(Q-1) Old vaccines, fantasy parallel-world ↓
Almost all the media (= controlled by lucrative fishy quantum technology industries ) are exaggerating the fictional potential of parallel-world quantum computers which are unfortunately the only hope of the current impractical deadend basic science = quantum mechanics into which a lot of research and taxpayers' money is constantly poured like "(fake) science Ponzi scheme."
For example, "Japan's alleged 1st commercial-use quantum computers (by Tokyo university using IBM machine )" is one of a lot of misleaing news intentionally exaggeraing the pie-in-the-sky quantum computers which are still Not computers or calculators at all.
If you carefully read this fishy news, you will notice this kind of "Ponzi scheme" news talks only about "imaginary future" of as-yet-unrealized quantum computers, using the uncertain future words such as "will."
The 8-9th paragraphs of this same news just vaguely says
"It is very significant that a base (for a quantum computer) has been set up in Japan as it will help nurture personnel who will be adept at actually operating it.."
"..He noted many technical challenges remain for the full-fledged operation of quantum computers."
↑ So the careful reading will make you notice this "intentionally-exaggerated" news talks only about imaginary future (= as seen in their frequent use of the dubious future word "will" ), and the alleged 1st "commercial quantum computer" is still useless, can do No meaningful calculations now.
It seems the leading company IBM likes to use the misleading word "commercial (= sounding good )" to desperately try to make the still-useless quantum computer "look" practical or promising.
This latest IBM quantum computer sent into Japan still has an extremely small number of bits or qubits = only 27 qubits (= this small number of bits cannot do any meaningful calculations, this 3rd paragraph ) for its very big and bulky body, like the company's recent machine sent to Germany.
↑ This latest IBM bulky quantum computer containing only 27 quantum bits or qubits in its room-size large space is far more inefficient and inferior to the current widely-used practical classical computer packing more than billions of bits or transistors into a very compact smartphone's space.
Each bit or qubit can take only the simple binary number = 0 or 1 states when each bit or qubit state is measured.
So the 27-qubit quantum computer consists only of the simple 27-bitstring, which cannot do any computations.
The as-yet-unrealized dreamlike practical quantum computers are said to need at least 1 million qubits (= far more than 27 qubits ! this 3rd paragraph, this 3rd paragraph ).
These latest quantum computers (= still Not computers ) with less than 100 qubits are far from dreamlike practical computers or calculators.
The 3rd-4th paragraphs of this news say a little more honestly
"Today, Google, IBM and others have built the first wave of quantum computers, but these systems are still in the early stages and aren’t yet running any useful commercial applications.."
".. the technology faces a number of challenges, and many industry experts believe these systems are still a decade away from being practical."
↑ They admit there are still No commercial (= practical ) quantum computers ( this last paragraph ), hence the sensationally-exaggerated news such as "1st commercial quantum computer comes !" turned out to be a big lie (= or IBM's definition of "commercial" seems to have too broad meaning, they tend to use "commercial" even in still-impractical quantum computers ).
Another recent exaggerated news showed IBM desperately tries to advertise their still-impractical quantum computers with too small a number of qubits to be practical, even by relying on fictional intangible God particles inside colliders, colluding with the infamous taxpayers' money-wasting organization = CERN.
This 7th-last paragraph says even the latest IBM quantum computer (= still Not a computer ) allegedly used for "estimating" imaginary Higgs (= detailed method is unclear ) had only 15 qubits (= too small number to compute any data ), which cannot do any meaningful calculations which need at least millions of qubits.
The practical large quantum computers with millions of qubits are impossible to realize because very fragile and unstable quantum bit or qubit state suffers many errors unlike the present practical classical computer which can manipulate billions of bits with almost No errors.
The 2nd paragraph of this news says
"But building a large quantum computer—one with thousands or millions of qubits is hard because qubits are very fragile. Small interactions with the environment can introduce errors and lead to failures. Detecting these errors is not straightforward.."
The 3rd paragraph of this latest news says
"The results arrived one week after Google published a paper in Nature Communications also showing logical qubits overpowering errors. Google's approach, however, didn't achieve full error correction: its method only could handle one of two error types at a time instead of both simultaneously, and it couldn't fix errors it detected. That's why Honeywell is claiming its full error correction achievement as a first."
↑ The current Google's 54 qubit quantum computer allegedly achieving controversial supremacy, which was denied by IBM, cannot do any precise calculations due to many fatal errors (= frequently occurring even in their very small number of qubits ) which cannot be fixed.
In the latest Nature paper, Google used only an extremely small number of bits = only 21 qubits out of 54 qubits (= because if they try to use all 54 qubits of their machine, much more irreparable errors would occur. this p.2 left ), and they could Not fix all errors occurring even in this very small 21 bitstring.
These frequently-occurring fatal errors are one of many reasons why all the present quantum computers including Google, IBM, China cannot do any practical calculations except for outputting random meaningless numbers.
The 5-7th paragraphs of the same news say
"Honeywell's technique marks a significant step in the development of quantum computers, which have the potential (= this vague future word means they still have Not realized anything ) to leapfrog ordinary computers in areas like materials science ?"
"..The trouble is all qubits can be easily perturbed, and calculations are derailed when they are. That's why quantum computers typically run at extremely low temperatures in vibration-proof housings."
".. Honeywell demonstrated its technique on its 10-qubit (= too small number of bits ! ) H1 quantum computer (= still Not a computer ). Seven of the qubits stored data while the remaining three "ancilla" qubits shepherded the error correction process."
↑ Honeywell's alleged quantum computer is still Not a computer or a calculator at all, because it just used only "10 unstably-floating ions" loosely trapped in artificial external electromagnetic fields as "10 qubits or 10-bitstring" linearly. ← This type using fragile floating ions as qubits can never make the ordinary robust stable 3-dimensional practical computer.
Actually, this 10-qubit Honneywell's dubious quantum computer did Not perform any computation ( this 7th-last paragraph ).
When the media uses the cool-sounding names such as "quantum computer", "quantum processor" or "quantum simulator", they are Not actual computers, processors or simulators at all. ← The intentionally-wrong use of phrases is rampant in the quantum computer news.
All they could do was output random meaningless numbers as bitstrings (= using only less than 100 qubits suffering many irreparable errors ) as seen in the recent Chinese team's allegedly "most powerful quantum computer" ( this 2nd paragraph ), which is useless for any practical purposes, because it cannot calculate anything.
Their world's largest quantum computer with still 62 qubits, which fall far short of the current practical classical computer with billions of bits, could only randomly and aimlessly flip each qubit, which meaningless task is called "random quantum walk."
The recent hot topic = time crystal is also a meaningless useless science which has nothing to do with perpetual machines or fantasy time travel.
(W-1) Unreal mainstream science proposed by ↓
Nobel prize-winning physicist Steven Weinberg died last week.
I'd like to express my sympathy on his passing except for his "science."
The problem is his passing was really a "colossal loss" to our "science" ?
His imaginary theories such as Big Bang and multiverse really affected our daily life ? Or is it just religion ?
Strangely, most people do Not know "what science" such a great and famous Weinberg had actually achieved in detail for the extensive media coverage. ← The media and academia are hiding inconvenient truth about "science" advocated by Weinberg ?
Weinberg has passed away, stubbornly keeping shutting his eyes to truth and serious problems underlying the present paradoxical mainstream physics called quantum mechanics.
The 2nd-3rd paragraphs of this news explain the outline of fictitious theory Weinberg proposed half a century ago, and amazingly his nonphysical ancient theory irrelevant to the real physical world is still unchanged and left as a pillar to the present mainstream physics with No progress.
"His work was foundational to the Standard Model, the overarching physics theory that describes how subatomic particles behave. .. he predicted how subatomic particles known as W, Z and the famous Higgs boson (= aka God particle ) should behave."
".. The paper also helped unify the electromagnetic force and the weak force.. ?"
Out of nowhere, Weinberg proposed the unfounded theoretical model allegedly unifying electromagnetic and weak forces using Higgs boson (= these pseudo-particles exist only in their armchair theory or theoretical physicists' heads Not in the real world ) together with Glashow and Salam.
First of all, what exactly is "weak force" suddenly proposed by Weinberg ?
In fact, this elusive esoteric weak force is just an useless unphysical concept Not worth thinking about, because the weak force is said to be involved only in some particle decay (= detailed mechanism of how weak force is involved in particle dacay is unclear ) unlike ordinary forces pushing or pulling particles.
The weak force or weak interaction is said to be extremely short-range force, and so we do Not experience or use it in every-day life. ← Such an intangible weak force Not affecting daily life is a meaningless force.
In beta decay, a neutron is said to split into a proton and an extremely heavy Weak (or W ) boson which further decays into an electron and a (anti-)neutrino. ← This ambiguous whole decay "process" is called "(unseen) weak force" which is directly unmeasurable and intangible unlike ordinary forces.
↑ Such an intangible Weinberg's weak force is a scientifically and practically meaningless concept which cannot be utilized for daily life or useful technology.
This weak force is not only useless but also unrealistic and self-contraditory, which inconvenient fact shows the current particle physics based on standard model is false.
The hypothetical W or weak boson mediating the weak force or neutron beta decay is said to be extremely heavy = more than 80 times heavier than a proton or a neutron (= a neutron's mass is almost the same as a proton's mass ).
This neutron decay allegedly mediated by the speculative weak force is physically impossible, because a very lighter neutron can Not emit a much heavier weak boson (= 80 times heavier than a neutron ) in beta decay.
Weinberg's unrealistic beta decay = A less massive neutron emits a much more massive weak boson which is 80 times heavier than the original neutron.
↑ physically impossible because his theory makes a ridiculous claim that smaller energy (= a lighter neutron ) has to emit much higher energy (= a heavier weak boson ), which violates energy conservation law.
To hide this fatal defect in the current particle physics, physicists make a poor excuse that such an unrealistically heavy weak or W boson is Not a real particle but an unreal virtual particle with imaginary (= not real ) mass, which cannot exist in the real world ( this p.2 last ).
Such a nonphysical virtual W boson particle's mass is called off-mass shell, which means the virtual particle's fictitious mass, which can be imaginary, disobeys famous Einstein mc2 relation ( this p.3, this p.6 ).
The real weak or W boson, which is said to be 80~90 times heavier than a proton or a neutron, is too short-lived (= W boson's life time is only 10-25 s ) to directly observe, and such a ghost-like unstable real W boson is said to appear transiently only inside the virtual circumstances of high-energy colliders which have No connection with the outside real world.
The 5th-last paragraph of this site says
"In typical neutrino interactions, a “virtual (= unreal )” W/Z boson is produced, which means it cannot be detected even in principle. However, in the case of the Glashow resonance, a real W– boson was produced. While charged, it’s lifetime is incredibly short, so we were only able to detect it through its decay products (= detecting an extremely short-lived W boson itself is impossible )."
They claim the real weak boson is unobservable due to its extremely short-lived and unstable property, hence, the dubious existence of such a ghost-like weak boson (= even if it really existed ) has to be speculated only from the irrelevant final-product particles (= electrons or lights ) into which a dubious weak boson is said to decay.
Of course, the unreal virtual weak boson, which is said to be involved in the ordinary neutron decay outside the collider, is also undetectable, ghost-like too.
