Top page ( Quantum mechanics is false )
Relativistic QED is false.
(Fig.1) ↓ Particle physics is unphysical with No relation to real phenomena.
In fact, the present mainstream particle physics based on standard model cannot explain any real physical mechanisms at all.
All the particle physics chaotic experiments deliberately picking up dubious data from random trillions of collisions between irrelevant particles and protons in gigantic particle colliders are unable to give reliable precise values of the very short-lived dubious rare particles which are too unstable to observe directly.
↑ Particle physicists exploited these unreliable and chaotic particle collision experimental results (= there is much room for manipulating results by picking up only a small amount of information and discarding almost all chaotic data ) to create various fictional theories, concepts and unobservable imaginary particles by deliberately picking up and adjusting only convenient data to their fictional useless standard model theory which has many freely-adjustable parameters, using wrong math trick.
One of those artificially-created fictional meaningless concepts is "gauge".
The present disastrous particle physics heavily relies on the imaginary meaningless concepts called "gauge or phase symmetry" with No physical meaning ( this p.1-last, this p.1-first-paragraph ).
When the (fictitious) particle's equation of motion given by artificially-created nonphysical standard model-version's Lagrangian (= No physical meaning, this p.1-last ) is invariant under these fictitious gauge (or phase ) transformations, it is called "gauge symmetry" which is said to cause (imaginary) particle interactions according to the current useless particle physics.
There are three artificially-created nonphysical gauge symmetries such as U1 gauge symmetry (= allegedly causing electromagnetic force or photons which pseudo-particles are just nonphysical math symbols with no real figure, this p.14 ), SU(2) gauge symmetry (= allegedly causing imaginary weak force which is just nonphysical "matrix" ), and SU(3) symmetry (= causing unobservable quark's strong force which is also just a nonphysical matrix, this p.6 )
The particle physics or standard model is self-contradictory and wrong ( this p.8-4th-paragraph ).
Because they repeatedly claim this fictitious gauge invariance or symmetry is the most important concept of the particle physics, but after all, those meaningless symmetries must be broken by another fictitious concept called Higgs mechanism which is also a nonphysical math symbol ( this p.2 ).
The standard model's virtual W bosons of the weak force and unobservable fractional-charge quarks of the strong force are expressed just as the nonphysical matrices which abstract math symbols tell us nothing about the detailed physical mechanism, so useless.
Actually, the notorious particle physics has been just wasting a huge amount of taxpayers' money in hunting only imaginary unstable particles allegedly popping up transiently (= No direct evidence that such dubious unstable particles were actually created, this p.3-last ) inside expensive colliders, and developing the unobservable fantasy concepts such as extradimensions and Weinberg angle ( this p.3 ).
Actually, Higgs and W,Z bosons which are too short-lived to observe as real have been useless, just wasting money for fictional particle science ( this 3rd-paragraph, this p.4 ).
(Fig.2) ↓ Useless particle physics shows only unrealistic gauge (= θ ) as the only reason for fictitious photon to interact with electrons.
The present mainstream particle physics or standard model is terrible and just an unscientific theory playing with the ghost-like concept called "gauge" irrelevant to the real world.
Relativistic quantum field theory or QED describes each electron (= ψ ) and a fictitious photon (= A ) just as the nonphysical math symbols with No concrete figures.
They artificially and wrongly modified the classical equation or Lagrangian (= kinetic - potential energies ) into the pseudo-Lagrangian replacing the potential energy with unrelated free electron's mass energy.
And they baselessly claim if this artificially-created fictitious Lagrangian is invariant or unchanged under the transformation of fictitious gauge (or phase θ ), which has No physical reality, this nonphysical fictitious equation may indicate the electromagnetic interaction between an electron and a (fictitious) photon ( this p.10-12, this p.2-4 ). ← No concrete real physical explanation !
In the upper figure, the standard model artificially changes the nonphysical electron (= ψ expressed as unphysical Dirac equation ) and photon (= A ) fields using the imaginary concept = gauge (or phase θ ), and inserts those gauge-modified field operators into the original Lagrangian, which is artificially designed to remain the same (= invariant ) under this imaginary gauge transformation ( this p.2-4, this p.3 ). This photon's case is called U(1) local gauge invariance ( this p.2 ).
↑ This meaningless unphysical gauge transformation is all the current useless particle physics can show as the (fictitious) mechanism of the electron-photon interaction.
As you see, this current particle physics and standard model have No ability to describe the detailed physical mechanism of how exactly the real electromagnetic force is generated by unreal (virtual) photons and acting on a real electrons.
(Fig.3) Fictitious photon's gauge transformation (= A + ∂θ ) has No physical meaning. but the particle physics considers it the most important. ← nonsense
The present useless particle physics baselessly claims that the artificial photon's equation or Lagrangian (= FF expressed as the derivative of the fictitious magnetic potential A ) should be invariant or unchanged under the imaginary gauge transformation, and they try to forcibly connect this (meaningless) gauge invariance with the fictitious photon's electromagnetic field ( this p.4 ). ← Not a legitimate way of developing physical theories.
As shown in the upper figure, when this meaningless gauge transformation is inserted into the artificial electromagnetic Lagrangian (= FF ), this artificial Lagrangian is designed to be invariant or unchanged ( this p.3-lower, this p.1-lower ).
↑ This meaningless manipulation after introducing fictitious concepts = gauge is all the current particle physics shows as the only explanation for the fictitious photon's electromagnetic interaction.
Relying on the artificial unfounded concepts shows that the present unscientific particle physics and standard model have nothing to do with the real physical phenomena involving the real electromagnetic force.
(Fig.4) ↓ This unphysical gauge is the only explanation for the massless photon. ← Particle physics clarifies No more detailed mechanism !
Einstein relativity claims that a photon is massless.
Relativistic quantum field theory or standard model is said to explain why a photon is massless. ← But this standard model's reason for the massless photon is terrible, Not science.
They just artificially created the "fictitious photon's mass term" expressed as a nonphysical abstract math symbols putting two magnetic potential A side by side (= AA means the photon's mass ? ).
And this artificial photon's mass term (= AA ) changes under another artificially-created concept called gauge transformation, so they claim this artificial photon's mass term violating the gauge transformation invariance rule is inconsistent with the natural principle (= No evidence that fictitious "gauge" governs the nature, though ), hence the photon must be massless without showing No more realistic picture or mechanism ( this p.2-last, this p.2-upper, this p.10, this p.13 ). ← nonsense.
↑ As shown here, the present particle physics or standard model is just a meaningless theory unable to show any detailed physical mechanism of why a (fictitious) photon has no mass.
(Fig.5) ↓ They intentionally adopt the photon version's gauge transformation different from the electron's gauge transformation. ← Gauge transformation is Not a universal principle, its transformation form was "artificially chosen" by humans.
