomes just 1.000000.
So we can get the final value of -79.0037 eV as calculated Helium ground state energy, when Helium has two perpendicular orbits of just 1.000000 × de Broglie wavelength.
The experimental value of Helium ground state energy is -79.005 eV (= sum of 1st and 2nd ionization energies of helium ), which just agrees with the computed energy value of -79.0037 eV, proving this new Helium model is correct.
Table 1 shows the results in which the last VY (= y component of electron-1's last velocity ) is the closest to zero (= electron-1 crosses y-axis perpendicularly to be symmetrical orbit around the nucleus ) in different inputted total helium energies E.
This result shows when the total energy of new Bohr's helium is -79.0037 eV, each orbital length is just one de Broglie wavelength.
|E (eV)||r1 (MM)||WN||WN x 4|
WN × 4 is the total number of de Broglie's wavelength contained in one round of the orbital. This computed value is -79.0037 eV.
The experimental value of helium ground state energy is -79.005147 eV (= 1st + 2nd ionization energies, Nist, CRC ).
So we can safely say this new Helium model with two electrons' perpendicular orbits gives just the same ground state energy as experimental values, proved to be right.
Surprisingly, all experimental ground state energies of all other two-electron atoms and ions just agree with computed results by this Helium-like model with two perpendicular orbits, proving this new helium atomic model is real.
What is the very small difference between them ( -79.005147 - 79.0037 = -0.001447 eV ) ?
This tiny, tiny energy difference is said to be caused by "relativistic effect" of seemingly increasing electron's mass when the electron moves faster.
↑ But this name of "relativistic effect" is wrong.
Because the effect of electron's mass increase (= though it's impossible ) by increasing kinetic energy was first proposed by classical Maxwell theory ( energy = mc2 was first proposed by Maxwell, Not Einstein ). Einstein just copied this seeming mass increase effect in the wrong way called "relativistic".
Instead of accepting Einstein ridiculous idea that electron's mass can increase without absorbing anything (= violate mass conservation ), we can say, as an electron moves faster, it faces more resistance from surrounding medium, and becomes harder to move, which increasing resistance from surrounding medium is detected as a seeming increasing electron's pseudo-mass effect.
Thinking commonsensically, it's impossible to increase the electron's original mass without adding anything to it, as Einstein irrationally claimed.
So we call the tiny, tiny energy difference between experimental value and computed value ( -79.005147 - 79.0037 = -0.001447 eV ) "pseudo-relativistic effect" ( which is multi-electron effect, so neither Schrödinger equation nor Einstein relativity can get analytical value for it, so it has nothing to do with Einstein relativistic effect ) from here.
The theoretical ground state energy value of the helium ion (He+) can be gotten from usual Bohr model or Schrodinger equation using the reduced mass.
This value is -54.41531 eV.
And the experimental value of He+ ground state energy is -54.41776 eV (Nist).
So pseudo-relativistic correction to the energy in He+ ion is -54.41776-(-54.41531) = -0.00245 eV.
The theoretical ground state energy value of the hydrogen atom (H) can be gotten from usual Bohr model or Schrodinger equation using the reduced mass, too.
This value is -13.5983 eV.
And the experimental value of H ground state energy is -13.59844 eV (Nist).
So pseudo-relativistic correction to the energy in hydrogen atom is -13.59844-(-13.5983) = -0.00014 eV.
This new Bohr model Helium can explain all two-electron atoms and ions perfectly.
Go back to tiny, tiny pseudo-relativistic effect.
The electron's velocity of the neutral helium atom is slower than helium ion, but faster than hydrogen atom.
So the pseudo-relativistic correction in neutral helium atom should be between -0.00245 eV and -0.00014 eV.
The above calculation value of -0.001447 eV is just between them !
As a control program, we show the program of hydrogen-like atoms ( H and He+ ) using the same computing method as above. Try these, too.
JAVA program ( H or He+ )
C language ( H or He+ )
Here we use the new unit ( 1 SS = 1 × 10-23 second ) and compute each value at the intervals of 1 SS.
If we change this definition of 1 SS, the calculation results of the total energy (E) in which the orbital length is just one de Broglie's wavelength change as follows,
|1 SS = ? sec||Result of E(eV)|
|1 × 10-22||-79.00540|
|1 × 10-23||-79.00370|
|1 × 10-24||-79.00355|
|1 × 10-25||-79.00350|
This means that as the orbit becomes more smooth, the calculation values converge to -79.00350 eV.