A very heavy and short-lived real weak (or W ) boson, which allegedly appears for an extremely short time only inside the high-energy colliders has nothing to do with actual neutron beta decay outside the colliders where unreal virtual weak boson is said to appear (= only inside particle physicists' imagination or daydream ).
↑ It's impossible that the ghost-like, unstable real or unreal virtual weak bosons can be useful for our actual technology or innovation, hence, Weinberg's fictional virtual weak boson or force theory made No contribution to the world's practical science in the past and future.
Then, what does the Weinberg's unfounded claim of unifying such an unrealistic electro-weak force mean ?
He tried to theoretically "unify" electric and fictitious weak forces using purely-nonphysical concepts called "gauge or SU(2) symmetry".
The problem is these abstract concepts such as "gauge", "gauge symmetry" and "SU(2) symmetry"are completely unphysical, unobservable ( this p.7 ) with No relation to the real world's objects, hence they are scientifically meaningless concepts.
In 1928, Dirac introduced the completely nonphysical impractical equation and theory called quantum field theory or quantum electrodynamics (= QED ) which allegedly combined quantum mechanics and Einstein's special relativity.
In the quantum field theory or quantum electrodynamics, each electron is expressed as an abstract, unphysical math symbols called "field (= ψ )" which abstract meaningless symbols give No concrete physical picture of an electron and particles (= quantum field theory tells us nothing about detailed electron's behavior or underlying mechanism of what's going on ).
The 4th-6th paragraphs of this site says
"In modern physics, we no longer describe what is happening merely through the position of objects at a given time,.. we use abstract objects called fields."
".. The fields themselves are abstract mathematical (= unphysical ) entities that are introduced as convenient mathematical tools.. With these new mathematical entities comes a new kind of freedom."
".. The freedom to "shift" or "rotate" our fields is called gauge symmetry. It is important to note that this symmetry is completely independent from the rotational and translational symmetry of our coordinate systems. When we "shift" or "rotate" a field we do not refer to anything in spacetime."
↑ Physicists suddenly introduced unphysical vague concepts such as "phase (= θ )" or "gauge" without specifying what they actually mean, and tried to change or tweak the original nonphysical abstract "Dirac equation combining an electron and photon fields" by such a meaningless phase and gauge which are unmeasurable.
If the whole abstract quantum field theory's equation allegedly defining some unspecified law of physics is unchanged or invariant under this unphysical gauge or phase shift or transformation, this mathematical invariance is called "gauge symmetry", which has nothing to do with the real world's objects.
When this unphysical gauge symmetry was extended to the artificially-introduced math concept of 2 × 2 matrices allegedly incorporating unseen quarks or W bosons as unphysical math operators, it is called "SU(2) symmetry ( this p.3, this p.9-10 )"
According to this Weinberg's ad-hoc desk theory, when the whole abstract quantum field equations are unchaged under unphysical phase or gauge transformation (= called gauge invariance or symmetry ), all gauge bosons including photon and weak bosons must be massless, which disagreed with their massive weak boson model.
So in order to give "fictitious mass" to the heavy weak or W boson, another unphysical armchair theory called "Higgs mechanics" was invented.
This Higgs or Weinberg theory can give No detailed physical mechanism of how Higgs particle interacts with W bosons or other particles, instead, such an impractical theory just presents very abstract meaningless equations or diagrams ( this p.5, this p.4 ) without clarifying what those math symbols or paleography mean.
According to their desk theory, Higgs is said to give mass to weak boson by purely-nonphysical mechanism called "breaking electro-weak or gauge symmetry", which fictional mechanism has No physical meaning ( this p.2 ).
So in the present quantum field theory, all particles such as electrons and photons are expressed just as unphysical field operators with No concrete physical figures.
→ When transforming such an unphysical field (= allegedly representing particles ) by unphysical phase or gauge does not change the abstract quantum field equation, it is called "gauge or SU(2) symmetry" which requires the heavy weak or W boson to be massless.
→ In order for the weak boson to have fictitious mass, the unphysical symmetry must be broken by artificially adding ad-hoc Higgs field or mechanism to the original equation.
↑ All these armchair concepts such as abstract phase, gauge, SU(2) symmetry, Higgs mechanism of breaking symmetry or something have nothing to do with our real world objects, hence, theose symmetries, gauge and phase are completely unnecessary and useless concepts for us.
Actually, though 40 years or 10 years have already passed since Weinberg's elusive W boson or Higgs were said to be discovered (= Correctly, very unstable W and Higgs boson cannot be detected directly ), those unseen ghost-like W and Higgs are still useless except for getting Nobel prize or selling sci-fi books, just wasting taxpayers' money in gigantic colliders
The mathematical empty quantum field theory or quantum electrodynamics (= QED ) have been impractical, losing touch with reality, from the beginning.
Actually nobody around you uses this useless quantum field theory or QED in daily life.
There are serious problems in quantum field theory or QED which show the present mainstream theory, which has unreasonably dominated the academic world for a long time, is wrong.
According to the ridiculous QED, any real electrons cannot emit or absorb real photons, instead, electrons must always interact with unreal virtual photons descibed by unphysical abstract Feynman diagram which abstract model tells us nothing about detailed physical mechanism in particle physics.
The fantasy quantum field theory or QED claims the vaccum space must contain infinite numbers of unreal virtual particles with infinite kinds of energy and momentum (= virtual photons with infinite energies must unrealistically exist in the space ).
Due to these infinite unreal virtual particles with infinite fictitious energies, all calculations of quantum field theory or QED always diverge to infinity. ← Infinite values given by QED are physically-meaningless and cannot be used to describe actual finite physical values ( this p.4 ).
Eliminating such a ridiculous infinity by artificially restricting infinite virtual photons or particles allegedly popping up in space to finite energies is impossible. because virtual particles whose energies are restricted to finite values violate Einstein relativistic Lorentz symmetry ( this 14-15th paragraphs ).
According to ridiculous Einstein relativity, there is No absolute space or frames, all things and their motions must be relative ( the velocity or kinetic energy of each particle is Not an absolute value but a fictionally uncertain relative value changing seen by different observers moving at different speeds ).
In such a counter-intuitive Einstein relativistic world, the maximum energy or momentum of virtual particles must be always infinite (= virtual particles' energies must be from -∞ to +∞ ).
↑ If the maxium energy of virtual particles is a finite value instead of infinity, the particle's finite maximum energy or velocity would change in different frames seen by different observers moving at different speeds (= the particle's kinetic energy or velociy changes seen by different observers moving at different velocities in Einstein relativistic world ).
→ When the maximum energy or velocity of virtual particles is infinite, the maximum energy or velocity of virtual particles looks always infinite seen by any different observers moving at different finite velocities (= Infinite energy or velocity ± finite energy or velocity by observer's motion = Infinite energy or velocity = unchanged, = ∞ ± finite values remains ∞ ), which unchanged infinite property is called "relativistic Lorentz symmetry". ← again, stupid "symmetry" rule.
But infinite virtual particles' energies always give meaningless infinite physical values which are completely useless, so physicists had to eliminate such an annoying infinity even by relying on unrealistic dishonest methods.
To remove this unrealistic infinite energies of virtual particles, the current mainstream physics makes a ridiculous claim that the (unseen) bare charge and mass of an electron must be negatively-infinite so that the (unseen) negatively-infinite bare charge and mass of an electron could absorb infinite virtual particle's energies to give some finite observable values, which ad-hoc trick of artificially cancelling infinity is called "renormalization ( this p.14 )."
↑ There is a serious self-contradiction in this QED unrealistic trick of removing virtual particle's infinite energy by another artificially-introduced infinite bare charge or mass of an electron to obtain finite observed physical values by force. Hence, QED is wrong.
Because even after removing the vaccum infinity allegedly caused by infinite virtual photons by getting the negatively-infinite bare charge or mass of an electron to absorb the vacuum virtual particle's infinity, the vacuum must always contain other infinite virtual photons with infinite energies, which pop up one after another endlessly, as long as the vacuum contains electromagnetic fields or photons.
→ Accroding to QED, all observed values involving electromagnetic fields (= electromagnetic fields are allegedly caused by unreal virtual photons according to the current stupid quantum field theory ) must always be infinite !
This quantum field theory or QED ad-hoc trick of artificially removing and hiding infinite virtual particles under the rug was criticized by many great physicists including QED founders.
The current only unified theory allegedly incorporating general relativity and quantum field theory is the so-called fantasy 10-dimensional string theory.
The string theory or "theory or everything (= sounding good )" evolved from the previous ridiculous 26-dimensional string to the present 10-dimensional superstring (= still ridiculous ) incorporating another unphysical concept called "supersymmetry."
This supersymmetry is also an unrealistic meaningless concept based on unphysical artificial transformation between imaginary particles and supersymmetric particles which math objects have No relation to our real world ( this p.12 ), like Weinberg's meaingless gauge or phase symmetry concepts.
Math equations are invariant under unphysical gauge or phase transformation. ← It is called gauge or SU(2) symmetry ← electroweak force ?
Math equations are invariant under unphysical supersymmetric transformation (= particle ↔ supersymmetric particle or boson ↔ fermion ). ← It is called supersymmetry. ← fantasy 10-dimentional superstring unified theory ?
Why did the current mainstream physics go in such a wrong, unscientific and ridiculous direction ?
All these problems originate in the present unrealistic mainstream theory called quantum mechanics which has been useless in any modern technology, hence, physicsts were forced to make up new imaginary future technology = fantasy parallel world quantum computers.
Such an useless impractical basic physics = quantum mechanics clearly obstructs developing truly effective drugs or treatment in applied science or medicine due to its contradictory atomic model.
As a result, the very old technique = vaccine, which just relies on unpredictable whimsical natural immune system for generating uncertain antibodies, has been the only choice for tackling viruses for an exremely long time = more than 200 years. ← Amazingly, human's medical basic technology stops progressing for a long time due to fantasy quantum mechanics.
The useless basic quantum mechanics prevents developing any effective drugs, so all countries have to rely on such a very ancient uncertain vaccine technique.
↑ The miserable fact that such a very old technique vaccine is the current only choice for tackling viruses and even cancers ( due to the stalled basic physics ) enables vaccine industries to easily gather a tremendous amount of research and "science" money from the world.
And thanks to these enormous amount of taxpayers' "science" money, the lucrative pharmaceutical, healthcare companies tend to have large political power controlling the world's media, social media and even the so-called "scientists" for pushing the world's politicians to impose vaccine mandate despite people's opposition and the dwindling effectiveness of vaccines.
Nobel prize winning Weinberg died without clarifying what the unphysical virtual particle, gauge symmetry mean, and his ad-hoc armchair electroweak unification theory lacking concrete physical picture still dominates the present mainstream science, and clearly obstructing our truly useful technological innovation and medicine.
Weinberg unphysical quantum field theory → Basic physical theory makes No progress stuck in unphysical concepts → Developing effective drugs using practical atomic model is impossible now. → Very old unpredictable vaccine is the only choice, so the pharmaceutical companies tend to spend the most of their money for promoting it and pressure politicians to impose its mandates which caused the fierce opposition and confusion across the world.
If the mask mandate has to be reintroduced to contain the mutant viruses sooner or later, what's the point of rushing to impose vaccine mandates ?