There is a convincing reason why this fictitious gauge transformation symmetry is Not a universal common principle of the nature.
The current ad-hoc particle physics intentionally created and chose the photon-specific gauge transformation (= A → A + ∂θ ) different from the electron's gauge transformation (= ψ → eiθψ ).
As shown in the upper Fig.5, if they adopted the same (fictitious) gauge transformation as the electron also in the photon (= A → eiθA ), the photon's equation or Lagrangian is Not invariant under this common gauge transformation.
↑ So the standard model deliberately uses the different types of artificially-created gauge transformations in the photon and electron, which means the fictitious gauge transformation is Not a universal common concept but a meaningless pseudo-model artificially created for developing the imaginary standard model theory.
(Fig.6) Standard model's baseless claim of the Co-60 beta decaying into a left-handed electron and a right-handed antineutrino is paradoxical and wrong.
The present particle physics and standard model is based on the false assumption that only a left-handed electron (or fermions ) whose spin direction is opposite to the electron's moving direction can interact with imaginary W boson through weak force in the beta decay ( this p.7, this p.2-lower ).
This baseless claim that only (unseen) left-handed electron can participate in the beta decay or weak interaction comes from the Cobalt-60 beta decay experiment (= Wu experiment in 1957, this p.4-last ).
Under the external magnetic field, the Cobalt-60 positive nuclei are aligned to the external magnetic field whose spin angular momentum is allegedly 5ℏ (= this value is just a theory, because a "spinning" nucleus can not be directly seen ).
And this Cobalt-60 nucleus decays into Ni-60 nucleus, emitting an unseen antineutrino and an electron which is preferentially emitted opposite to the magnetic field.
Only from this experimental fact, physicists and the standard model baselessly claim that this emitted electron in the beta decay is "left-handed" which means this electron's (unseen) spin points in the opposite direction from the electron's velocity or moving direction ( this p.2-Figure.3 ), and only the left-handed particles such as electrons, quarks and left-handed neutrinos (= or right-handed antineutrino ) are involved in weak force through (fictitious) W bosons in beta decay ( this p.7-8, this p.4-2nd-paragraph ).
Because they claim the Cobalt-60 has (unseen) nuclear spin angular momentum 5ℏ and the resultant Nickel-60 has (unseen) nuclear spin angular momentum 4ℏ, hence, both an electron and undetectable antineutrino must have the same 1/2ℏ spin angular momentum in the same direction as the magnetic field to conserve the total angular momentum ( this p.3-4, this p.6, this p.16-17, this p.4 (or p.5 ) ).
↑ First, this speculative claim of total angular momentum conservation under external magnetic force is baseless and false, because an negative electron's (fictitious spin) angular momentum tends to point in the opposite direction from the magnetic field due to the electron's negative charge. ← Conservation of total angular momentum is meaningless under the external force or magnetic field.
Furthermore, the present particle physics and standard model are based on Einstein relativistic theory where all the physical phenomena are affected and changed by observers' motions.
So in the relativistic theory, an alleged left-handed electron appears to be (= is changed into ) a right-handed electron (= whose spin direction is the same as the electron's velocity, = opposite to the left-handed electron ), when an observer watching the left-handed electron is moving in the same direction as the electron at a higher speed than the left-handed electron ! ← paradox !
This is a serious contradiction and shows the present particle physics and standard model is wrong.
In the relativistic quantum field theory, QED and standard model, whether a left-handed or right-handed electron should be meaningless, changed by observers' motions ( this p.3 ), but they distinguish the left-handed and right-handed electrons in the fictitious weak force even by using the unphysical matrix ( this p.7 ) !
As a result, the present particle physics, standard model (= SM ) or its electroweak theory (= Glashow-Weinberg-Salam ) theory is based on the paradoxical false assumption that the only (unseen) left-handed electron, quarks and neutrino interact with unseen W± boson of weak force in the beta decay ( this p.13,18 this p.10-last, this p.9 (or p.8 )-2nd-paragraph, this p.8 (or p,12 )-last paragraph ).
(Fig.7) Only fictitious left-handed quark emits a unreal virtual W boson, which changes into the paradoxical left-handed electron ( and right-handed antineutrino ) ?
The present particle physics or standard model is terrible.
They insist an unseen fractional down-quark with fictitious left hand (= spin direction is opposite to the particle's moving direction ) inside a neutron emits an unreal virtual W-boson with imaginary masses which changes into an unseen antineutrino, an unseen left-handed up-quark inside a proton, and a fictitious left-handed electron through imaginary weak force in the beta decay ( this p.6-left ).
↑ The virtual W± bosons mediating weak force are supposed to interact only with left-handed particles such as electrons, quarks, and right-handed antiparticles such as antineutrino ( this p.3-middle ). ← This is just a rule with No direct experimental evidence (= ex. neutrino spin cannot be seen ).
The standard model paradoxically separates each fermion such as an electron, an unseen quark and a neutrino into the left-handed and right-handed particle, and claims that only the fictitious left-handed electron, quark and neutrino can interact with the imaginary W± bosons or weak force in the beta decay ( this 3rd-paragraph, this p.5-5,6 paragraphs ).
But as I said, according to the relativistic theory, the object's motion and state are affected by observers' motions, hence, whether each electron is left-handed or right-handed changes depending on which observer moving at some speed is watching the electron ( this p.8 ). ← This is clearly a fatal paradox and shows the present particle physics with fatal flaws is wrong.
(Fig.8) ↓ Left-handed electron is a nonphysical "matrix", and right-handed electron is just a number with No real physical figure in the particle physics.
The present particle physics paradoxically tries to distinguish a fictitious left-handed electron (= whose spin points in the opposite direction from the electron's motion ) and a right-handed electron (= whose spin points in the same direction as the electron's motion ).
↑ As I said, this distinction causes a fatal paradox, because the left-handed electron or right-handed electron is freely changed as seen by different observers moving differently.
Ignoring this paradox, the present particle physics unreasonably claims that only the left-handed electron (or quark ) can interact with a fictitious W boson or weak force and cause beta decay ( this p.16-last ).
To make a distinction between them, physicists artificially defined a left-handed electron, quark, neutrino as a nonphysical matrix, and defined a right-handed electron, quark as a nonphysical number which have No real particle figures ( this p.7 ).
Furthermore, they artificially create and give different fictional weak hyper-charges and weak isospins to the left-handed and right-handed particles ( this p.3-4, this p.3 ).
It is impossible to say this ad-hoc standard model full of fictional concepts describes the real phenomena.
(Fig.9) A left-handed electron's mass (term) is a "chimera matrix" made up of the left-handed and right-handed electrons ? ← standard model deals with paradoxical particles !
In fact, the present particle physics or standard model distinguishing the fictitious left-handed and right-handed particles is self-contradictory, so wrong.