The programs based on other 1 SS definition is as follows,
Sample JAVA program 1 SS = 1 × 10-25 sec, calculation takes much time.
Old sample JAVA program 1 SS = 1 × 10-22 sec--fast but the results are a little different
(Fig.78) Two-electron Atomic Model ( He, Li+, Be2+, B3+, C4+ ... )
Surprisingly, this new atomic structure of Bohr's helium is applicable to all other two and three electron atoms ( ions ).
JAVA program to compute two-electron atoms. ← After stating this program, we are asked to input atomic number Z.
If you pick Z = 2, this program starts to compute ordinary Helium atom in the same way as above
If you pick Z = 3, this program computes Lithium ion (= Li+ = 3e+ nucleus and two electrons )
If you pick Z = 4, this program computes Beryllium ion (= Be2+ = 4e+ nucleus and two electrons ).
So this program method computing all two-electron atoms and ions is almost same as upper Helium program, except you should input another information = atomic number (= Z ) after run this program.
Computing results of all two electron atoms and ions agree with experimental ground state energies !
See detailed computing method.
|Atoms||r1 (MM)||WN x 4||Computed results (eV)||Experimental values (eV)||Error (eV)|
Table 4 shows three-electron atoms and ions such as lithium, Be+, B2+, C3+, N4+ ..
See detailed computing method.
|Atoms||r1 (MM)||WN x 4||Computed result (eV)||Experimental values (eV)||Error (eV)|
As shown here, we prove when two electron orbits of 1 × de Broglie wavelength cross each other perpendicularly, they give surprisingly accurate energy results in all two-electron atoms and ions !
(Fig.79) ↓ Helium two electrons e1,e2 orbits are perpendicular.
Pauli exclusion principle claims that the lowest 1s energy state can contain only two orbitals. The 3rd electron of lithium is kicked out from inner 1s states to outer 2s state orbit, which exclusion of an electron needs strong repulsive force.
Quantum mechanical spin is unrealistic and its spin magnetic force cannot generate strong repulsive force enough to cause Pauli repulsive force for excluding 3rd electron of lithium to outer 2s orbit against strong Coulomb attraction towards the nucleus ( this p.7 ).
Furthermore, Pauli exclusion repulsion (= which must be powerful enough to kick out electron ) is Not admitted to be a real force by uncanny quantum mechanics which shows No detailed physical mechanism of mysterious Pauli exclusion force ( this p.6 ).
The important point is the current unrealistic quantum mechanics can Not describe Pauli exclusion principle using real force or things, hence, this unphysical quantum description of Pauli repulsion prevents our science or technology from advancing forever.
Quantum mechanics made up an ad-hoc, artificial rule, saying Pauli principle is the result of unphysical antisymmetric wavefunction (= exchanging two electrons changes the sign of the entire wavefunction ) or unphysical "exchange interaction" which lacks real force carrier. ← so, unrealistic
This unphysical antisymmetric wavefunction tells us nothing about detailed mechanism of Pauli principle, and it contains self-contradiction, so, false.
We need to explain this uncanny Pauli exclusion repulsive force as "real force" with real force carrier instead of unrealistic quantum mechanical ad-hoc rule stubbornly avoiding clarifying concrete physical mechanism.
The only realistic repulsive force causing Pauli exclusion principle is the force caused by destructive interference of electron's de Broglie wave which is powerful enough to modify Coulomb force as seen in double slit interference experiments (= de Broglie wave interference changes the direction in which an electron is scattered by Coulomb force in slit atoms ).
Helium has two 1 × de Broglie wavelength orbits.
Each orbit can contain only one electron because of 1 × wavelength.
1 × wavelength orbit consists of electron's phase (= thin line ) and its opposite phase (= thick line ) in the upper figure.
Due to Coulomb repulsion between two electrons, each electron tends to avoid another electron and move around the opposite phase of another electron.
To avoid destructive interference between two electrons' de Broglie waves, these two orbits (= opposite de Broglie wave phases to each other ) have to cross each other perpendicularly.
(Fig.80) ↓ Midpoint of de Broglie wave doesn't expel another electron.
As I said, each electron has to pass through another electron's de Broglie wave (= opposite phase ) perpendicularly to avoid destructive interference of two de Broglie waves.
An electron has to do a "U-turn" at some point to return to its original point. Of course, also when the electron does a U-turn, it has to avoid destructive interference from another electron's de Broglie wave.