The so-called "science" is just a political tool which is unreliably and conveniently changing, repeating false predictions ? ← "Listen to ( fishy mainstream ) sceince" seems to be no longer valid.
(N-1) Harvard's fake quantum simulator in ↓
People tend to be misled by "fancy scientific words" such as "computer", "programmable", "simulator" and blindly believe any objects with such fancy names may be the state-of-the-art technology, even when they are just a meaningless crap.
Vaccines are also less effective than general public expectation. ← Academia, the so-called "scientists" colluding with corporations are hiding truth ?
This bad tendency is most often seen in an incredibly number of fake news popping up almost everyday promoting fantasy parallel-world quantum computers as if they represented the (fake) state-of-the-art future technology.
Most people don't know the quantum computer is still Not a computer or calculator at all.
It is impossible for such a fake quantum computer with an extremely small number of bits or qubits to simulate any actual matter's phenomena by calculating complicated atomic interactions using computer programming which will need at least billions of bits or qubits, as seen in the current widely-used practical classical computers.
For example, the recent Chinese team's 62-qubit world's largest "quantum computer" or alleged "programmable processor" can do No meaningful calculations or programming ( only using such a very few 62-bitstring ) except for randomly flipping each bit or qubit, which meaningless chaotic task is called "random quantum walk."
Their 66-qubit allegedly-fastest "quantum processor" also cannot do any practical computations except for outputting random meaningless numbers in a similar way to Google's 53-qubit quantum computer's supremacy ( this 2-3 paragraphs. ), which quantum advantage was denied by IBM.
As you see, even the current largest quantum computers (= still Not a computer, though ) have only 50~60 bits or qubits which are far smaller and inferior to widely-used practical classical computers with more than billions of bits or transistors (= one bit or qubit is in the state 0 or 1 when observed ).
Such a fake computer with the fancy name "quantum computer" with only an impractically small number of quantum bits or qubits can never perform meaningful calculations, programming or simulation.
Despite these miserable facts of the completely useless quantum computers, a lot of misleading news such as scientific american (= one of Nature journal group ) tries to exaggerate the illusory quantum computer's potential to stimulate unnecessary competition among countries so that governments waste more taxpayers' money in fruitless fantasy science which prevents developing truly-effective drugs.
Does it have anything to do with all the current prestigious academic journals Nature and Lancet unreasonably rushing to deny Chinese-lab leak virus idea as 'conspiracy theory', while it still remains uncertain ?
Recently, Harvard and MIT made a dubious claim "Towards quantum computing: Physicists surpass (← ? ) current supercomputers with new programmable simulator ?", which was published in the latest top journal Nature.
↑ This eye-catching misleading title shows a typical example of the current exaggerated news falsely treating an still-impractical quantum computer, which can neither calculate, program nor simulate, as a "(fake) programmable simulator".
If you carefully read these exaggerated dubious news, you will notice their so-called quantum computers are still Not computers or calculators, and their researches still have Not achieved anything meaningful.
The 2nd paragraph of the same news says
"The experts also hope that quantum computers will be applied to material science studies, real-world communication engineering,.. Harvard-MIT experts are confident that the performance of the programmable quantum simulator will surpass the supercomputers present today ?"
↑ So the careful reading will make you notice this sensational-sounding news uses only "uncertain future words" such as "will" and "hope", which means their so-called quantum computers are still useless, achieving No meaningful programming or simulation now except in an imaginary future (= surpassing the present supercomputers is a lie ).
Then, what on earth has this Harvard's seeming quantum computer or simulator done in this Nature paper ?
The 8th-9th paragraphs of this news explains
"The project uses a significantly upgraded version of a platform the researchers developed in 2017, which was capable of reaching a size of 51 qubits (← a very small number of bits ! ). That older system allowed the researchers to capture ultra-cold rubidium atoms and arrange them in a specific order using a one-dimensional array of individually focused laser beams called optical tweezers."
".. This new system allows the atoms to be assembled in two-dimensional arrays of optical tweezers. This increases the achievable system size from 51 to 256 qubits (= still too small number to calculate anything ! ). Using the tweezers, researchers can arrange the atoms in defect-free patterns and create programmable shapes like square, honeycomb, or triangular lattices to engineer different interactions between the qubits." ← No mention of calculating any values.
↑ All they did was arrange only 256 cold neutral rubidium atoms using laser beams called optical tweezers which can push each atom by the pressure of laser light. ← No meaningful programming or computation contrary to their misleading narrative.
Arranging atoms in a certain pattern using laser light corresponds to their "(fake) programming" which have nothing to do with the ordinary computer programming for calculating something. ← This so-called 256-atomic qubit quantum computer has done No calculations or real programming, hence, completely useless.
Why did physicists falsely try to consider this arrangement of 256 atoms in a certain meaningless shape, which has nothing to do with actual computation or programming, as a (fake) quantum computer ?
Quantum mechanics tries to use each atom or ion as a quantum bit or qubit where the lowest-energy ground state is treated as "0" bit state and the excited state is treated as "1" state.
↑ But such very fragile atomic energy levels or states are too unstable and uncontrollable to use for actual practical computer's stable bits which require the precision with No errors.
This incredibly fragile property is one of many reasons why (fantasy) quantum computers will be impractical forever.
A rubidium atom is called "Rydberg atom" whose highly excited energy-state (= such a highly-excited electron's orbital radius can be very long ) is said to be used as one of (future) quantum bit or qubit states.
But such an excited atomic energy state is extremely short-lived, fragile and unstable (= the lifetime of this type of quantum computer or qubit is only 600 microseconds, easily broken and impractical ).
So this kind of quantum computer using fragile atomic energy excited states as a bit or qubit state will never be a practical stable computer, much less outperform the current widely-used practical classical computers which use stored electric charges as a stable bit state with almost-infinite lifetime.
This Harvard's alleged 256-qubit quantum computer is Not a robust ordinary solid computer but an intangible gas-like fake computer consisting of 256 fragile cold atoms loosely trapped in (fictitious) optical lattice made of unstable laser light (= unlike ordinary robust solid crystals ), which frail structure can never make a stable or practical computer.
Unlike robust solid materials, this fragile optical lattice made just by intangible laser light is too unstable to keep each atom as a quantum bit or qubit in the fixed position for a long time, hence their quantum computer consisting of fragile floating atoms unstably trapped in light is far more easily broken than the ordinary stable solid-type classical computer. ← Practical calculation is impossible to perform in such a fragile, easily-broken quantum computer.
The 2nd paragraph of this news says
"In order for Rydberg atoms to be effectively used in quantum technology, however, researchers first need to be able to trap them. While a number of studies have demonstrated the trapping of Rydberg atoms using magnetic, electric, or laser technology, the trapping times achieved so far have been relatively short, typically around 100μs."
↑ Unlike the ordinary stable solid computer, it is impossible for the very fragile laser light to trap or hold multiple atoms for more than 100 microseconds, because atoms easily slip out of the fragile optical lattice and fly away somewhere else ( this 4th paragraph, this 2nd paragraph ).
The very unstable property of this type of quantum computer which just loosely traps 256 atoms in weak laser light, is the reason why many major companies such as IBM, Google and Intel aiming at robust solid-type quantum computers tend to avoid this fragile gas-like floating Rydberg atomic quantum computers which will never be put to practical use ( like other quantum computers ).
Using this very fragile impractical quantum computer (= still Not a computer, though ), what did Harvard's physicists claim to have performed ?
The 4th-last and 3rd-last paragraphs of this news avoid showing the detailed task of what this fishy quantum computer has actually done. ↓
".. The researchers are currently working to improve the system by improving laser control over qubits and making the system more programmable (← ? ). They are also actively exploring (= progressive form, so has Not acheived anything ) how the system can be used for new applications, ranging from probing exotic forms of quantum matter (= vague expression ! ) to solving challenging real-world problems that can be naturally encoded on the qubits ?"
".. This work enables a vast number of new scientific directions, Ebadi said. We are nowhere near the limits of what can be done with these systems."
↑ As you see, this research allegedly using 256-qubit quantum computer has just moved and arranged atoms in a certain meaningless pattern using laser light.
No mention of what their computation or programming means in detail.
In this still-useless research of fake quantum computer, what does their "vague simulation" or "probing quantum matter" mean ?
They try to rely on a meaningless analogy and falsely associate the real solid materials where many atoms and electrons tightly bound by Coulomb electric force with this fictitious optical lattice or artificial fake crystal which just unstably traps separate neutral atoms using intangible laser lights.
↑ Though these two things of actual robust solid materials and fragile separate atoms loosely trapped in laser light are completely different and irrelevant things using completely different mechanisms of binding atoms (= actual solid material uses strong Coulomb force for tightly binding atoms, while this fake quantum computer uses weak laser light for loosely trapping floating neutral atoms ).
Separate floating atoms unstably arranged and trapped in laser lights = a fake solid material consisting of atoms and electrons strongly bound by Coulomb electric forces ?
↑ This meaningless analogy is what they call "(fake) quantum simulation of imaginary (solid) quantum matter", though these two things are completely different and irrelevant things based on different mechanisms.
So their "quantum simulation or simulator" is just a meaningless concept unrealistically equating 256-neutral atoms loosely trapped in laser lights with completely different irrelevant robust solid materials or crystals where all atoms are tightly bound to each other.
This means their claim of "programmable quantum processor" based on fake simulation also has nothing to do with the actual programmable processor or computer as you imagine in the current practical classical computer.
The 2nd paragraph of this site says
"The team performed quantum logic operations on clusters of two or three closely spaced rubidium atoms held individually in optical tweezers. The atoms became entangled when one of them was excited by a laser into a Rydberg state—a state where the outermost electron is highly energized."
"..This transition also prevented the atom’s neighbors from being excited at the same time, a situation that is essential for creating logic gates (← ? ) comprising two and even three quantum bits (qubits)."
↑ When one rubidium atom is excited to higher-energy Rydberg state (= supposed to be 1-bit state ), this excited electron's Coulomb repulsion prevents the neighboring atoms from being excited to the same higher-energy state ( this 2nd paragraph ), instead, this neighboring atoms are forced to remain in the original lowest-energy ground state (= supposed to be 0-bit state ).
This simple electron-electron Coulomb repulsion blocking their neighboring atoms from being excited (= called Rydberg blockade ) is what they call "(fake) quantum computer", "processor" or "logic gate", which can do No meaningful calculations except for simply blocking neighboring atoms from being excited.
The 5th paragraph of this site explain why this meaningless fragile system can be used as a (fake) simulator of other irrelevant solid material.
"A recent development is the use of Rydberg atoms to realize and explore the physics of strongly correlated spin systems.. the electronic ground state (= 0 ) can be regarded as the down state and the Rydberg level (= excited state, 1 ) as the up state of a pseudospin.."
So they falsely try to consider the lowest-energy ground state of the rubidium atom as pseudo-spin-down state (= 0 ↔ ↓ ) and the excited Rydberg state as pseudo-spin-up state (= 1 ↔ ↑ ) of other irrelevant imaginary magnetic materials such as anti-ferromagnets ( this 4th paragraph ).