They claim the only left-handed electrons (= e ), quarks (= u, d ) and neutrinos (= ν ) are involved in beta decay through the imaginary weak force.
↑ But in the current nonphysical standard model, the masses of all these fermions such as left-handed electrons (= eL or doublet matrix ) and quarks involved in beta decay must consist of the chimera-like masses mixing the left-handed and right-handed electrons' (= eR, not matrix ) or quarks' masses ( this p.22, this p.4-lower, this p.10-left, this p.11-last ) !
↑ This paradoxical situation where a left-handed electron also has the right-handed-electron's mass is impossible, showing the current particle physics and standard model lack physical reality.
(Fig.10) Unphysical left-handed electron (= matrix ) and right-handed electron (= not matrix ) cannot have the mixed masses due to violating gauge transformation invariance, so electron must be massless ? Instead, Higgs gives mass ? ← standard model is just an ad-hoc artificial theory.
The present particle physicls and standard model make a ridiculous claim that each (left-handed) electron must have the unphysical left-handed and right-handed mixed masses. ← paradox.
If so, such an uncanny mixed masses of left-handed fermions such as electron (= matrix or doublet ) and right-handed fermions (= right-handed electron, = number or singlet ) cannot keep invariant under the imaginary gauge transformation (= different gauge transformations are needed for the matrix left-handed and the non-matrix right-handed electrons, this p.5 ).
They claim this violation of gauge invariance or symmetry in the electron unphysical mass term requires each electron (or quark ) to be massless, eliminating the mass term ( this p.22, this p.12,14 ). ← The standard model's ridiculous demand that all electrons should be massless disagrees with the actual fact.
Instead, they claim that unphysical Higgs (Yukawa) interaction with massless electrons can give the mixed chimera-like mass terms mixing the left-handed and right-handed electrons, through the artificial "symmetry breaking" ( this p.8-10, this p.1-lower-p.3, this p.13-15 ). ← This unphysical Higgs allegedly giving mass to electrons clarifies No real physical mechanism at all ( this p.4-lower ).
↑ The gauge transformation invariance or gauge symmetry is a completely meaningless concept, because after all, the gauge invariance or symmetry must be broken for each electron to acquire mass through nonphysical Higgs mechanism.
As you see, all the present particle physics can present is non-existent concepts such as gauge and the paradoxical matrix-left-handed electron's mass irrelevant to the real world phenomena.
(Fig.11) ↓ Weak force is just a nonphysical matrix SU2 gauge transformation, so physically meaningless concept of the current standard model
The present unrealistic particle physics or standard model has No power to explain the real physical mechanism of fictitonal weak force allegedly mediated by virtual W bosons.
Standard model tries to modify the fictitious gauge transformation of the photon for this imaginary weak force case by the completely artificial process irrelevant to the actual phenomena.
They artificially created fictional weak-force gauge (or meaningless phase ) transformation incorporating nonphysical Pauli matrices.
And this artificially-created matrix-version of weak-force gauge transformation is supposed to act only on the nonphysical matrix of the left-handed electrons, quarks and neutrinos ( this p.29, this p.11 (or p.18 ) ), which fictional theory is called the electroweak or SU(2) gauge transformation symmetry.
↑ None of these artificial concepts such as "gauge" and "Pauli matrices" can be observed as real physical objects.
(Fig.12) ↓ particle's momentum derivative operator attached to nonphysical W boson ?
Like in the fictitious photon's case, they change the particle's momentum operator expressed as the derivative into the artificial form called "covariant derivative" attached to the alleged W boson expressed just as a nonphysical symbol (= W ) with No physical shape ( this p.1-(5.4), this p.20 )
(Fig.13) ↓ The present particle physics is full of nonphysical concepts.
Like the nonphysical photon's case (= called U1 gauge symmetry ), the standard model created the artificial rule called "SU2 gauge symmetry" as the alleged (fictitious) mechanism generating weak force in beta decay.
They baselessly insist that when the particle's equation or artificially-created Lagrangian is invariant or unchanged under this artificial gauge transformation expressed as nonphysical matrices, it is called "SU(2) gauge symmetry ( this p.6-7 )" and may indicate the "mechanism of (fictional) weak force ( this p.2, this p.6-10, this p.5-6 )". ← nonsense
As shown in the upper figure, the weak force case gauge tranformation is ugly and more artificial due to its complicated "matrix" equation.
Of course, this artificial and ugly rule using fictional gauge transformation in the current meaningless particle physics has Nothing to do with our real world phenomena, so useless.
(Fig.14) Weak force, W boson, gauge symmetry are all nonphysical math.
The present particle physics or standard model has nothing to do with the real world phenomena.
They just impose the artificially-created rules called "gauge transformation symmetry" as the fictitious mechanism of weak force via imaginary W bosons in beta decay.
In order to keep the artificially-created equation or Lagrangian (= incorporating interaction term between electrons and W bosons ) invariant under this fictional gauge transformation, this weak force gauge transformation must be a much more complicated and artificial form, which represents No physical reality.
(Fig.15) ↓ This unphysical math symbols represent (fictional) weak force ?
Like the nonphysical photon-electron interaction term, physicists insist the nonphysical weak interaction term just putting meaningless math symbols such as W (= W boson ? ) and ψ (= electron ? ) side by side may indicate the existence of (fictional) weak interaction between W boson and electron ( this p.12-13 ).
↑ These abstract unphysical math symbols explain nothing about any detailed physical mechanisms of particles' interactions at all.
(Fig.16) ↓ Unphysical mass term and fictitious gauge is why the "massive" W boson needs to be "massless", and borrow the mass from imaginary Higgs ?
The fictitious W boson allegedly involved in beta decay through weak force is said to be massive, except for its unreal virtual W boson version.
But the unreasonable particle physics or standard model claims that if W boson literally has mass, its unphysical "mass term (= WW )" breaks the (fictitious) gauge invariance of the weak boson equation ( this p.13-14 ).
Furthermore, it is known all the calculated results of relativistic QED and standard model miserably diverge to meaningless infinities.
Physicists have to artificially remove or renormalize those meaningless infinites by another artificial counter infinities to obtain the seeming finite values. ← This is wrong math, because infinity is an indefinite uncertain value absorbing any arbitrary finite values that cannot be predicted.
If W boson has the mass term, its equation's meaningless infinities cannot be artificially removed or renormalized ( this p.7-upper, this p.23-24 ).
So they started to say the massive W boson must be massless to keep fictitious gauge invariance ( this p.4-5 ) and remove infinities by ad-hoc renormalization. ← paradox about whether W boson is massive or massless !
And instead, the artificially-introduced Higgs field filling space like "aether (= contradictory relativistic standard model has to admit "Higgs field aether" filling space after Einstein relativity rejected it )"could "lend mass to W boson" by spotaneously breaking the gauge symmetry without showing any more detailed physical mechanism of how exactly each particle could acquire mass through interaction with fictitious Higgs field filling space.