In this Helium model, electrons do a U-turn when another de Broglie wave is midpoint between electron's same and opposite phases (= midpoint is just between wave crest and trough ), as shown in lower orbits in Fig.80.
This midpoint is neutral phase, so it does not affect or destroy another electron's de Broglie wave.
So electrons can do a U-turn smoothly and safely ( at midpoint ), Not affected or destroyed by another de Broglie wave in this Helium model.
(Fig.81) ↓ When there are four 1 × wavelength orbits in the same atom, an electron is expelled by destructive interference of de Broglie waves.
Here we explain why the maximum number of 1 × de Broglie wavelength orbits contained in an atom is two (= due to Pauli exclusion principle ).
When the total number of orbits is odd number ( ex. three = Not equilateral triangle ), it's unstable due to unbalanced, unsymmetric charge's distribution, and destructive interference of de Broglie waves, so we think about four orbits.
When a fictitious atom contains four 1 × de Broglie wavelength orbits, each electron (ex. e3 ) is surrounded by opposite wave phases of other two orbits (= opposite phase thick lines of e1, e2 surrounds and expels electron e3 ) as shown in lower figure of Fig.81.
When an atom contains only two orbits of 1 × de Broglie wavelength like real helium atom, an electron is never surrounded by two opposite-phase de Broglie waves of other two electrons like Fig.81 lower figure.
When an electron does a U-turn (= when an atom consists only of two orbits, it's OK ), in a fictitious atom of four 1 × de Broglie wavelength orbits, the electron is expelled by destructive interference surrounded by other two opposite de Broglie wave phases (= cannot do U-turn at safe midpoint in this four 1 × de Broglie wavelength orbits ).
↑ When more than one orbits of the opposite de Broglie wave phase are near an electron, this electron cannot pass just one orbit of the opposite phase perpendicularly. (= an electron crossing two other orbits of opposite phase in two different directions perpendicularly at the same time is impossible )
So the 3rd electron of lithium and the 3rd, 4th electrons of beryllium are unable to enter 1 × de Broglie wavelength orbits due to destructive interference between opposite phases of de Broglie waves..
The maximum number of 1 × de Broglie wavelength orbits contained in a single atom proves to be up to two like helium atom.
This is a realistic mechanism of Pauli exclusion repulsion based on real force and force carrier (= surrounding "medium" causing destructive interference between multiple de Broglie waves corresponds to force carrier, which is lacking in unrealistic quantum mechanical Pauli principle ).
We can explain Pauli exclusion principle using de Broglie wave destructive interference mechanism without unreal spin.
(Fig.82) ↓ Electrons cross the opposite phases of another electron's orbit perpendicularly like Helium without destructive interference.
Like Helium, Neon can be explained by the same principle based on avoiding destructive interference of other electrons' de Broglie waves.
In periodic table, Neon is in the 2nd line which corresponds to 2 × de Broglie wavelength orbits in energy levels ( There are clear energy gaps between atoms of different lines in periodic table, showing they belong to different de Broglie wavelength orbits ).
Neon has eight valence electrons.
And one orbit of 2 × de Broglie wavelength can contain up to two electrons.
So we can assume Neon consists of four 2 × de Broglie wavelength orbits, each orbit contains two electrons, therefore the total number of Neon valence electrons is 4 × 2 electrons = 8 electrons, which agrees with the fact.
As shown above figure, all electrons cross the opposite de Broglie wave phase of other electrons perpendicularly at vertices of hexahedron.
So Neon's electrons can avoid destructive interference of waves just like Helium.
An orbit of 2 × de Broglie wavelength contains more pairs of wave crest (= electron ) and trough (= opposite phase ) than an orbit of 1 × de Broglie wavelength, so Neon can contain as many as four orbits ( without destructive interference ), such four orbits were impossible in Helium of two 1 × de Broglie wavelength orbits.
(Fig.83) ↓ Electrons do a U-turn at midpoints without being kicked out.
When Helium contains two orbits of 1 × de Broglie wavelength, electrons can avoid destructive interference with other electrons' de Broglie wave of opposite phases and do a U-turn safely at other electrons' neutral midpoints (= a point just between crest and trough of one de Broglie wavelength orbit, this midpoint between the opposite phases does Not affect or destroy other electron's waves ).
But when it contains four orbits of 1 × de Broglie wavelength, electrons are expelled , surrounded by other opposite wave phases, which is a realistic mechanism of Pauli exclusion principle.