Due to Rydberg blockage or Coulomb repulsion between excited electrons, neighboring atoms close to the excited atoms (= 1 or ↑ ) remain in the ground state (= 0 or ↓ ), which can be associated with a fake anti-ferromagnetic material where (imaginary) spin-up and down atoms alternate like checkerboad ( this middle, this p.2 right, Fig.2, this Figure 1 ).
↑ This meaningless attempt to falsely treat the alternately-excited floating atoms loosely trapped in laser lights as irrelevant antiferromagnetic solid crystals consisting of pseudo-spins is what they call "(fake) quantum computer's simulation" which actually neither calculated nor simulated actual materials.
The point is all these Harvard paper's seeming computer-related words such as "quantum computer" and "programmable quantum sumulator" have nothing to do with actual practical computer's programming or simulation. ↓
256-qubit quantum computer ? = 256 floating atoms loosely trapped in laser light.
Programmable ? = Unstably-floating 256 atoms are movable by laser light.
Simulation ? = false interpretation of 256 atoms loosely trapped in light as a fictitious solid crystal such as anti-ferromagnet with pseudo-spins.
As I said, their "programmable" does Not mean typing some program language and executing its calculations in real computers, but their fake programming just means "moving and arranging 256 atoms pushed by laser light" without any computation.
This is why the 2nd paragraph of this news just vaguely says
"The system marks a major step toward building large-scale quantum machines that could be used to shed light on a host of complex quantum processes and eventually help bring about real-world breakthroughs in (fake) material science."
↑ They just used "uncertain future phrases" such as "could" and "a step toward (imaginary) large-scale quantum computers" without mentioning what this fake 256-qubit quantum computer has achieved in detail.
Because their impractical quantum computer (= still Not a computer ) with a very small number of fragile qubits has done No useful calculation, programming or simulation.
Infinite "steps" seem to be needed to realize their so-called (imaginary) large-scale quantum computers which require at least millions of qubits from the present miserably small number of qubits (= only 50 ~ 100 qubits ), which can actually do No practical computation.
The media and journals should Not use misleading phrases such as "scalable or large-scale quantum computers !" so easily, while the present useless quantum computers are still far from it (= or realization of practical large-scale quantum computers will be impossible forever ).
(P-1) Quantum mechanics is useless as ↓
Quantum mechanical molecular orbital theory has fatal flaws, cannot explain intermolecular interactions such as Pauli repulsion and van der Waals attraction.
(S-1) Unfair conditions cause fake quantum ↓
IBM's quantum computer's alleged first advantage was published in the latest Nature physics.
↑ Unfortunately, this fishy quantum advantage has nothing to do with a faster quantum computer than a classical computer, so a meaningless quantum advantage claim.
The trick is they compared their alleged quantum computer (= still Not a computer, though ) with "restricted (or limited ) classical computer", Not with normal classical computers.
Contrary to the eye-catching (fake) news, this latest IBM quantum computer used too small a number of qubits (= only 3~6 qubits, this 9th paragraph ) to execute calculations, making the company's bold plans of 1000 qubits by 2023 unrealistic.
What on earth has this latest IBM's quantum computer with only 3~6 quantum bits or qubits done as an evidence for dubious quantum advantage ?
The 4th paragraph of this news says
"Two limited-space circuits were built, one quantum and one classical, with only one bit or qubit available for computation and result storage. The task programmed into the circuits consisted of finding the majority out of three input bits, returning zero if more than half of the bits are zero, and one if more than half of the bits are one."
↑ In this very simple operation, IBM tried to find the majority within three input bits (= A, B, C ).
When more than one (or half ) bits of these three input bits are "1", it outputs "1", and when more than one bits of the three input bits is "0", it outputs "0".
( When two A,B input bits are "1", and the remaining C bit is "0", the output is "1" )
When there is only one output bit, the classical computer's bit cannot judge this majority.
Because in order to judge which bit state "1" or "0" holds the majority within three A,B,C bits, the output bit needs to distinguish three different states or numbers (= 0, 1, 2 ) which is impossible in the ordinary classical bit that can distinguish only two bit states (= 0 or 1 ).
When all three input A,B,C bits are "0", the output bit is supposed to be "0".
When one of three input bits is "1", the output bit is supposed to be "1".
When two (or three ) of three input bits are "1", the output bit is supposed to be "2"
Judging the majority out of three input bits needs at least three output classical computer's bits, as shown in this figure lower ( this p.13 ).
On the other hand, the current superconducting quantum computer's bulky and very big qubit can distinguish more than two different states not only 0 or 1 bit states.
Each superconducting qubit consists of a big (classical) circuit of ordinary capacitors and inductors where many electrons are flowing and unstably oscillating inside the circuit.
Microwave pulse is designed to distinguish not only the ordinary 0 or 1 qubit state but also its unstably-oscillating "phase" such as negative 1 (= -1 ).
It means one output qubit, which can distinguish more than two different bit states (= 0, 1, -1 ) including the unstably-oscillating "phase or electron's motions", is said to be able to judge which bit state 0 or 1 holds the majority within three input A,B,C qubits.
↑ This shows quantum computer's advantage or speed-up ? No.
Contrary to the IBM's claim, this comparison between quantum and classical computers is Not fair at all.
Because the size of one bulky superconducting qubit or artificial atom (= ~ 1 mm big ! ) is far bigger than one extremely-tiny and compact classical computer's bit (= only less than 50 nm ).
So the space of one big superconducting quantum bit or qubit can contain more than 1000000 tiny classical computer's bits.
Even IBM's latest 27-qubit quantum computer sent to Germany is as big as this, despite its very small number of qubits.
Even if each bulky IBM's quantum computer's bit can distinguish 3~4 different bit states including its subtle phase difference, more than 1000000 classical compact bits contained in the same space as one big qubit can distinguish more than 1000000 different states !
Distinguishing only 3~4 bit states of bulky quantum computers vs. distinguishing more than 1000000-bit states of compact classical computers.
↑ The current widely-used classical computer is far better, faster, more energy-efficient and stable than the unstable bulky slower quantum computer.
A lot of compact, tiny classical (output) bits contained in one bulky qubit's space can judge which number 0 or 1 state holds the majority within more than 1000000 input bits, Not only three A,B,C input bits. ← No quantum computer's advantage.
If we add some expensive special devices to the classical computer in order to distinguish the subtle difference in stored charges in each classical bit or capacitor, even the present tiny classical bit can distinguish more than two different states depending on the amount of stored charges, and judge the majority out of three input bits without problems.
But we do Not need to add such an expensive unnecessary equipment or devices to the current efficient, compact and stable classical computer's bit.
For the awkwardly big quantum computer's bit to distinguish the subtle phase difference of each qubit's state, the qubit becomes very unstable, fragile, and needs very large expensive equipments to distinguish such a fragile qubit's state.
As a result, the space occupied by one bulky quantum computer's bit needs to be far larger than that of a tiny compact classical computer's bit. ← This is the trick.
The latest IBM doubtful quantum computer's advantage unfaily restricts the output bit to only "one bit" both in a very big quantum bit and a very tiny classical bit. ← Unfair comparison, hence No quantum computer's speed-up or advantage. → No practical application.
IBM claims they have already realized 65-qubit quantum computer (= which bit number is still far smaller than the current practical classical computer with billions of bits ) a year ago.
But this latest (fake) quantum advantage research used only less than seven qubits (= when 2 or 3 qubits out of 3~6 input qubits were in the "1" state, IBM quantum computer output "1", as shown in this p.5 ).
↑ The fact that IBM stubbornly avoids using its allegedly-existing largest 65-qubit quantum computer even in the latest research makes us suspect their largest quantum computer is still useless, and its bold roadmap of increasing the number of qubit to 1000 by 2023 was just a lie or an impossible dream.
As shown here, all dubious quantum computer's supermacy or advantage is just a meaningless illusion caused by "unfair comparisons" assigning very easy tasks to quantum computers (= still Not computers, because they cannot do any meaningful calculations ), and forcing only classical computers to perform very time-consuming calculations.
Fake science such as fantasy parallel-world quantum computers ( which will help discover vaccines ?) and global warming is not only wasting taxpayers' money by preventing effective drug development, but also harmful as seen in the current landslide in Japan caused not by climate change itself but by "solar panels" which seemed to concentrate the rain flows onto one point and generate the mudslide.
(Q-1) Electrons can't flow in quantum mechanical ↓
In fact, "Quantum mechanics is a successful theory !" is a big lie, as seen in quantum mechanical claim of fantasy parallel worlds and a dead-and-alive unrealistic cat, contrary to the media's baseless praise of it.
Quantum mechanics has never been useful for any practical technologies such as computer transistors and smartphones, all of which technologies were invented by conventional "trial-and error approaches" with purely serendipitous, inadvertent discovery, Not helped by fantasy quantum mechanical theory.
The modern transistor's founders = Shockley did Not mention the (illusory) quantum mechanical contribution to the transistor's invention, instead, just saying
"A basic truth that the history of the creation of the transistor reveals is that the foundations of transistor electronics were created by making errors and following hunches that failed to give what was expected ( this 10th paragraph )"
It's basically impossible to apply unphysical, uncertain and unpredictable quantum mechanics to the modern computer technologies working by perfectly-physically-controllable realistic objects and transistors.
Quantum mechanics baselessly claims each electron exists in many different places simultaneously like a single cat can be dead and alive using fantasy parallel worlds or absurd superposition.
Of course, we cannot see this unrealistic quantum mechanical superposition or cat, hence each single particle can be observed to exist in only one place or state (= so, quantum superposition or parallel worlds have No evidences, contrary to the mainstream science interpretation ).
↑ These quantum mechanical unseen uncertain states or positions (= a particle being in multiple different places or states ot once !? ) of each electron or cat until we try to measure them shows such an uncertain and unpredictable quantum mechanical states can Not be used to build practical computers which need precise, deterministic (= Not uncertain ) controllable electrons and particles in each transistor switch 0 ↔ 1
Then, why are the media and academia trying to make us falsely believe that all modern computer transistors and smartphones may rely on (unphysical) quantum mechanics ? ← It's impossible.
Physicists blindly insist computer semiconductors and transistors could be explained by the quantum mechanical (illusory) model called band theory ( this p.2 ).
The problem is this quantum mechanical band pseudo-theory can Not treat real electrons inside semiconductors or transistors. ← Realistic explanation of computer transistors by quantum mechanics is impossible.
Quantum mechanical band theory ridiculously and forcibly replaces the whole many-electron materials by "one single fictitious quasi-electron (= each band ) or quasi-particles with fake artificially-changeable effective masses" (= which can even be unreal negative masses ) and pseudo-momentum ( this p.2-upper, this p.12-lower ).
Physicists have used this very old fictitious quantum mechanical band model (= which pseudo-model can never describe or clarify real physical mechanisms inside materials ) with fake electron with fake effective masses for 100 years with No progress, in vain.
These unreal effective masses of the unphysical band model's quasi-electrons of semiconductor transistors are just "freely-adjustable parameters" in different materials ( this p.1-left, this p.2, this p.5-right ), hence, quantum mechanics and its band model have No ability to predict any physical phenomena based on real electrons with real fixed masses.
As a result, the familiar false narrative which makes useless quantum mechanics look very "successful" with the magical power to predict any physical values was fabricated by the academia living on quantum mechanical pseudo-theory to protect their old vested interests ( such as selling seeming science books ) related to this dead-end mainstream science.