↑ So after all, the present particle physics based on (fictitious) gauge invariance or symmetry turned out to be meaningless, because those stupid symmetry must be broken to obtain "mass (term)" through artificial Higgs mechanism ( this p.23-24, this p.3-2nd-last-paragraph ).
As you can see, the present particle physics and standard model are not only nonphysical, unrealistic but also self-contradictory about its fictitiously-created rule = gauge symmetry.
(Fig.17) W,Z bosons and photons are nonphysical particles.
The present unphysical particle physics, standard model or electroweak unification theory (= Glashow-Weinberg-Salam theory ) lacks reality.
This nonphysical artificially-created mainstream particle physics theory can describe fictitious W, Z bosons allegedly mediating weak force and photons as nonphysical abstract math symbols without any concrete physical picture, which abstract pseudo-model tells us nothing about the detailed physical mechanism ( this p.20, this p.4-5 ).
These mumbo jumbos in the present particle physics seems to be like in an ancient scripture treating the unfalsifiable religious belief or unseen QED virtual particles as if it were a "mainstream science" repeatedly deifying the famous scientists and their hypothesis, against their original intentions.
(Fig.18) ↓ None of these fictitious concepts can be observed as real.
The current unphysical mainstream theory representing standard model is called electroweak unification theory.
Unfortunately, this mainstream particle physics consists only of fictional meaningless concepts irrelevant to our real world.
The quantum theory expresses the particle's momentum or kinetic energy term as the derivative (= ∂ = momentum ) of the particle's wavefunction based on the de Broglie wave theoty.
They artificially change this momentum derivative operator to the fictitious concept called "covariant derivative (= D ) or gauge transformation" allegedly containing fictitious W,Z gauge bosons (= W ) and photons (= A or B ).
And they combine this artificial momentum derivative operator including W boson and photon ( this p.4 ) with the nonphysical Dirac electrons which are expressed as nonphysical matrices without real particle figures.
Furthermore, this fictitious electroweak theory needs more artificial concepts called weak hypercharge and weak isospins ( this p.16-17 ), none of which can be observed as real.
(Fig.19) ↓ Fictional weak force or W bosons are just nonphysical Pauli matrices, Not a real physical object.
The current standard model just combines nonphysical symbols (= W ) with mathematical Pauli matrices to express the fictional weak force or W± bosons which lack physical reality ( this p.13-14, this p.27 ), from which we are unable to know the true physical mechanism.
(Fig.20) ↓ These fictional weak hypercharges or weak isospins have nothing to do with reality.
The unphysical standard model or electroweak theory needs even artificially-prepared charges and spins only for explaining the fictional weak force by forcibly distinguishing the left-handed and right-handed electrons.
These fictional weak-force-related concepts are called weak hypercharge (= Y ) and 3rd component of weak isospins (= T3 = 1/2σ3 ), which have nothing to do with real charges or spin.
And they artificially defined the electric charge Q as the sum of these fictional weak isospin and weak hypercharge.
As shown in the upper figure, the fictitious left-handed electron and right-handed electron must have different weak hypercharges and weak isospins to satisfy their fictional electroweak unification theory. ← These weak hypercharges and isospins magically change as seen by different observers !?
↑ None of these fictional charge-spin-relation and weak hypercharges can be confirmed as real things.
(Fig.21) ↓ Completely artificial "weak mixing angle" irrelevant to real world.
In order to forcibly unify the fictitious weak force and photon's electromagnetic foece from the imaginary gauge transformation, the standard model introduced another artificial concept called "weak mixing angle" or "Weinberg angle (= θW", this p.14, this p.17-18, this p.34 ).
These fictional Weinberg angle such as cosθW and sinθW is Not a real object, hence unobservable and meaningless.
They started the ad-hoc particle physics from the fictional "gauge transformation", so they needed to artificialy introduce many other fictional concepts such as weak hypercharge, weak isospins, Weinberg angle, and Higgs symmetry breaking.
(Fig.22) ↓ These nonphysical artificial concepts reveal weak and photon interactions ? ← impossible !
Starting from the artificially-introduced gauge transformation (= nonphysical matrices consisting of Pauli matrices ) or the covariant derivative momentum operator ( this p.17 ), the standard model was forced to introduce more fictional concepts such as weak hyperchange, weak isospins and Weinberg mixing angle.
Furthermore, they had to define artificial relations between these fictional concepts to make it look like some physical theory.
And finally, they baselessly started to claim the electric-photon and (fictitious) weak-force W,Z bosons could be unified as the common abstract equation indicating (fictitious) interactions between electrons (= ψ ), photon (= A ), and weak bosons (= Z,W, this p.12-16, this p.9-13, this p.5-7, this p.17-21 ).
But as shown in the upper figure, after all, this standard model or electroweak theory just showing the meaningless abstract math symbols clarified No detailed physical mechanism at all, hence useless theory with No room to progress.
(Fig.23) ↓ artificial relation-1.
(Fig.24) ↓ artificial relation-2.
(Fig.25) Electron's mass term must mix the left-handed (= matrix ) and right-handed (= not matrix ) electrons, which cannot be invariant under gauge transformation, so all massive electrons are massless !? ← paradox !
According to the present fictional relativistic quantum field theory or standard model, the electron's mass term must magically mix the left-handed electron (= expressed as "matrix" ) and the right-handed electron (= not matrix ). ← This is just an artificial rule irrelevant to the real physical principle.
↑ The left-handed electron (= eL ) expressed as nonphysical matrix uses the matrix-form of gauge transformation which is different from the non-matrix form of the right-handed electron's (= eR ) gauge transformation.
Hence, this unphysical mixed electron's mass term is not invariant under the mixed gauge transformation ( this p.4-(24) ), which meaningless concept is why the standard model claims that all fermions such as massive electrons and quarks must be massless ( this p.22-1st-paragraph, this p.14-upper ). ← paradox !
↑ As you see, the current particle physics preposterous claim that an electron must be massless clearly disagrees with the real electron with mass, so the standard model is false.
(Fig.26) ↓ Standard model's mechanism of unphysical Higgs giving mass to particles is unrealistic.
In order for fermions such as electrons and quarks expressed as nonphysical matrices to have "mass (term)" satisfying the fictitious gauge transformation symmetry and the ad-hoc renomalizability (= ability to artificially remove infinities ), the standard model had to create the imaginary Higgs field expressed just as a unphysicam math symbol "h" inside the matrix.
And they claim that this artificially-created matrix-form Higgs can match up with the left-handed matrix-form fermions, hence, this (fictitious) Higgs-fermion interacting equation (= called Yukawa coupling, this p.8, this p.1-lower ) could be gauge invariant, so it means Higgs gives mass to fermions such as electrons ( this p.12-lower, this p.15-last ).