In case of 2 × de Broglie wavelength (= more pairs of crest and trough of wave ), it can contain four orbits without destructive interference from ohter electons, enabling electrons to move and do a U-turn smoothly and safely at other electron wave's neutral midpoint.
This midpoint in de Broglie wave is the point just between opposite wave phases (= between crest and trough ), so this midpoint wave phase is neutral, which neither affects other electrons' de Broglie waves nor cause destructive interference, as seen in Fig.83 lower.
This is why 2 × de Broglie wavelength allows four orbits (= total electron number is up to eight, in comparison to just two orbits of 1 × de Broglie wavelength. ) where electrons can make a safe U-turn at other electrons' neutral midpoint ( Not surrounded by opposite phases ) without destructive interference.
(Fig.84) ↓ An orbit of 2 × de Broglie wavelength can contain up to two electrons = two pairs of crest (= a part containing an electon) and trough
An atom such as Neon can contain four orbits of 2 × de Broglie wavelength where each electron can cross another electron's opposite de Broglie wave phase perpendicularly without destructive interference.
(Fig.85) Orbits of Neon cross each other "perpendicularly".
As shown on this page, we can show the appropriate new Neon model, in which orbits can cross each other "perpendicularly" one to one.
Crossing perpendicularly (= Not parallel ) means they can avoid "destructive" interference between two de Broglie wave opposite phases.
Neon consists of four 2 × de Broglie wavelength orbits ( total 4 × 2 = 8 electrons )
(Fig.86) Maximum orbits = midpoint lines + 2 (= two perpendicular orbits )
In fact, all atoms use the same principle as Helium where two de Broglie waves cross perpendicularly.
As the number of de Broglie wavelength is higher, more orbits an atom can contain.
For example, an atom can contain up to two orbits of 1 × de Broglie wavelength, as seen Helium, and can contain up to four orbits of 2 × de Broglie wavelength, as seen Neon.
If an atom tries to contain more than two orbits of 1 × de Broglie wavelength, multiple electrons' de Broglie waves interfere with each other destructively, hence impossible.
An atom can contain 6 orbits of 4 × de Broglie wavelength, as seen in Krypton. Coincidentally, Krypton has 18 valece electrons, 18 is a multiple of 6.
So as the number of de Broglie wavelength (= number of de Broglie wave's crest and trough ) increases, each orbit can cross more other orbits perpendicularly (= opposite wave phases cross each other perpendicularly ), avoiding destructive interference.
As a result, this new atomic model not only agrees with experimental results, but also explains Pauli exclusion principle based on realistic de Broglie wave interference, without relying on unreal spin or unphysical exchange interaction.
(Fig.87) The opposite wave phases cross perpendicularly.
Electrons spin is unrealistic and cannot explain the maximum valence electrons' number.
Using de Broglie wavelength, we can naturally explain Pauli principle and valence electrons' number without unreal spin.
Each orbit crosses another orbit perpendicularly in the center line P as shown in Fig.87 (= 2 orbits ).
An orbit of 1 × de Broglie wavelength contains a pair of wave crest (= includes an electron ) and trough (= opposite phase of crest ).
And an orbit of 2 × de Broglie wavelength contains two pairs of wave crest and trough (= so, including two electrons ).
In Neon of 2 × de Broglie wavelength orbits in Fig.87, Both upper and lower parts of each orbit include 2 nodes (= crest or trough ) on the right and left sides (= total is four nodes = two pairs of crest and trough ), each orbit can cross other 2 orbits perpendicularly in a cruciform way (= wave crest crosses another wave's trough perpendicularly, one to one of opposite wave phases ).
So the total number of orbits ( where each wave crosses another wave's opposite wave phase perpendicularly one to one ) becomes 2+2 = 4 orbits, which is Neon containg 2 × 4 orbits = 8 valence electrons.
Neon (= Ne, 2 × de Broglie wavelength ) and Argon (= Ar, 3 × de Broglie wavelength ) have the same 2 nodes (= a pair of wave crest and trough ) in both the upper and lower parts of each orbit, so their total orbital numbers becomes the same 4 orbits, which can explain their same maximum valence electrons' number 8 (= 2 × 4 orbits ).
Krypton (= Kr ) is 4 × de Broglie wavelength, its orbit has 4 nodes in both upper and lower parts ( one orbit contains eight nodes ) which can cross additional four other orbits with their opposite wave phases crossing each other perpendicularly.