Actually, the quantum mechanical only calculation tool = Schrödinger equations are known to be unsolvable with No solutions except for the simplest one-electron hydrogen atom whose energy values just agreed with Bohr's realistic atomic model.
Quantum mechanics is completely useless in any multi-electron atoms and molecules, because physicists cannot solve Schrödinger equations, instead, they have to artificially choose fake complicated approximate pseudo-solutions called trial wavefunctions or basis sets ( this 3rd-paragraph ), and manipulating freely-adjustable parameters, which quantum mechanical artificial methods are just "art" with No prediction of practical values, so Not science.
Even these quantum mechanical fake approximate methods of just choosing (complicated) fake wavefunctions and adjusting many free parameters for multi-electron Schrödinger equations are impractical, time-consuming and unusable in almost all molecules and materials ( this p.4 ).
So all quantum mechanical methods including original unsolvable Schrödinger equations, paradoxical molecular orbital (= MO ) theory, and all quantum mechanical approximations are unable to calculate or predict values of molecules and materials such as semiconductors ( this p.1-2nd paragraph, this p.3, this p.11 ).
Of course, there were No such things as convenient modern computers or calculators to conduct any complicated calculations for multi-electron atoms or materials before the first transistors (= necessary for building modern computers ) were discovered, hence, it is impossible to use such an impractical and time-consuming Schrödinger equations for discovery of practical computer transistors ( this introduction, this p.7 ).
Actually, a transistor inventor Shockley repeatedly failed to apply existing quantum mechanical theories to discovering transistors ( this 7-8th paragraphs, this p.2-right-last ).
Shockley did Not mention "quantum mechanics was useful for transistors" (= if the existing quantum mechanical theories really could give him useful advice, he would have Not taken so much time by repeating many failures due to disagreement between the theories and experimental results ).
Instead, he just mentioned "quantum mechanical (unreal) effective mass model disagreed with experimental results in semiconductors ( this p.14 )" ← That's all. No contribution of quantum mechanics to their invention of computer transistors !
Basically, if scientists could ( even luckily or accidentally ) find "good semiconductos" suitable for the transistor = the basic component of any computers by trial-and-error approaches, they could put together those transistors and make modern computers without relying on any theories such as useless quantum mechanics.
Modern computer CPU and memories are made of simple components called "transistors", and working based on the practical classical Maxwell's electromagnetism, Not a fantasy quantum mechanics.
Each transistor acts as a switch changing between 0 and 1 depending on the voltage applied on the base which triggers electric current flow and lets each transistor's capacitor store electric charges ( this middle ).
So in order to construct modern computers or smartphones, all scientists had to do was "try many candidate materials and find the good semiconductor materials (= relying on researchers' long experiences by trial and error approach or accidental discovery, Not relying on fantasy useless quantum mechanical theory )" usable for a transistor whose electric conductance or currents could be controlled by applied voltage (= changeable electric conductance of a semiconductor transistor acts as a switch 0 ↔ 1 of an ordinary computer bit ).
↑ Unphysical quantum mechanics really contributed to discovering these semiconductor materials usable for modern transistors ? ← No.
Scientists managed to discover these semiconductor materials suitable for transistors just by "old classical trial and error approaches ( this middle~lower, this 7th-paragraph )"
← It's like great inventors Edison and Wright brothers who did Not use fantasy quantum mechanical theory for inventing any useful devices (= ex. Edison's light bulb was invented long before quantum mechanics was born ).
The existence of semiconductors had been alreadly known long before quantum mechanics was born.
So quantum mechanics has nothing to do with the discovery of semiconductors and transistos.
↑ The classic "trial and error" approach is Not bad, rather, it is indispensable for all great inventions, regardless of the past or future.
Even all physical theories of Newton, Maxwell, Galileo, .. Einstein and quantum mechanics (= the last two theories include serious self-contradictions which obstruct the present scientific progress, though ) are based on actual obervation and experiments repeating "trials and errors."
All our scientific progress should be made by actual experiments, observations, trials and errors, Not obstructed by fictional, harmful theories.
The most serious problem of the present unrealistic quantum mechanics and Einstein is these fictional mainstream science prohibits us from seeking real deeper physical mechanisms or treating atomic behavior realistically by academia misleading us by using the unfounded cliche "(wrongly) successful quantum mechanics !"↑ Quantum mechanics is Not successful but harmful for our "science" by desperately preventing us from proceeding with useful experiments accompanied by trials and errors which are necessary for exploring deeper real atomic physical mechanisms.
Historically, there were No such things as "successful theories" predicting any physical values or phenomena before conducting experiments.
As seen in all useful physical theories such as Newton, Maxwell, Kepler.., physicists first conducted "experiments" and later introduced "theories" based on the experimental observations to decide the future direction ( of new experiemnts ), and then continuing experiments to clarify deeper mechanism (← contradictory quantum mechanics blocks this normal scientific process or progress using the unscientific excuse "Nobody would understand physics even if we try to clarify deeper mechanisms !" )
So the misleading phrase "quantum mechanics and Einstein relativity are the most successful ! They can magically predict any physical values !?" is just a total lie (= The only alleged-practical application of Einstein relativity = GPS needs almost real-time clock error correction due to frequent discrepancy between the theory and actual GPS time ).
The evidence that quantum mechanics is Not used in computer transistors is seen in the fact that all the present textbook explanations of atomic structures behind semiconductors or transistors use classical ( successful ) Bohr's atomic model with realistically moving electrons instead of unphysical quantum mechanical electron cloud or uncertainly spreading wave functions.
The 1st paragraph of this site explains "lucky accidental discovery" of transistors instead of relying on useless quantum mechanical prediction,
"The transistor was invented at Bell Laboratories in December 1947 by John Bardeen and Walter Brattain. 'Discovered' would be a better word, for although they were seeking a solid-state equivalent to the vacuum tube, it was found accidentally during the investigation of the surface states around a diode point-contact."
The 4th paragraph of this site also mentions the classic trial-and-error approaches leading to the accidental discovery of transistors,
" Using different materials and different setups and different electrolytes in place of the water, the two men tried to get an even bigger increase in current.. Bardeen suggested they replace the silicon with germanium. They got a current jump, all right -- an amplification of some 330 times -- but in the exact opposite direction they'd expected !"
↑ Bardeen accidentally discovered the point-contact transistor without understanding how it functions, because there still is No really adequate quantitative theory explaining the working of the point contact transistor.
This site ( p.16 upper ) says "Indeed, there still is No really adequate quantitative theory explaining the working of the point contact transistor. But what is important for us is that the experiments were conducted by men who had amplification as their goal, who observed something that they were Not looking for or expecting which indicated the possibility of building an amplifier of a design very different from the one they had in mind.."
Transistors accidentally discovered by researchers showed the completely opposite phenomena from what they expected ( this p.2 middle-upper ). ← The existing atomic theory = quantum mechanics was completely useless and contributing nothing to discovering transistors, computers, smartphones..
Other important inventors of transistors, Shockley also repeated many failures, because the useless existing quantum mechanical theory could Not give them the right instructions of what to do next before researchers repeated many failures ( this 4-6th paragraphs ).
In fact, such an unrealistic quantum mechanics intrinsically cannot even separate different electrons or atoms, much less describe multi-electron atomic behaviors of semiconductors, hence, it is impossible for the quantum mechanics to explain the actual transistor's electric current involving many electrons and atoms.
Semiconductors are mainly made of silicon atoms (= Si ) doped with a small number of impurity atoms.
Outer electrons (= ex. 3p orbital of Si ) of the semiconductor's atoms can flow as electric currents under applied voltage in transistors.
For electrons to keep moving as electric current between different atoms, repulsive forces of Pauli exclusion principle have to constantly keep such a flowing outer electron from being stuck or attracted by strong Coulomb attractive forces toward the inner lower-energy orbitals (= 1s, 2s, 2p ).
Without Pauli repulsive forces, any outer electrons of conducting atoms or silicons easily fall into the inner orbitals with far lower potential energies, and soon electric currents stop flowing with outer conducting electrons stuck in inner orbitals with much lower-energy levels.
Regardless of materials, all electrons have to always interact with each other by two major atomic forces of Pauli repulsion and Coulomb electric forces.
The serious problem is the contradictory quantum mechanics can Not treat this important Pauli repulsion as a real force ( this p.6 ), and the quantum mechanical electron cloud cannot generate even enough Coulomb forces between different atoms.
Quantum mechanics, which is unable to clarify true mechanism of Pauli repulsion, has to rely on unrealistic abstract concepts called "exchange energy" which pseudo-interaction magically lacks exchange force or force carriers, hence the exchange energy has No physical reality ( this p.11, this p.2-3rd paragraph = pseudo-force = Pauli ? ).
This Pauli exchange energy must be expressed as "antisymmetric wavefunctions" where all electrons must be unrealistically indistinguishable and inseparable, hence, every single electron must exist in all different atoms simultaneously inside any materials and molecules due to quantum mechanical stupid rule.
For example, three-electron atoms or materials, each electron must always exist and be trapped in all different atomic orbitals simultaneously and unrealistically (= each electron cannot move from one orbital to another orbit as electric current according to this quantum mechanical stupid antisymmetric wavefunction or exchange energy rule ! )
Exchanging any two electrons must flip the sign of the entire wavefunctions (including spin and spatial parts ) of atoms or molecules, which means any two electrons must be antisymmetric and indistinguishable with respect to their positions and states.
Any different electrons must be identical by belonging to any different atoms inside any molecules and materials simultaneously ( this p.11-12 ).
In this unrealistic antisymmetric wavefunctions, if two electrons occupy the same state with respect to the spin and orbital, the total wavefunction becomes zero. ← This too unphysical abstract concept called "antisymmetric wavefunction" is the only quantum mechanical explanation of mysterious Pauli exclusion repulsive energy without giving any more detailed physical mechanism. ← Science stops progressing now, because physicists give up exploring deeper truth.
For outer electrons to keep flowing as electric current in semiconductors or transistors without falling or being trapped into lower-energy inner orbitals, outer electrons must keep being repelled by inner electrons of all different atoms by Pauli repulsive force.
→ To generate Pauli repulsive energies, all electrons of all different atoms inside semiconductors must be unrealistically indistinguishable ( in their positions ) and inseparable to make antisymmetric wavefunctions required by quantum mechanics.
→ Every single electron must always exist in all different (silicon) atoms inside semiconductors or transistors simultaneously from the beginning.
↑ It is impossible for such an unrealistic quantum mechanical electron, which exists in all different atoms from the beginning, to move from one atom to another atom as electric current, because each electron must always exist in all different atoms simultaneously without moving.
As a result, "quantum mechanics contributed to invention of modern computer transistor" is physically impossible, hence a total lie created later to make useless quantum mechanics "look" useful only for getting research funds using such a pseudo-science as the fishy quantum technology.
If quantum mechanics was right, any electrons inside transistors can Not move from one atom to other atoms as electric currents even when applying voltage. ← Modern transistors could Not be invented !
For example, outer 3p electrons of silicon atoms must be constantly repelled by Pauli repulsive energy from inner-orbital 2s ( or 1s or 2p ) electrons to keep flowing and moving to other atoms as electric current without falling or being trapped into much lower energy levels of inner 1s or 2s orbitals.