But after particles such as electrons acqure mass (term) from Higgs, this equation must break the gauge symmetry ( this p.4, this p.24 ) ← paradox due to broken symmetry in the gauge symmetry theory !
As shown in the upper figure, this Higgs mechanism of giving mass to fermions such as massless electrons and quarks clarified No detailed physical mechanisms at all.
This unrealistic theory is what the current particle physics or standard model is.
(Fig.27) Higgs breaks gauge symmetry, then, the standard model's gauge symmetry itself is meaningless.
The present particle physics and standard model considers the fictitious gauge transformation invariance or symmetry to be the most important physical principle.
To maintain this unphysical gauge symmetry, the standard model demands that all fermions such as electrons, quarks and all gauge bosons such as W,Z bosons should be massless ( this p.13 ).
But the real electron must have mass.
So physicists artificially created the fictitious Higgs mechanism of seemingly giving mass to all massive particles.
The problem is this Higgs mechanism requires the Higss particle itself to have unreal imaginary mass.
And after all, Higgs must break the most important gauge symmetry or invariance to give mass to other particles.
As shown in above, the nonphysical Higgs (= expressed just as an abstract math symbol "h" ) contains the odd function such as h3, which cannot be invariant under the gauge transformation. = symmetry is broken ( this p.1-3, this p.3 )
So the present standard model is self- contradictory.
The gauge symmetry must be broken after all ( this p.6 ). ← The inconsistent standard model has No fundamental universal physical principle (= uncertain broken or unbroken gauge symmetry ) to explain real particle interactions.
(Fig.28) ↓ Just the unphysical mass term (= WW ) means the Higgs mechanism of giving mass ? ← It is Not an explanation for real physical mechanism at all.
To keep the fictitious SU(2) gauge transformation symmetry or invariance, the massive W and Z bosons must be massless, instead, the fictitious Higgs is said to give mass (term) to them by breaking the gauge symmetry. ← paradox.
This fictitious Higgs mechanism is so unrealistic that the real physical mechanism of how Higgs gives mass is Not clarified at all.
As shown in the upper figure, physicists just combine the nonphysical W boson matrix with Higgs boson matrix, and generate the W or Z bosons' mass terms expressed as WW or ZZ ( this p.4-5, this p.8, this p.23-25, this p.16-17 ).
↑ This abstract meaningless explanation is all the present particle physics present as the imaginary Higgs mechanism of giving mass.
And after all, the most important gauge symmetry must be broken by artificial Higgs mass terms ( this p.23 ), hence, the standard model is self-contradictory and wrong.
(Eq.1) ↓ Fictitious photons, electrons and their artificial Lagrangian.
In the present relativistic quantum field theory, QED and standard model, all particles such as electrons and fictitious photons are described as nonphysical math symbols which give No real physical mechanisms.
And they imitated and modified the classical Lagrangian into the artificial Lagrangian giving relativistic equations of motions for those fictitious photons and electrons.
(Eq.2) Gauge theory = "Math" or physics ??
The present unphysical particle physics and standard model tries to use fictional concepts called "gauge transformation" to explain various fictional (weak) interactions between fictional particles such as W bosons and photons ( this p.2 ).
The artificial Lagrangian of relativistic Dirac equation for free electron is expressed as
Inserting the nonphysical photon (= A ) and its gauge (= θ ) into Lagrangian of Eq.3, we can obtain Eq.2
(Eq.4) ↓ unphysical global gauge transformation and symmetry
Standad model requires Lagrangian giving particle's equation to be invariant under the artificial gauge (or phase = θ ) transformation.
When this fictitious gauge or phase contains no spacetime variables, this simple transformation is called global gauge (or phase ) transformation, which has nothing to do with the real world phenomena.
(Eq.5) When fictitious gauge is a function of the space coordinate x like θ(x), this is called local gauge tansformation, which is nothing.
The standard model's artificial rule says when the fictitious gauge is a function of the spacetime coordinate x, this is called local gauge transformation.
As shown in the upper Eq.5, this local gauge transformation gives the derivative of the fictitious gauge (= ∂θ(x) ) due to its spacetime variables, unlike the simple global gauge transformation.
To make the Lagrangian invariant under this fictional local gauge transformation (= local gauge symmetry ), we need to artificially add 4-magnetic and electric-potential ( Aμ ) to the free particle Lagrangian based on wrong logic like
wehre (-1,+1,+1,+1) version of metric tensor is used.
(Eq.7) Artificial gauge transformation for magnetic potential A (= photon ? )
Furthermore, they need to prepare another artificial gauge transformation for magnetic vector potential A which allegedly contains nonphysical photons expressed as math symbols (= a, this p.7 )
(Eq.8) Artificial different imaginary gauge transformations applied to electron (= ψ ) and photon (= A ) fields keep the unphysical equations unchanged = gauge symmetry.
(Eq.9) Meaningless gauge transformation symmetry causes fictitious interaction between photon (= A ) and electron (= ψ ) ?
The present unphysical particle physics or standard model artificially created fictional concepts called "gauge (or phase θ ) transformations", and applied the different forms of those artificial gauge transformations to the electron ( = ψ ) and photon (= A ) fields.
If the whole equation or artificial Lagrangian (= L ) replacing the oridinary free-electron's momentum derivative (= ∂ ) expressing de Broglie wave relation by the covariant derivative incorporating fictitious interaction term between photon and electron is invariant under gauge transformation, it is called "gauge symmetry ( this p.1-2, this p.2 )"
These gauge transformations are Not a universal principle related to actual phenomena.
Because they deliberately created and chose different versions of gauge transformations for electron and photon field, whose artificial choice shows this gauge is Not a universal common principle governing the actual physical phenomena
(Eq.10) Meaningless gauge transformation symmetry causes the interaction between photon (= A ) and electron (= ψ ) ?
The unphysical standard model claims this (meaningless) gauge transformation invariance or symmetry governs the (artificial) interaction (term) between the fictitious photon (= A ) and electron (= ψ ).
As seen here, the present particle physics explains No detailed physical mechanism, except showing the meaningless fictional concepts such as "gauge".
(Eq.11) gauge transformation of magnetic potential A → A'
(Eq.12) Fictitious photon's Lagrangian is invariant under artificial gauge transformation ?
(Eq.13) Photon's Lagrangian is invariant under gauge transformation ( F → F' )
Inserting the artificial photon's gauge transformation of Eq.11 into the artificial photon's energy equation or Lagrangian (= FF ), this photon's Lagrangian is invariant ( this p.3 ).
↑ Of course, this photon's gauge transformation invariance is meaningless, because if they choose the same gauge transformation as the electron for the photon, this photon's Lagrangian invariance or symmetry is broken.