So an atom of 4 × de Broglie wavelength can contain at maximum 6 orbits (= 2 + 4 ), which can explain Kr valence electrons' number 18 (= 3 × 6 orbits ).
The point is a wave crest of one electron's orbit needs to cross the opposite phase (= trough ) of another electron's orbit, one to one.
If an electron's wave crest crosses another electron's crest (= both crests contain electrons, so this case where an electron ( = crest ) approaches another electron (= crest ) is unlikely due to Coulomb repulsion between electrons ), there must be places of two trough orbits crossing each other near electrons.
After all, these two trough orbits (= opposite phase in two different directions destroying other electron crest phase ) kicks out another electron due to destructive interference between de Broglie wave oppsite phases, crest and trough.
So to avoid destrucive interference of de Broglie waves, each electron (= crest part ) has to cross another electron's de Broglie wave's trough part perpendicularly, one to one.
When de Broglie's wave crest (= electron part ) and another electron' trough part crosses perpendicularly ( like He and Ne ) , a pair of wave crest and trough becomes harmless neutral phase (= the opposie crest and trough crosses perpendicularly, cancel each other seen by other electrons ), which does not cause destructive interference in other electrons, so makes the whole atomic electrons stable.
(Fig.88) If Ar has 12 valence electrons, Coulomb repulsion is Not uniform.
Argon is 3 × de Broglie wavelength, and it has 4 orbits, so the total valence electrons should be 12 (= 3 × 4 orbits ) ?
Unfortunately, in this case, Coulomb repulsion among electrons is asymmetric (= Not uniform ) and stronger only in some parts, so a fictitious atom with 4 orbits, each of which contains three electrons, total 12 electrons, becomes unstable and needs to exclude some electrons due to Coulomb repulsion.
As shown above, if Ar has 12 electrons, it contains 3 layers of the same 4 electrons, which electrons' distribution is asymmetric, and Coulomb repulsion among packed 12 electrons does not allow these 12 all electrons to be packed in a single atom with 3 × de Broglie wavelength orbits.
For Coulomb repulsion to be uniformly (= symmetrically ) distributed around nucleus, the electrons' numbers of the upper and lower layers must be smaller than that of the middle layer (= the upper and lower layers have 2 electrons, and the middle layer has 4 electrons, the total is 8 electrons ).
When the total valence electron's number is 8 (= each orbit has 2 electrons + 1 hole in each 3 × de Broglie wavelength orbit ), the Ar valence elecrons are evenly distributed in hexahedral way like neon, so stable due to balanced Coulomb force.
This is why both Neon (= 2 × de Broglie wavelength orbits ) and Argon (= 3 × de Broglie wavelength orbits ) have the same 8 valence electrons due to balanced Coulomb repulsion among 8 symmetrical electrons.
Coulomb repulsion must be considered also in Kr with 4 × de Broglie wavelength orbtis, and each orbit contains 3 electrons and 1 hole in Kr 6 orbits (= total valence electrons are 3 × 6 = 18 in Kr ).
Classical orbit is far more useful and easier to handle in molecular calculation than unreal quantum mechanical wavefunction.
(Fig.89) If the number of orbits exceeds the maximum number ↓
As I said, there are the maximum (= limit ) numbers of orbits depending on number × de Broglie wavelength.
In 1 × de Broglie wavelength, an atom can have up to two orbits like helium.
If an atom tries to contain more than two orbits of 1 × de Broglie wavelength, an electron is expelled by destructive interference of opposite phase of other electrons' de Broglie waves.
In 2 × de Broglie wavelength, an atom can contain up to four orbits like neon.
If an atom tries to contain more than four orbits of 2 × de Broglie wavelength, it also expels electrons by destructive interference with opposite phase of other de Broglie waves.
How are these maximum orbit numbers determined ?
When an atom has just the maximum number of orbits like helium and neon, each electron can cross the opposite phase of another electron's de Broglie wave perpendicularly, one to one.
For example, in neon atom of Fig.89, e1 electron crosses the opposite phase of e3 de Broglie wave, e3 electron crosses the opposite phase of e2 de Broglie wave ..
When an electron (= electron phase, crest ) crosses the opposite phase (= trough ) of another electron perpendicularly, this pair of crest and trough de Broglie waves becomes "neutral phase" which cannot affect other electrons any longer by destructive interference. So all electrons' motions become stable and OK.