In order to make quantum mechanical anti-symmetric wave functions whose abstract forms are allegedly necessary for causing Pauli repulsive energies between electrons, the same single electron-1 must always exist both in outer 3p orbital and inner orbitals such as 2s, 2p, 1s.. simultaneously from the beginning, which resultantly causes "strange exchange integral" as the origin of Pauli repulsive energies.
↑ So if such a strange quantum mechanical Pauli exchange energy is right, a physically-impossible and contradictory thing would happen.
Before an electron-1 has moved from a silicon atom-1 to a silicon atom-2 (then, moves to atom-3, atom-4 .. ) in the electric current, the same single electron-1 must already exist in all different atoms including atom-1, atom-2, atom-3, atom-4 .. or all their inner or outer electrons's orbitals.
→ Every single electron must exist in all different silicon or doped atoms from the beginning simultaneously to use Pauli principle. ← It is impossible for such an unrealistic electron always existing in all atoms to move from one atom to another atom as a real electric current. = Modern transistor's electric current can Not be described by fantasy quantum mechanics !
This is why all the current textbooks explaining the modern computer's transistors use realistic successful Bohr's atomic model with real separable and movable electrons instead of unrealistic inseperable unmovable electron clouds of quantum mechanics.
Another myth = Modern computers are said to use one of mysterious quantum mechanical effects called quantum tunneling.
The point is quantum tunneling is Not a ghost-like phenomenon but a natural classically-possible (= realistic ) phenomenon where electrons can naturally jump between two atoms, only when those two atoms are separated by a very short distance less than a few nm under applied voltage through the air or vacuum with empty space (= No real barriers or walls in tunneling, this 2nd-paragraph this p.3-last ).
Those empty spaces such as vacuum and air (= through which electrons can tunnel and pass, only when the distance is extremely short = ~nm ) are wrongly treated like "rigid imaginary walls" or insulator (= such imaginary potential walls are often given to the tunnel explanation, though the precise potential energies between atoms separated by extremely short distance is unknown ) by irrational quantum mechanics.
Quantum mechanics just imagines "illusory potential energy wall", and makes an unscientific claim that each electron can penetrate such an invisible potential barrier by having unrealistic negative kinetic energies (= kinetic energy = 1/2mv2 = negative !? ← impossible ! ) without deeper explanations.
↑ Delving into deeper true physical mechanism is forbidden by the unrealistic quantum mechanical model such as "negative-kinetic-energy tunneling", it just reluctantly says Nobody understands mysterious (= unreal ) quantum mechanics including parallel-world superposition and negative-kinetic-energy tunnel ( this 3rd-paragraph ) !
↑ Our science stops progressing, because physicists don't want to expose quantum mechanical self-contradictions.
In the normal scientific process and progress, if we have to rely on unreal negative kinetic energy of electrons to explain quantum tunnel, we have to replace such a contradictory quantum mechanics by other realistic atomic theories without relying on negative kinetic energies.
Quantum mechanics outrageously allows even unreal quasiparticles with fake effective masses to cause tunnel and negative kinetic energies, and stops exploring deeper mechanisms of such a contradictory tunnel. ← nonsense.
You can understand the quantum mechanics has never been useful for any applied science such as computer transistors and smartphones, when you see the most widely used quantum mechanical approximate calculation method called density functional theory (= DFT or Kohn-Sham equation ) which illogically replaces the whole many-electron material or transistor by only one-single-pseudo-electron model, because the original many-electron Schrödinger equations are completely impractical and meaningless (= due to indistinguishable and exchangeable electrons ) in large molecules and materials ( this p.3, this p.2 ).
Almost all quantum mechanical calculations in condensed matter, semiconductors, band theoy and computer transistors rely on this unphysical one-pseudo-electron approximation DFT ( this p.6, this Fig.2 ), though this one-pseudo-electron model is inherently unable to explain actual separable multi-electron or multi-atomic materials.
This one-pseudo-electron DFT approximation has to artificially choose fake effective potential energies called exchange-correlation functionals which exact form is unknown.
Choosing arbitrary pseudo-potential-energy functionals and adjusting free parameters for its caclulation means all these quantum mechanical methods are unable to predict any physical values, hence, completely useless ( this p.23-last ).
Furthermore, no matter what pseudo-potential energies or functionals physicists choose, they always encounter cases where those chosen functionals miserably fail to explain experimental values such as semiconductor's band gaps ( this p.17 ).
In conclusion, the hackneyed phrases "quantum mechanics contributed to discovery of computer transistors and smartphones" or "quantum mechanics is a successful theory magically predicting all experimental results" are completely false and fake.
We have to discard such an unrealistic and contradictory quantum mechanics which forbids us from delving into deeper true physical mechanisms, and replace it by more realistic atomic models with No contradictions for applying basic atomic interactions to practical science.
(Q-1) ↓ Useless and impossible dream
Despite an incredible number of hypes and hoopla, fictional dream-like faster quantum computers will be unrealistic and useless, forever ( this 1st-paragraph ).
Such a fishy quantum computer's fake "commercialization" is often used for deceiving laypersons and governments.
Fake news promoting such a illusory-technology quantum computer pops up almost every day, falsely claiming "a step closer to quantum computing which will one day be reality ?" only to mislead taxpayers.
↑ All these hyped news talks only about "imaginary rosy future", hiding the fact that the pie-in-the-sky quantum computer technology is already deadend and just a hoax, it will never be useful.
Google plans to build a practical quantum computer by 2029 ? ← It means all the current alleged quantum computers (before 2029) are still impractical, useless, can do No meaningful calculations ( this 1st-paragraph ).
For these (illusory parallel-world) quantum computers to be useful, each quantum computer is said to need at least a million quantum bit or qubits ( this 2nd-paragraph, this summary, this 17th-paragraph ).
But today's alleged largest quantum computers have only less than 150 qubits (= too small number to be useful !), which fall far short of a million qubits required for a "(illusory) practical quantum computer", hence, all the current dubious quantum computers are completely useless and impractical.
Quantum bit or qubit (= each qubit can take 2 bit state, 0 and 1 ) corresponds to the current practical (classical) computer's transistor or bit (= each bit can take 0 and 1 ).
The current practical (not quantum) computers can have billions or trillions of bits or transistors, which are far superior to the current (useless) quantum computers with only less than 150 bits.
The media and physicists have repeated an "empty promise" like "a practical quantum computer is now less than 10 years away !" for a long time to keep getting taxpayers' money, exploiting fictional future quantum technology, which will never be reality.
Google quantum computer with only 53 bits actually showed No "quantum supremacy", hence, Not faster than ordinary classical computers, because all the current dubious quantum computer can do is output random meaningless numbers without performing any meaningful calculations ( this 2nd paragraph, this 5th paragraph ).
↑ Google quantum computer's dubious supremacy claim finally proved to be false.
Classical (super-)computer could obtain random (meaningless) numbers (which Google supremacy quantum computer allegedly got in 200 seconds with more errors ) within 304 seconds (= almost same time ) with less errors instead of 10000 years (= the original supremacy claim that classical computer would take 10000 years to get random meaningless numbers turned out to be wrong, the classical computer takes only 304 seconds with less errors to get random numbers obtained by the Google's alleged quantum computer which cannot do any meaningful calculations.
↑ Google deliberately and unfairly chose very time-consuming methods only for classical computers, this last, this, this p.2, this 3rd-paragraph ).
This means all similar dubious claims of quantum advantage or supremacy using all types of quantum computers (= superconducting or photon qubits, which are Not practical computers at all due to their inability to calculate meaningful values, this last-paragraph ) are just illusion caused by unfair comparison between the quantum computers (= assigned easier tasks of just outputting and sampling random meaningless numbers without any computational tasks ) and the classical computers (= assigned much harder tasks of computing every possible process leading to the resultant random numbers. ).
↑ These quantum supremacy or advantages do Not mean their (dubious) quantum computers can actually calculate faster than the conventional classical computers, it just means physicists deliberately and unfairly chose the extremely time-consuming method only for classical computers, hence, their quantum computers with illusory supremacy are still useless with No practical application ( this 9-10th paragraphs, this 3rd-paragraph ).
The trick is the intrinsically-unobservable (= unrealistic and unproven ) quantum mechanical fantasy superposition or parallel worlds.
Each bit (= qubit ) of the quantum computer is said to take the value of 0 and 1 simultaneously like an unreal dead and alive cat, though there is No direct evidence of such an imaginary state, because it is impossible to observe the 0 and 1 superposition state (= when we try to measure each qubit, each qubit suddenly chooses only one state of 0 or 1 conveniently, they claim ).
Many major companies such as Google and IBM use the type of superconducting quantum computers which have artificial (= not real ) atoms with artificially-created multiple energy levels. ← Two energy levels out of these multiple artificially-created energy levels are chosen as the quantum bit or qubit 0 and 1 states.
They illuminate each artificial superconducting atom or qubit with microwave or classical light for a short time, and excite each qubit state from the ground state 0 to the (artificially-created) middle state between 0 and another excited state 1. They falsely consider this (artificial) middle state between 0 and 1 to be the (fantasy) quantum superposition where each qubit magically takes 0 and 1 states simultaneously like a (imaginary) dead and alive cat living in fantasy parallel worlds ( this p.25-26, this 8th-paragraph ).
For example, when their quantum computers have 10 qubits, they baselessly claim these 10 qubits can take (illusory) 210 = 1024 different superposition states just by being illuminated with classical microwave (= each qubit allegedly takes 2 different states 0 and 1 simultaneously using fantasy parallel worlds ), and the ordinary classical computers, which cannot have superposition or parallel worlds, have to take 1024 times more time to achieve this (illusory) superposition state by unfairly calculating each different state separately (= not simultaneously ) one by one, and repeating it 210 = 1024 times, while the dubious quantum computers allegedly could achieve this (illusory) parallel-world superposition state just one time or in much shorter time.
↑ This baseless, illusory superposition states allegedly taking many different qubit states simultaneously (= so faster ? No! ) using fantasy parallel worlds is the basis of the false claim of the current quantum computer supremacy, advantage or their illusory speed-up.
There is No evidence that these (illusory) quantum superposition or parallel worlds are actually happening in quantum computers or qubits, because we can never observe these quantum parallel-world superposition or a dead-alive cat (= physicists can observe only one single state of qubit at the same time also in quantum mechanics ).
If they want to prove the existence of the quantum superposition or parallel world, they must achieve the truly-faster or useful quantum calculations such as the (illusory) faster factorization of large numbers using Shor's algorithm, but their useless quantum computers have never achieved this faster calculation or factorization (= the largest number factored to date is only 21 = 3 × 7 using fake Shor's algorithm without simultaneous quantum superposition calculation, this 3rd-last paragraph ), which means there is No evidence of quantum superposition, parallel worlds or their (illusory) speed-up.
Google quantum computer Sycamore uses 53 qubits (= just 53 bitstring, which cannot calculate any meaningful values, compared to the current useful classical computer with billions of bits ), hence, they baselessly claim it can take random different values = 253 (= they claim each bit could take 2 values 0 or 1 ) = 1016 different random numbers simultaneously using (illusory) quantum superposition or parallel worlds. ← Though these unseen 253 different simultaneous superposition states have NO experimental evidence, because these superposition states are directly unobservable.