So the particular form of gauge transfomation is deliberately chosen to satisfy the gauge invariance, which is just an artificial trick, Not a universal physical principle at all.
(Eq.14) ↓ This unphysical gauge theory explains No detailed reason why photon is massless.
(Eq.15) Photon's mass term is not invariant under gauge transformation
(Eq.16) Photon's mass term is not invariant
The unphysical standard model claims that if the massless photon has the mass or the mass term (= AA ) in the original Lagrangian, this photon's mass term cannot be invariant under the artificial gauge transformation.
So this violation of gauge invariance or symmetry is the reason why the photon must be massless by eliminating the mass term ( this p.10, this p.2-last ).
↑ Thin nonphysical explanation based on imaginary gauge clarified No detailed mechanism or reason at all.
(Eq.17) ↓ Photon's gauge transformation is artificially chosen, Not universal.
But as I said, these gauge transformations are artificially created and chosen, because different gauge transformation breaks the gauge invariance or symmetry in the original photon's Lagrangian.
So "gauge transformation" has nothing to do with the actual physical phenomena which must be caused by more universal common principle irrespective of artificially-chosen forms of gauge.
(Eq.18) ↓ Nonphysical W boson mass term is given by fictitious Higgs ?
The unphysical standard model baselessly claims that the imaginary massive W boson mediating weak force must be massless, because the W boson mass term breaks gauge symmetry ( this p.1-first ) and cannot remove or rernormalize the infinities ( this p.2-2nd-paragarph, this p.14, this p.24 ).
Instead, the artificial Higgs field is supposed to give the artificial mass term to W boson by breaking the symmetry.
↑ This is self-contradictory, because they say W boson must be massless to keep gauge symmetry, but after all, Higgs must breaks this gauge symmetry to give mass. ← Gauge symmetry freely changing rules is a meaningless concept.
And this nonphysical abstract equation presents No detailed mechanism of how Higgs gives mass to other particles at all.
(Eq.19) ↓ Nonphysical intaraction between fictitious photon (= A ) and electron (= ψ )
The present particle physics or standard model has No power to explain the detailed physical mechanism of how particles interact with each other.
In this unphysical interaction (term) between fictitious photon (= A ) and electron (= ψ ), they just put these meaningless math symbols side by side, and say this may be the photon-electron interaction. ← nonsense.
Electrons (= c ), antiparticles (= d), and photons (= a ) are expressed as abstract math symbols with No physical figures.
(Eq.20) Unphysical anticommutation relation of electrons.
In the present nonphysical particle physics, these meaningless abstract math symbols allegedly expressing particles are important.
According to their artificial rule, only when a pair of a particle's creation operator (= c†, d†.. ) and an annihilation operator (= c, d .. ) are interchanged, the nonzero delta function (= δ ) is generated and contributing to the interaction equation ( this 15-4, this p.21-22 ).
(Eq.21) Nonphysical particle's creation (= c† ) and annihilation (= c ) operators
(Eq.22) Artificial rule
Combining the upper artificial particle's creation and annihilation rule of Eq.19-22, in beta decay, it is said that a neutron emits only (unseen) antineutrino instead of neutrino, though it is impossible to dinstinguish antineutrino and neutrino only by detecting neutrino (= elusive neutrino itself cannot be seen ).
So the fictitious antineutrino is just an artificially-created concept by this artificial rule of standard model.
(Eq.23) neutron (= n ) emits antineutrino (= bar-ν )
(Eq.24) Artificial rule defines antineutrino = antiparticle
(Eq.25) Artificial rule of standard model
(Eq.26) The directions of spin and momentum of each particle determine each particle (ex. electron ) is matrix or not ? ← artificial theory irrelevant to real particles.
Standard model claims that only left-handed electrons, quarks and neutrino can participate in weak interaction with fictitious W boson in beta decay ( this p.5-upper ).
↑ But this standard model's claim is paradoxical and wrong.
The left-handed means the electron is moving in the opposite direction from its spin direction.
Then, as seen from a observer moving in the same direction as the left-handed electron faster, this observer sees this left-handed electron as a right-handed electron whose moving direction is the same as its spin direction. ← paradox !
Ignoring this fatal paradox, the present standard model artificially decided that only the left-handed electrons , quarks, neutrinos should be expressed as nonphysical matrices (= called doublets ), the right-handed electrons and quarks should be expressed just as non-matrix numbers (= singlets ), and these two types of particles should experience different gauge transformations. ← ad-hoc rule ( this p.7, this p.3 ).
(Eq.27) Nonphysical matrix = electron ?
(Eq.28) conjugate transpose
According to the present unphysical relativistic quantum field theory or standard model, each electron must be expressed as nonphysical 4 × 1 matrix and its complex conjugate transpose (= 1 × 4 matrix ) in Dirac equation.
(Eq.29) Particle physics claims electrons have paradoxical mass term consisting of the nonphysical left-handed electron (= matrix ) and the right-handed electron (= non-matrix ). ← nonsense.
The present unphysical standard model makes an unscientific claim that all electrons (= fermions ) with masses must be massless ( this p.22-upper ), though electrons actually have masses.
The reason for such an unrealistic massless electron comes from the standard model's electron paradoxical mass term mixing the left-handed electron (= matrix ) and the right-handed electron (= non-matrix, this p.1-last ). ← This is just an artificial standard model's rule, Not representing the real electron's mass.
So this standard model's chimera-like electron mass term is not invariant under artificial gauge transformation, because the matrix left-handed electron and the non-matrix right-handed electron go through different kinds of gauge transformations ( this p.8 ).
Instead, fictitious Higgs is supposed to give this paradoxical electron's mass by breaking the symmetry.
↑ This unphysical Higgs mechanism is clearly useless and irrelevant to our real world phenomena.
(Eq.30) ↓ Weak force ? = gauge transformation has No physical meaning.
According to the current unphysical particle physics, the fictitious gauge (or phase ) transformation is said to be the most imporant factor governing the weak force and W bosons for beta decay.
Unfortunately, this gauge is unobservable, hence unphysical.
Gauge transformation for weak force is expressed as the nonphysical matrices incorporating Pauli matrices ( this p.15 ).
(Eq.31) Pauli matrices.
The complex conjugate transpose of SU(2) gauge transformation of Eq.30 becomes
(Eq.33) SU(2) local gauge transformation for weak force
We aim to get the invariant equation (or Lagrangian ) under the SU(2) gauge transformation of Eq.33.
The covariant derivative (= modified momentum derivative operator ) for weak force becomes
where σ is Pauli matrices.
Weak force covariant derivative of Eq.34 corresponds to Fig.2 of electromagnetic force.
To make Lagrangian of Eq.29 invariant (= symmetry ) under local gauge transformation, the following relation needs to be satisfied.