But if an atom contains more than the maximum number of orbits, this symmetrical "neutral phase" is broken, and destructive interference of de Broglie waves occurs, and electrons' motions become unstable.
In case of more orbits than the maximum number contained in an atom, some intersection points contain the abnormal same electron-electron (= crest-crest ) phase (ex. e1 and e3 in Fig.89 right lower ), and other intersection points contain the abnormal same opposite (= trough-trough ) phase (ex. e2 and e3 opposite phase in Fig.89 right upper ).
This abnormal "trough-trough (= opposite-opposite phase )" crossing de Broglie waves are Not neutral ( only when different phases: wave trough-crest cross each other, these two crossing de Broglie waves is neutral and does no harm to other electrons ), so abnormal "trough-trough" waves can affect other electrons by destructive inteference and makes electrons' motion unstable.
For example, in Fig.89 right lower, e1-electron (= crest ) crosses e3-same (= crest ) phase wave, perpendicularly and abnormally. ← "Perpendicular crossing" means these e1 and e3 same-phase (= crest-crest ) orbits do not affect each other (= so, originally, e1 electron should cross the opposite phase of e3 electron perpendicularly ).
But other e3 and e2 opposite phase waves (= trough-trough, in Fig.89 right upper ) affect and destroy e1-electron wave (= destructive interference ) from two different directions.
Because neither e3 nor e2 opposite phase waves is perpendicular to e1 orbit (= it's impossible for e1 orbit to cross two different-directional opposite-phase orbits perpendicularly at the same time ).
→ e1 electron is excluded by e3 and e2 opposite-phase de Broglie waves from two different directions by destructive interference.
This destructive interference of de Broglie waves determines the maximum number of valence electrons in different de Broglie wavelength orbits.
And, this is a realistic physical mechanism of Pauli exclusion principle.
(Fig.90) Two perpendicular de Broglie wave orbits in H2
Helium has two 1 × de Broglie wavelength orbits which cross each other perpendicularly to avoid destructive interference.
In the same way, hydrogen molecule (= H2 ) also contains two 1 × de Broglie wavelength orbits which cross each other perpendicularly, as shown in Fig.90.
We can explain Pauli exclusion principle which prevents three hydrogen atoms from forming imaginary H3 molecule (= joining three hydrogens together ) using realistic mechanism based on repulsive force and force carrier (= medium ).
If the 3rd hydrogen atomic orbit approaches H2 molecule, this 3rd H orbit interferes destructively with the parallel opposite phase of one of two hydrogen orbits in H2 molecule, as seen in Fig.90 lower.
This is a realistic mechanism of Pauli repulsive force in molecules which cannot bind to more external electrons than the maximum number of electrons determined by de Broglie wavelength.
Realistic Pauli exclusion principle of all other atoms such as oxygen atoms of C=O bonds can also be explained by this realistic atomic model.
Quantum mechanics tries to explain Pauli exclusion principle as unphysical exchange interaction (= unrealistically indistinguishable electrons ), even this fake exchange interaction cannot generate strong repulsion enough to prevent the 3rd electron from binding to H2 molecule, so false.
Due to the circular motion of an electron inside an atom, the influence of de Broglie wave or Pauli repulsion is limited.
(Fig.91) Wave nature is needed for closed stable orbits ↓
Only in the simplest one-electron hydrogen atom and helium with just 2 symmetrical perpendicular orbits, each electron orbit is naturally closed even if we simply compute the orbits using just Coulomb force.
In all other atoms and molecules, each electron's orbit is usually Not closed, if we consider only Coulomb force for predicting electron's motion.
As shown in two slit experiments, de Broglie wave interference has strong power enough to modify Coulomb force (= an electron is scattered by Coulomb force of slit wall atoms, but the direction in which an electron is scattered is changed by de Broglie wave interference causing fringe. ).
Electron's de Broglie wave tries to avoid destructive interference and synchronize in phase with each other.
Due to constructive interference of de Broglie wave, the electron's orbit is naturally closed (= both ends with the same phase tend to fit and bind to each other ).
This realistic de Broglie wave interference effect modifying Coulomb force a little needs to be determined by various experiments.
But the current unrealistic quantum mechanics never even admits de Broglie wave as real waves or useful tool, and the concept of real force is Not available in impractical quantum mechanics.
(Fig.92) ↓ This realistic H2 molecule proves to be true by computation.