↑ So they claim that the ordinary classical computer, which cannot utilize the (fantasy) superposition or parallel worlds, needs to sample and collect an extremely large number of different states of 253 = 1016 separately one by one taking extremely much time, in order to know an unknown random (meaningless) 53 bitstring numbers' average pattern.
Based on unfounded assumption that these 53 qubits can take 253 different states simultaneously using fantasy quantum parallels worlds (= these fantasy superposition states are unobservable and baseless, but they claim each observed state by their quantum computer may indicate the average value of many unobservable different superposition states ), they claim the quantum computer could reduce the task of getting random meaningless numbers from the original sampling of 253 = 1016 different data to just 106 = a million sampling ( this 2nd-paragraph, this p.13-last, this 3-4th-paragraphs, this p.4-Fig.4 ) to know the average pattern of 253 different random numbers.
↑ Deliberately reducing the number of times the quantum computer outputs unknown random meaningless numbers based on the unfounded assumption of the unobservable superposition or parallel worlds is their trick of fake quantum speed-up or supremacy.
While they unfairly forced only the classical computer to calculate as many as 253 different probabilities of different random numbers ( this 7-8th paragraphs ) separately (= not simultaneously ), relying on the unfounded assumption that only parallel-world quantum computers can conveniently know the average value allegedly containing (unseen) 253 different superposition values by utilizing the (illusory) quantum interference between unseen different simultaneous parallel-world superposition values ( this 5-6th-paragraphs, this p.2-left-lower, this 14th-paragraph ).
Quantum physicists often try to use the irrelevant misleading fashionable words such as "AI" and "machine learning" to make the originally-unrealistic quantum superposition or parallel world appear to have some physical meaning despite its unreality ( this p.3-Theorem, p.9, this 11-13th paragraphs ).
↑ So the (dubious) quantum advantage does Not mean their quantum computers (= still Not computers, though ) become faster in calculations, instead, it's just illusion created by the baseless assumption of unobservable parallel worlds which are exploited to force only classical computers to unfairly choose the extremely time-consuming calculation methods, this is why their quantum computers are still useless and impractical ( this caveats~ ) contrary to a flood of media-hypes.
The 4th and last paragraphs of this news on the latest Google (dubious) quantum advantage news just vaguely say
"We are very far from being able to achieve that goal (= practical application ).. This shows that we may be able to see how quantum technology can transform .." ← The use of uncertain word "may" means it is still useless.
Actually, nobody uses such dubious quantum computers in our daily life, contrary to various fake news of "exponentially-faster quantum computers !"
Chinese alleged quantum computer advantage beating Google is also an useless task just outputting random meaningless numbers with a lot of errors ( this 2nd paragraph, this 3rd paragraph ), which also deliberately reduced only the task of their quantum computer with 66 qubits from the original sampling number 266 = 1019 to only a million sampling ( this p.4-Fig.4 ) on the pretext of (illusory) quantum superposition or parallel worlds ( they unfairly forced only the classical computers to calculate as many as 266 random different numbers taking extremely much time, so No quantum advantage ).
Photon's quantum computer advantage or speed-up is also fake and illusion, It is Not faster than ordinary classical computers at all, so a useless quantum computer.
If these (dubious) quantum computers really achieved "advantage" or (illusory) speed-up, the quantum computers would have already outperformed our ordinary classical computers in useful calculations (= because "speed-up calculation" should be equal to "more useful and efficient computer" ).
But actually, these (dubious) quantum computer's advantage and supremacy are still completely useless and impractical, cannot beat our ordinary classical computers at all ( this last-paragraph, this last-paragraph, this 4th-paragraph ).
It means these quantum computer (fake) advantages are conducted using ordinary (classical) instruments (= Not using technology of true quantum mechanics or quantum computer such as fantasy quantum parallel-world superposition or the illusory superluminal entanglement, this is why these fake quantum computers based on classical technology cannot outperform ordinary classical computers in actual useful calculations ).
This (ilusory) photon's quantum computer's advantage or speed-up was based on the simple (useless) experiments called boson sampling where multiple light waves or fictitious photon particles were sent into multiple beam splitters, split into multiple paths, interfering with each other, and detected at multiple photodetectors ( this 6-10th-paragraphs, this 10th-paragraph ). ← That's all. No actual computations have been done in (fake) quantum supremacy experiments.
So these experiments called boson sampling which just observed ordinary classical light waves after splitting and interfering are useless, Not faster, and Not achieving true quantum computer advantage or supremacy at all ( this 2nd-paragraph, this p.17-last, this 6th-paragraph ).
Then, why don't physicists stop falsely claiming the (illusory photon) quantum computer advantage or speed-up ?
In fact, physicists rely on the wrong definitions of quantum photons and classical photons in order to claim this illusory quantum photon's speed-up.
They falsely treat classical photons (= though there is No such thing as a classical photon ) as a classical indivisible ball in Galton board ( this p.32(or p.29 ), this p.9, this p.2-right-lower ), Not as a divisible classical electromagnetic wave.
And these fictitious classical photon balls in Galton board are supposed to be unable to split or interfere with each other, unlike the ordinary light wave.
On the other hand, they consider that only a quantum photon can split and interfere with each other by what they call "quantum interference".
Hence, these fictitious classical photons (= which correspond to their classical computers ), which cannot split or interfere, cannot explain or simulate the interference patters between quantum photons (= just weak classical light wave ), which wrong definition causes the illusory photon quantum computer advantage ( this 5th-paragraph, this 4th-paragraph ).
This dubious "quantum interference" used in (fake) photon's quantum computer advantage was based on the unrealistic assumption that a (illusory) photon (= particle of light wave ? ) could split into different parallel worlds or superposition states at each beam splitter, and interfere with itself by "quantum interference between unseen parallel worlds ( this middle, this 7th-paragraph, this p.2-upper, this 3-5th paragraphs )".
↑ They falsely and deliberately restricted the definition of the ordinary light interference to the "quantum interference" between (unseen) quantum photons split into different fictional quantum superposition or parallel world states, in order to exclude the ordinary classical light wave interference.
And they artificially created the fictitious concept of "(indivisible) classical photon", and started to baselessly argue this classical pinball-like photon particle (= falsely treating the real classical light wave, which can split and interfere, as a fictitious indivisible photon particle which lost the ability to interfere ) can neither split into parallel worlds nor interfere, hence no advantage in this (fictitious) classical light pinball-particle ( this Fig.4, this 4th-paragraph, this 7th-paragraph ), though actual classical light wave (= Not a pinball particle ! ) can split and interfere in realistic way.
It would take much more time for these fictitious classical photons (= classical computers ? ) to simulate the (illusory) quantum photons' distribution patterns after splitting and interfering, because physicists have to repeat the detection of these fictitious indivisible classical photons (= which cannot split or interfere ) one by one many times to explain the quantum photons which can split into many places at the same time. ← quantum advantage ? No !
↑ This assumption behind the false claim of photon quantum advantage is untrue and baseless, because there is No such thing as an indivisible classical photon particle as shown in Galton's board, and it's impossible to confirm and prove the unobservable (fantasy) quantum parallel worlds or superposition ( this 6th-paragraph ).
A quantum photon particle itself is illusion, cannot be identified, and a (unseen) photon is just a very weak classical light wave which can split into weaker light waves and interfere with itself (= classical light wave also has "advantage," so dubious quantum photon's advantage disappears ). ← Quantum mechanical fantasy parallel-world superposition of a photon is unnecessary.
↑ The fact that the dubious quantum advantage of a photon's quantum computer (= it's Not a computer or a calculator, because all it can do is detect random photons or lights meaninglessly, called boson sampling, this 6th-paragraph ) does Not mean the truly faster quantum computer, as seen in today's completely-useless quantum computer's advantage ( this 2nd-paragraph, this p.17-last ).
Also in this photon's fake quantum advantage, physicists deliberately reduced the number of times they detected random photon's distribution (= 100 photon detectors ) from the original 2100 = 1030 times (= each photon detector can allegedly distinguish two patterns of 0 and 1 depending on the different light states such as light polarizations as photon's qubit, so they originally have to measure about 100 photons' random states at least 2100 times in order to know these photons's average distribution ) to only about 3 × 106 times ( this p.8-top ) which measurement (= Not calculation ) takes 200 s ( this p.3-middle-right ) using the unfounded assumption of unseen quantum superposition ( this Scenario ).
↑ So this photon's fake quantum advantage or speed-up is also an illusion caused by physicists deliberately reducing the number of times they detect random photons from the originally-necessary number of times (= 2100 times ) to only 3×106 times ( this p.8-top ) on the pretext that the quantum photons, which can magically split into different parallel worlds or superposition at beam splitters, can take as many as 2100 different parallel-world states simultaneously even without taking so much time in repeatedly measuring photons 2100 times.
On the other hand, they unfairly forced only the above-mentioned (fictitious) classical photons (= they call these fictional classical photons "classical computers" ), which magically lost the ability to split or interfere, to repeatedly measure about 100 random photons 2100 or 1030 times ( this 3rd-paragraph ), which will take unrealistically large amount of time ( this 3rd-last paragraph, this middle ).
Canadian company Xanadu, which also claimed fake quantum advantage, also used this (illusory) quantum photon's parallel-world trick, and measured only a million (= 106, this Fig.2 ) photon samples (= each sample means randomly detecting about 100 photons or lights at the same time without any computation, and detecting one single photons' sample takes 36 microseconds, which is Not faster at all, this abstract-lower ).
Their original paper ( this p.6-left-3rd-paragraph ) of (fake) photon quantum computer advantage says
"On the basis of these assumptions we estimate that, on average, it would take Fugaku (= classical supercomputer ) 9,000 years to generate one sample (= take unrealistically too much time for the latest classical supercomputers ! ), or 9 billion years for the million samples we collected from Borealis (= photon quantum computer )."
↑ This assumption that even the latest (classical) supercomputer takes as much as 9000 years to measure only about 100 photons' states (= each photon state is 0 or 1 ) only once is completely unreal and unfair.
Because the present classical supercomputer can perform more than 200000 trillion calculations per second (= each calculation takes only 10-17 second in classical computer ).
While this photon's quantum computer takes as much as 10-6 second (= 36 microseconds ) for one single sampling (= just input random 100 photons and detect them at the same time without any calculation ), which means the ordinary classical computer (= takes only 10-17 s for one calculation ) is much faster than these fake quantum computers (= takes 10-6 s for sampling and detecting photons just one time without calculation ) with No ability to calculate anything (= so these quantum computers are Not computers or calculators at all ).
They unfairly imposed the unrealistically time-consuming method only on classical computer (= which is unfairly forced to calculate as many as 2100 = 1030 photon's probability calculations or samplings = 2n = exponentially increasing time with photon's number n, this p.4,15, this p.3-(2), this p.15,17, this p.2-right ).
While the dubious quantum computer is allowed to do very simple task of only one single sampling (= just randomly detecting about 100 photons without any complicated calculation ), based on the unreal assumption that the quantum photon can split into quantum mechanical superposition or unseen parallel worlds for interfering with themselves, and (fictitious) classical photon cannot split into quantum parallel worlds, or interfere.