This complicated and ugly weak force gauge transformation corresponds to Eq.8 of the electromagnetic force.
Using Eq.33, Eq.34 and Eq.35,
To satisfy the relation of Eq.36, the nonphysical W' boson needs to satisfy
This complicated ugly SU(2) gauge transformation is said to govern fictional weak force through nonphysical W boson ( this p.2-upper, this p.6, this p.10 )
Using covariant derivetive of Eq.35 , the artificial electron (= ψ ) and weak-force (= W ) Lagrangian becomes
The last term of Eq.38 means the fictitious interaction term between fermions and weak bosons, which abstract unphysical equation tells us nothing about the detailed mechanism of weak force.
Next we consider the Lagrangian of only weak (= W ) bosons, which corresponds to Eq.11-12 of Lagrangian of photon or Maxwell equation.
Weak force Lagrangian is ugly and has No physical meaning.
The unphysical standard model tries to make the unphysical weak force Lagrangian similar to the electromagnetic photon's Lagrangian to extract some common gauge principle. But not common at all.
As seen in the upper Eq.39, the weak force Lagrangian is completely different and more complicated with excessive term (= W2W3- W3W2 .. ) than the electromagnetic case.
The photon's Lagrangian's antisymmetric tensor Fμν of Eq.11 can be expressed using the photon's covariant derivative (= D ) of Eq.9 like
(Eq.41) Gauge transformation invariance of artificial tensor F = F'
Using the artificial gauge transformation invariance equation for weak force of Eq.36, the standard model created the artificial weak force Lagrangian, which is invariant under weak force gauge transformation ( F = F' = invariant under gauge transformation, this p.10-11 )
Artificial weak force Lagrangian or F which is invariant under SU(2) gauge transformation becomes ( this p.2, this p.16
where the relation of Eq.40 in Pauli matrices is used.
(Eq.47) Nonphysical weak force Lagrangian is invariant under gauge transformation.
where Eq.42-Eq.46 are used.
↑ None of these fictitious weak force Lagrangian and gauge transformation represent real physical phenomena.
Weak force and W bosons are completely nonphysical concepts irrelevant to the real world.
(Eq.48) W boson mass term (= WW ) is not invariant under gauge transformation, so W boson must be massless ?
As I explain in Fig.16, the standard model claims that the (nonphysical) massive W boson's mass term is not invariant under the fictitious SU(2) gauge transformation, so W boson must be masssless ( this p.24, this p.14 ).
But None of these "mass term" and gauge transformation is related to the real physical objects.
(Eq.49) Nonphysical left-handed electron (= ψL ) and right-handed electron (= ψR )
Why does each electron with mass have to be masseless due to its unphysical mass term always mixing the left-handed and right-handed ?
According to nonphysical Dirac equation, the left-handed and right-handed electrons are expressed using the nonphysical γ5 matrix ( this p.6-7 ).
(Eq.50) Nonphysical γ matrices generate the paradoxical electron's mass term.
Due to the properties of these unphysical γ matrices, the electron's momentum derivative term and its mass term (= mc ) must have different electrons .
↑ It means the left-handed electron has the momentum of the left-handed electron (= ψL ) and the nonphysical math term containing the paradoxical right-handed electron (= ψR, this p.64-65, this p.16 ).
They claim this is why the electron must be massless discarding this paradoxical chimera mass term.
These nonphysical γ matrices explain nothing about the detailed mechanism of how electrons must be massless at all.
According to the present unphysical standard model, the imaginary weak force or W bosons are supposed to act only on the left-handed electrons, quarks and neutrinos.
So they artificially divided them, and describe only the left-handed fermions such as electrons (= eL ), quarks ( uL and dL are "left-handed up quark" and "left-handed down quark", respectively ) as nonphysical matrices, and the right handed fermons as non-matrix numbers ( uR is the right-handed up-quark )
(Eq.53) momentum derivative operator including W boson interaction
Eq.53 is the momentum derivative operator incorporating nonphysical W boson and a photon (= B ) intearction.
Using Eq.53, the fictitious interaction Lagrangian ( excluding mass term ) between electron (= ψ ) and W boson (= W) becomes
↑ This nonphysical ugly equation is supposed to describe the imaginry weak-force interaction between virtual W boson and electron ( this p.10-11 ).
(Eq.55) Nonphysical W± bosons involved in beta decay or weak force
(Eq.56) Nonphysical W± bosons
(Eq.58) W and Pauli matrices spawn nonphysical W± bosons ?
From the artificial replacement of the momentum derivative operator (= D ), the standard model defines the nonphysical W± bosons using Pauli matrices ( this p.27, this p.13 ).
(Eq.59) Fictitious Weinberg angle generates Z boson and photon ?
Standard model artificially created the Weinberg (= or weak mixing ) angle (= θW ) to generate the nonphysical weak-force Z boson and photon (= A ) from the original weak force covariant derivative ( this p.13, this p.32 (pr o,36 ) )
Using the artificial Weinberg angle of Eq.60, we have
Here they made new fictional concepts of the third component of the weak isospin (= T3 ) and weak hypercharge, which have nothing to do with quantum spin or electric charges.
(Eq.63) Weak hypercharge and weak isospins are unreal charges or spins.
(Eq.64) Artificially-created photon and Z boson interaction.
They introduced a new artificial definition of
Another artificial rule was introduced
They artificially defined the relation between the electric charge (= Q ) and the imaginary concepts of weak isospins (= T3 ) and hypercharge (= Y ) like
Using Eq.64 and Eq.65, we have
Using these artificial relations, the fictitious Z boson interaction becomes
Eq.69 allegedly means the interaction between Z boson and fermions ( this p.19-32, this p.14-16 ).
This fictitious Z boson weak binding force becomes
This fictitious angle of θw must be artificially adjusted from various experiments, as follows,
The unphysical standard model includes 18 free parameters, which can be obtained only from experiments ( NOT from the gauge theory itself ).
This angle θw, the binding constants of g and g' are included in these 18 parameters.
Of course, the masses of Higgs, W and Z bosons, leptons, fermions are all these free parameters, which can NOT be obtained from the standard model.
( As I said, these important values cannot be measured directly, they only "imagine" these dubious existences. )
So the standard model cannot predict any important values.
(Eq.72) Free zero-spin particle's Lagrangian
Imaginary Higgs boson is said to be a zero-spin scalar particle expressed as (failed) relativistic Klein-Gordon equation.
As shown in this, the sign of the normal mass term (= upper figure's red line ) in the relativistic Klein-Gordon's Lagrangian (= L = kinetic energy - mass term ) must be negative, which gives the normal positive mass term in the Hamiltonian energy (= kenetic energy + mass term ). ← Contradictory Higgs violates this basic mass relation, so false.