Due to complicated unclosed orbits, computing hydrogen molecule (= H2 ) is difficult ( not only computing ordinary Coulomb force but also de Broglie wave interference effect must be considered, which must be experimentally determined ).
So we use approximate method of estimating real H2 molecular orbits using the following computing program.
Two orbits of H2 molecule are perpendicular to each other. Here we suppose electron-a moves in the orbit parallel to x-z plane, and electron-b moved in x-y orbit, as shown in Fig.92.
Sample JAVA program to compute H2 molecule.
When you run this program, you need to imput the initial x-coordinate of electron-a (= ea ) and electron-b (= eb = distance between nucleus-b and electron-b ).
Then, you are asked to input binding energy of H2 molecule (= experimental value of H2 binding energy is 4.746 eV, this p.2 ).
Lastly, you are asked to input the distance between two nuclei of H2 molecule (= experimental value of H2 internuclear distance is 0.7414 Å ).
From these 4 input values, this program outputs de Broglie wavelength (= a value closer to "1" × de Broglie wavelength is better ) in one orbit, final coordinates of two electrons, and average forces acting on two nuclei.
For example, we input ea (= "3370" MM = 0.3371 Å, here this unit is used, so input "3370" ) and eb (= "4938.5" MM ), binding energy (= "4.746" eV = experimental value ) and distance between two nuclei (= "7414" MM = experimental value ).
In this case, one orbit is 0.985097 × de Broglie wavelength, which is almost "1" × de Broglie wavelength orbit, so good result proving H2 molecule model with two perpendicular orbits is right.
And in this case, average forces acting on nucleus-a is 0.000085 ( here, the force between electron and proton which are Bohr radius apart is supposed to be "1" ) which is almost 0, meaning nucleus-a of this H2 molecule is almost stationary and at the stable position.
In the same way, the force acting on nucleus-b is also almost 0 (= -0.000464, The sign = "plus+" force is in the direction of the other nucleus ), meaning nucleus-b is also stationary and stable.
So this realistic hydrogen molecule model with two perpendicular orbits of 1 × de Broglie wavelength just agrees with experimental values of H2 binding energy (= 4.746 eV ) and internuclear distance (= 0.7414 Å ).
The output value of "electron-1-attraction toward nucleus-a" is the force attracting electron-a at the initial position towards nucleus-a ( we suppose the magnitude of force between electron and proton which are Bohr radius apart is "1". In this case, we get attraction "1.100154" which is a little bigger than "1", meaning the electron's orbit shrinks in H2 molecule than independent hydrogen atomic orbit ).
Forces acting on two hydogen nuclei are almost zero, so two nuclei are stationary, stable and internuclear distance keeps constant.
In this program, we use a rough approximate method of calculating average values of forces acting on electron-a and electron-b, and suppose both electrons always feel the same average force and move at the same average speed approximately.
This rough approximation is the reason why we cannot reach "1" × de Broglie wavelength (= here, we get 0.985097 instead of 1 ). But this result is very good for a rough approximation.
On the other hand, quantum mechanical electron cloud cannot get experimental binding energy based on real Coulomb force at all.
Instead, quantum mechanics has to rely on illegitimate method of unphysical "exchange energy (= lowering kinetic energy instead of using real Coulomb force )" violating total energy conservation law.
So quantum mechanics is wrong.
(Fig.93) ↓ Quantum mechanics uses unreal quasi-particle without force.
We already have excellent technology of measuring and manipulating a single atom one by one using atomic force microscope.
But quantum mechanics makes these great technologies useless.
Because all quantum mechanics can do is use unreal obsolete quasiparticle model with fake (= effective ) mass.
Unphysical electron cloud and exchange intereaction forbid us from using real Coulomb force and Pauli repulsive force, instead, quantum mechanics forces useless model of treating the whole material as one pseudo-electron model called DFT.
Different from this useless unrealistic quantum mechanics, our new atomic model using real moving electrons, real forces (= Coulomb and Pauli repulsion ) can be easily used in all other applied science such as medicine.
Just two basic principles govern all atomic and molecular interactions. One is Coulomb force. The other one is de Broglie wave which determines electron's orbital radius and causes Pauli repulsive force by destructive interference.
♦ Valence electrons
♦ Bohr's Neon, Carbon bonds, Four-fundamental forces.
♦ de Broglie waves determine all atomic structures.
♦ Truth of electromagnetic waves.
♦ others atomic size.
2020/ 12/17 updated. Feel free to link to this site.