*(Fig.1) If atomic tweezers are possible, any nanomachines can be made !*

In our world, we can pick up things using '*mechanical*' force to construct something or predict their precice motions.

So, if we can apply this 'mechanical force' to grab a **single** *atom* or molecule, we can construct any nano-machine to cure disease or drastically miniaturize computers.

But quantum mechanics (= old Schrödinger equation ) stops the development of science !

By the way, what *forces* are working, when objects touch ?

In fact, quantum mechanics **cannot** answer even this simple question !

*(Fig.2) Only Coulomb force → two atoms can approach any closer.*

If each electron and nuclei is a tiny *point*-like particle, any objects and solids can **pass** through each other **without** being blocked. But they **cannot**.

If **only** *Coulomb* force is involved in atomic interaction, two atoms can *approach* each other any closer.

Because negative electrons are attracted to positive nuclei, avoiding other electrons. Atomic force microscopy showed strong repulsion among atoms !

So, physicists started to argue strange Pauli exclusion principle causes these **repulsions** when two atoms are very *close* to each other.

But quantum mechanics **does't** admit this Pauli exclusion repulsion as "force". This is clearly self-contradiction.

*(Fig.3) Lithium 3rd electron cannot enter inner 1s orbital due to Pauli ?*

If there is **no** Pauli exclusion repulsion, the third electron of lithium **can** enter inner 1s orbital, *attracted* to positive nucleus.

They argure Pauli exclusion principle **expels** this electron to outer 2s orbital, and this repulsion is caused by *non-physical* "antisymmetric spin wave function".

This "antisymmetric" is just an **artificial**, *unrealistic* rule = when two wave functions are the same ( φ = ψ ), the whole wavefunction is cancelled out to be **zero**. That's all.

In lithium, two electrons with the same up spin cannot enter the same orbital (= 1s ). But the spin-spin magnetic energy is **too weak** to cause this strong Pauli repulsion !

Quantum mechanics **doesn't** try to explain more detailed mechanism under this artificial Pauli exclusion rule.

*(Fig.4) Two wave functions are different ← antisymmetric is meaningless*

In noncovalent hydrogen bond, sulfur (= S ) atom **cannot** be closer to hydrogen atom (= H ) than about 3 Å due to Pauli *repulsion*.

In fact, this Pauli repulsion between different atoms **cannot** be explained by quantum antisymmetric rule, because any two wave functions are *different* from each other !

So the whole wave function **cannot** be cancelled out to be zero in this case. Atomic force microscopy showed **NO** electron density *overlap* in hydrogen bond ( this p.16 )

The current quantum mechanics **cannot** express this Pauli repulsion using realistic model including electron charge density ( this p.14 ) !

This is the reason atomic tweezers are impossible under **useless** quantum mechanics

*(Fig.5) Atisymmetric trial function is NOT a true solution, just "fake" !*

In quantum mechanics, Schrödinger equation is the **only** option for dealing with interatomic behavior. But it has NO exact solution in multi-electron atoms.

All they can do is **choose** fake trial function ( this p.2 ) as multi-electron solution. We can choose **any** form of *fake* solution from *infinite* choices.

When this chosen trial function is antisymmetric, they argue it includes Pauli exclusion ( this p.10 ).

So quantum mechanics cannot predict multi-electron atomic behavior. Because they just "choose" fake solution as they like.

*(Fig.6) Opposite phases of electron de Broglie waves causes Pauli repulsion*

The problem is quantum mechanics does **NOT** allow us to adopt any *realistic* concepts such as separated electron or de Broglie wave.

But this electron de Broglie wave really exists, confirmed by many **experiments**, where *opposite* wave phases *cancel* each other and **kick out** an electron.

Unrealistic electron spin is too weak to explain actual molecular bonds. A pair of an electron and a hole in de Broglie wave **fits** molecular bonds.

The maximum number of valence electrons is determined by this de Broglie wave.

If there are more than two 1 × de Broglie wavelength orbits, electrons are expelled by *destructive* interference ( there are two directions of opposite phases ).

When all holes are **occupied** by electrons, other electrons *cannot* approach the same-phase hole, instead, they approach opposite-phase part and are **expelled**.

The first thing to do is measure "this **scope** of each electron de Broglie wave" causing Pauli repulsion using atomic force microscope.

Quantum mechanics **forbids** us from even *preparing* these realistic concepts such as de Broglie wave as the cause of Pauli repulsion !

*(Fig.7) Introducing real electrons' motion, real de Broglie wave is essential.*

We can measure each atomic force using atomic force microscope, but quantum mechanics **cannot** *formulate* these forces using 'concrete' models !

The first thing to do is introduce **real** and simple atomic models. Quantum useless wave function **cannot** *separate* each single electron.

So in Schrödinger equation, two electrons **cannot** avoid each other by Coulomb repulsions in the simple way, which makes it very hard to formulate atomic force.

Not only Coulomb forces but also de Broglie wave is necessary to estimate each atomic **radius** ( atomic radius is longer as 1, 2, 3 × .. de Broglie wavelength ).

Interference among electrons' *de Broglie* waves can explain well about Pauli exclusion force and valence electron number.

Quantum Schrödinger equation does **NOT** admit *real* de Broglie wave, so it **cannot** estimate actual atomic radius.

So under **vague** quantum wave function (= fake solution in multi-electrons ), it's **impossible** to formulate actual interatomic force and atomic tweezers.

2017/3/10 updated. Feel free to link to this site.