Lagrangian of Eq.72 is invariant under the phase (or gauge ) transformation of
Higgs uses the complex version of relativistic Klein-Gordon field of
(Eq.75) Higgs mass must be a contradictory imaginary mass.
One of the most serious problems in the unphysical Higgs particle is that Higgs must have an unreal imaginary mass (= im, this p.4-left-last, this p.2, this p.5 ), as shown in Eq.75 where the sign of mass term = square of φ is the opposite from the normal relativistic Klein-Gordon equation.
So Higgs mechanism of standard model is unrealistic and false.
Under the nonphysical complex gauge or phase transformation of
the unrealistic Lagrangian of Eq.75 is invariant.
The last two terms of Eq.75 can be changed into
The unrealistic mass term or pseudo-potential energy V of Eq.77 is the lowest
when φ1 and φ2 satisfy
If we define the next artificial variables (= η = unphysical Higgs boson ? ) of
The pseudo-potential V of Eq.77 becomes
As show in Eq.80, this unphysical scalar boson allegedly meaning Higgs (= η ) acquires the mass (term) whose sign is the same as the normal Klein-Gordon equation.
But instead of acquiring the fictitious mass (term), this artificial Higgs equation or Lagrangian is No longer invariant or symmetry under the gauge transformation ( this p.6 ), due to its complicated odd function of the field ( this p.3, this p.3 ).
So this Higgs mechanism is contradictory and wrong.
Because Higgs demands that gauge invariance or symmetry must be broken ( this p.26 ) in the standard model where the gauge symmetry should not be broken.
Next we apply the fictitious weak force SU(2) gauge transformation to artificial Higgs field in order to give the mass to massless W,Z weak bosons.
Here we define the nonphysical Higgs complex fields, as follows,
The unphysical Higgs scalar field is supposed to be a matrix form of
And this nonphysical Higgs Lagrangian is
The artificial Higgs Lagrangian with imaginary mass is invariant under the fictitious global SU(2) transformation of
And then we use the fictitious weak-force covariant derivative in Higgs Lagrangian.
Here we define the unrealistic Higgs scalar field pseudo-potential energy V as
Like Eq.77 when this pseudo-potential energy becomes the lowest, the complex scalar fields satisfy
The unphysical Higgs theory created and chose the imaginary Higgs vacuum as
The electric charge of this imaginary Higgs vacuum is supposed to be zero, as follows,
Here they use the fictional weak hypercharge (Y) and weak isospin of the vacuum of
Introducing the nonphysical Higgs field h(x), they redefine the imaginary Higgs field Φ, as follows,
where this abstract nonphysical math symbol h(x) is a famous Higgs particle.
Substituting Eq.91 into Eq.86 ( using Eq.77 ), the Higgs field pseudo-potential energy V is
As shown in the upper Eq.92, the nonphysical Higgs boson (= h ) breaks the gauge invariance symmetry due to its complicated odd function of h ( this p.3 ).
So the present particle physics based on the gauge symmetry, which must be broken by artificial Higgs, is inconsistent and wrong.
Using the weak-force covariant derivative of Fig.18, the artificial W± bosons of Fig.19, the unphysical Higgs boson and its Higgs vacuum of Eq.92, we have
Here we use
(W-)* = W+.
From Fig.21 and Fig.23,
Only from these meaningless equations, the unphysical standard model claims that the artificially-introducing Higgs field (= h ) breaking gauge symmetry can give the (unphysical) mass (term) like WW and ZZ to the fictitious weak-force W and Z bosons ( this p.21, this p.25, this p.3 ).
As seen here, the present particle physics or standard model is just an nonphysical theory full of the artificially-introuced fictional concepts.
(Eq.99) Unseen quarls are nonphysical math symbols.
According to the present unphysical particle physics, standard model and quantum chromodynamics (= QCD ), the unseen fractional-charge quarks and gluons allegedly mediating strong nuclear force are just nonphysical math matrices with No realistic figures ( this p.7, this p.3 ).
Also in these imaginary quarks and strong force, they impose the artificial rule = SU(3) gauge transformation ( this p.9 ) of
where the nonphysical matrices λ have eight kinds of
These λ matrices correspond to Pauli matrices of the weak force.
The unphysical complex conjugate transpose (= U† ) of U is
The covariant derivative of the fictional strong-force SU(3) version is
where G means the imaginary "gluon" fields.
The inner product of Eq.104 contains eight terms of
When the artificial quark Lagrangian is invariant under this unphysical gauge or phase transformation, the next relation needs to be satisfied
From Eq.107, Eq.106 needs the following condition of
Like Eq.40-, the antisymmetric tensor of SU(3) version is
The outer product of Eq.109 is eight dimensions, as follows,
Like Eq.41 and Eq.44, when we use the unphysical antisymmetric tensor of Eq.109, the next Lagrangian of gluons is invariant under SU(3) gauge transformation.
As seen here, the present particle physics has No ability to describe the detailed mechanism of how imaginary quarks interact through imaginary strong force or gluons.
All fictional particles in the standard model are expressed just as nonphysical math symbols with No physical shapes.
(Eq.113) "Quarks" are virtual.
The present particle physics and QCD make a contradictory claim that each nucleus or proton consists of three fractional-charge quarks (= up-up and down quarks ), but almost all the mass of the proton comes from the artificially-created different virtual sea quarks and gluons, Not from these three (valence) quarks ( this p.30 ).
Furthermore, those unseen quarks' masses are just freely-adjustable input parameters which are unobservable ( this p.1-left, this p.3 ).
And due to the strong coupling of quark-gluon interaction diverging to meaningless infinities, the ordinary perturbation calculation methods used in the standard model and QED such as the ad-hoc renomalization of infinites cannot be used ( this p.6, this p.15-last, this p.6-lower ).
So physicists had to violate Einstein relativistic Lorentz symmetry (= needs continuous spacetime ) to introduce the artificial fictional discrete space and imaginary time for describing the unseen quarks in the lattice QCD ( this p.2, this p.3 ).
So the standard model has already failed and broken down in the fictional strong force theory.
The present unphysical particle physics makes a contradictory claim that the unobservable fractional-charge quarks might have been discovered, though those imaginary quarks cannot be isolated or confirmed.
This dubious claim of experimental observation of those unseen quarks is based on the artificial assumption that quark's probability is roughly proportional to sum of unseen fractional charges (= though, fractional charges cannot be isolated ! ) inside the chaotic particle colliders, this ad-hoc speculation is is unreliable ( this p.18 ).
They ridiculously say that billions of irrelevant particle collisions are needed to produce only one (unseen) top quark ( this 7th-paragraph ). ← This disorderly, untidy particle collision chaotic experiments cannot be trusted at all.
Superstring and Loop quantum gravity ?
Standard model is just wrong.
SUSY is a waste of time and money. (14/5/1)
2022/8/18 updated. Feel free to link to this site.