↑ According to their unfounded logic, only a quantum photon can split into different (fantasy) superposition paths and interfere with other photons, and they can extract the "average" photon's detection pattern combining all those (baseless) parallel-world superposition states of all photons through the so-called "quantum interference (= which is just the ordinary classical light wave interference )" between all those split photons, even without repeating the measurement of random photons' states as many as 2100 times.
While they falsely and unfairly treated the ordinary classical light (= which can split and interfere ! ) as a "fictitious pinball-like rigid particle" which cannot split or interfere.
↑ So those fictitious pinball-like classical photons (= used for comparison with their "quantum photons" ) cannot utilize the interference by splitting at beam splitters, and those fictitious classical photons cannot extract the "average" probability distribution pattern of all classical photons using the ordinary interference between the fictitious classical photons.
Hence, they claim that only these (fictitious) classical photons magically losing the ability to split and interfere (= these fictitious classical photons are what they call "classical computers" ) have to take extremely much time for knowing the average photons' distribution pattern by repeatedly measureing photons as many as 2100 times.
↑ As a result, photon's quantum computer advantage is just fake and illusion caused by the false treatment of the originally- divisible classical light wave, which can interfere, as a fictitious pinball-like indivisible classical photon (= like in Galton board ) which magically lost the ability to interfere ( there is No such thing as a pinball-like classical photon, so this comparison is meaningless, and this is why this dubious quantum advantage is still useless ).
↑ It's completely meaningless and unable to prove (fake) quantum computer speed-up or advantange, even if they try to compare the (fictitious ) quantum photon's behavior (= with occult power to split into different fantasy parallel worlds or superposition, and interfere with each other ) with non-existent classical pinball-like photon particles magically losing ability to interfere (= there is No such thing as a pinball-like classical photon particle ! So this comparison with non-existent illusory classical photons to prove (false) quantum advantage is meaningless and useless. there is only ordinary classical light wave which can split and interfere in this real world ).
On the other hand, Google quantum computer's (fake) supremacy using superconducting qubits is based on the baseless assumption that their 53 qubits can take as many as (unseen) 253 different unknown random superposition values at the same time from the beginning, and they could extract the "average" value combining all those (unseen) 253 different qubits' values (= which are supposed to conveniently interfere between different superposition values in different parallel worlds and leave "average" value ) just by measuring qubits a much smaller number of times than classical computer, though there is NO evidence that such unseen illusory parallel world different superposition state (= 253 ) actually happened. ← No evidence means No speed-up, and it's still useless.
Another Chinese largest 62-qubit quantum computer also can do No meaningful calculations, except for showing some "meaningless random bit change" called "random quantum walk ( this 6th paragraph )" which just randomly and aimlessly flips each bit 0 ↔ 1 with No practical application ( this last paragraph ), based on the false assumption of (unproven) quantum superposition ( this p.1-lower ).
This is why the 2nd-last paragraph of this news just vaguely says "The quantum walks will be an important direction of subsequent development and have potential applications in quantum search algorithms.."
↑ The use of uncertain "future" words such as "will" and "potential" means this dubious random quantum walk is still useless.
To prove the dubious quantum computer speed-up or advantage is true, we must prove (fantasy) unobservable quantum superposition, a dead-alive cat or parallel worlds are really happening, like proving the unfalsifiable unseen fantasy extra-dimensions.
Because the reason why (illusory) quantum computers could calculate faster is based on the unrealistic logic where the quantum computer could utilize fantasy quantum superposition (= a dead and alive cat ) or parallel worlds to perform multiple different calculations simultaneously ( this last-paragraph ), while the ordinary classical computer, which cannot utilize quantum parallel worlds, can calculate one value at a time in a single world.
Unfortunately, there is No evidence of unseen quantum superposition (= a dead and alive cat living in fantasy quantum parallel worlds, this 2nd-last-last-paragraphs ) hence, quantum speed-up or advantage is still just illusion and useless in our daily life.
If such unrealistic quantum superposition or parallel worlds actually happened, quantum computers could have already implemented useful tasks such as Shor's algorithm factorizing large numbers by performing multiple simultaneous calculations based on the unseen parallel worlds or superposition much more quickly than ordinary computers ( this last-paragraph, this 4th-last-paragraph, this last-paragraph, this p.41 ).
But so far the largest number the (useless) quantum computers can factorize is very simple one = 21 = 3 × 7 or 15 = 3 × 5, which factorizing is completely useless and Not faster at all ( this 6th-paragraph, this 3rd-paragraph, this 3rd-last paragraph, this p.16 ).
Furthermore, even in this factorization of very small meaningless numbers such as 21 and 15, the (useless) quantum computers cannot utilize the power of quantum mechanical superposition or parallel worlds (= No evidence for superposition = No quantum computer speed-up or advantage ).
All the dubious quantum computers can do is use only fake Shor's algorithm ( this 9. ) where only one single simple (useless) calculation (= Not simultaneous calculations ) is possible at once by resetting and recycling each qubit after one simple calculation, instead of calculating multiple different values simultaneously using quantum superposition or parallel worlds ( this p.2-left, this p.2-4th-paragraph, this p.10-concluding remark ).
This fake Shor's algorithm using only single world (= hence, only one simple meaningless calculation at once ) instead of (illusory) simultaneous calculations using the (unseen) quantum superposition or parallel worlds is called "semi-classical (= Not quantum )" Kitaev's (fake) Shor's algorithm, which is still useless and Not faster ( this 2nd-3rd paragraphs, this p.1-right-lower, this p.6 ).
↑ The fact that simultaneous calculations using quantum superposition is still impossible despite long-time researches across the world means the superposition or parallel worlds proved to be illusion and Not happening, hence, quantum speed-up or supremacy is unreal with No scientific grounds (= this is why these dubious quantum supremacy experiments are still useless for us ), contrary to an incredible number of the media-hypes.
When we want to factorize some number, for example, 15 = 5 × 3, using Shor's algorithm, first we pick up some arbitrary number (for example, choosing "2"), and then we calculate the remainders of 20 mod 15 = 1, 21 mod 15 = 2, 22 mod 15 = 4, 23 mod 15 = 8, 24 mod 15 = 1 ...
↑ The remainders of 20 mod 15 = 1, and 24 mod 15 = 1 give the same 1, which means the period = 4, from this period number (= 4 ), we can factor 15 like ( 24/2 - 1 ) × ( 24/2 + 1 ) = 3 × 5 = 15 ( this p.31 ).
↑ The part taking the most time in this Shor's factorization is calculating remainders of multiple numbers (= 21 mod 15 = 2, 22 mod 15 = 4 .. ) and finding the period (= 4 in this case ).
Quantum computer is unrealistically said to implement these multiple calculations of multiple remainders (= 20 mod 15 = 1, 21 mod 15 = 2, 22 mod 15 = 4, 23 mod 15 = 8 .. ) simultaneously using the illusory quantum superposition ( this p.1-3, this p.10, this p.6-left-lower, this 9-11th-paragraphs, this p.15 ) or parallel universes ( this last, this last ).
Because they baselessly claim that n quantum bits or qubits can take 2n different values (= each qubut allegedly takes 2 values 0 and 1 ) simultaneously using the quantum superposition or parallel worlds, which have No evidence.
Of course, just calculating multiple values or remainders simultaneously cannot make the faster quantum computers, because the moment we try to measure the multiple calculation values, only one calculation value in one single world remains (= all other caluclated values or parallel worlds are supposed to suddenly disappear ! ) by the collapse of quantum wavefunction or superposition, like we can observe a dead cat or a alive cat at once (= unable to observe a dead and alive cat simultaneously ) even in quantum mechanical logic.
To utilize the (fantasy) quantum computer's faster parallel-world computing, the multiple different calculated values in different parallel worlds must conveniently interfere with each other ( this 26-29th-paragraphs, ), and leave only the desirable average value ( such as the period "4" in the upper case, this 10th-paragraph ), which (illusory) quantum interference between the parallel-world superposition values or qubits is called Fourier transform ( this-lower, this-II Finding the period ).
↑ But this convenient quantum computer mechanism of fantasy parallel-world computations and interference between different parallel worlds are unrealistic and self-contradictory, so the quantum computers can never be faster.
Because if different parallel worlds could affect or interfere with each other from the beginning, it means these parallel worlds must exist in the same single world (where they are interfering and interacting with each other ) from the beginning, so computing different independent values simultaneously using different parallel worlds is impossible (= they can calculate only one mixed value in a single world instead of multiple different values in multiple independent parallel worlds ).
And it is impossible that the solid superconducting or atomic qubits destructively or constructively interfere with each other like waves.
This self-contradictory mechanism is shown in the fact that (fantasy) faster quantum computers or their factorization are still impossible (forever).
In factorizing some particular numbers larger than 21, some physicists try to use "annealing" methods (= instead of true Shor's algorithm ), which annealing has nothing to do with quantum superposition or parallel worlds as seen in Not-faster D-Wave annealing or adiabatic ( fake ) quantum computers ( this 3rd-paragraph, this 6th-paragraph, this p.6-left ).
This 5-7th paragraphs say
"The minimization algorithm is different than Shor's algorithm in that it turns the factorization problem into an optimization problem, and then uses a quantum device to solve for the minimum values, which encode the factors. (The minimum values are not themselves the factors.."
"We're still a far way from outperforming classical computers"
↑ To factorize by annealing method, physicists have to already know the answers before calculation (= so, the annealing is useless, unable to give the answers of unknown factors ), and set those already-known answers (= factors ) into the lowest energy states before using machines, and the annealing machine gradually settles down to this lowest energy equilibrium state (= which was set to be the answer in advance ) without any actual computations.
So in order to prove true quantum speed-up or advantage, physicists have to achieve truly-useful quantum computers which can perform useful tasks such as factorizing large numbers (= whose factors are unknown before calculations ) much more quickly than ordinary classical computers, which dreamlike quantum computers will never happen except in the media-hype. → No quantum computer's speed-up or advantage due to unfounded unseen quantum parallel worlds.
IBM is said to have achieved 65-qubit quantum computer, then, the current allegedly-largest 127-qubit quantum computer called "eagle (= since Nov 2021 )", and plan to build a 1000-qubit computer by 2023, hyping the more unrealistic goal of 4000 qubits by 2025 (← really ? ).
Even the latest quantum computer that IBM sent to Germany recently still has only a very small number of qubits = 27 bits and suffers too high error rates ( this 10th paragraph ). ← Practical calculation is impossible.
IBM tends to "exaggerate" only the number of qubits (= their latest largest quantum computer called "Eagle" is said to have only 127 qubits ) without showing what kind of calculation their dubious quantum computer can perform ( this 3rd paragraph, this Availability ? this 6th paragraph ). ← This means their alleged largest quantum computer is still useless, Not a practical calculator or computer at all ( this 3rd paragraph ).
This 1st and 5th paragraphs says
"IBM might have just changed the computing game in a major way. Nobody’s seen a research paper (of the dubious IBM 127-qubit eagle quantum computer ) yet"
"We’re not sure exactly what Eagle (= IBM 127-qubit quantum computer ) does. Modern quantum computers usually solve bespoke problems that have little-to-no impact on society. This is because the technology is in its infancy."
Even this latest fishy IBM's allegedly world-largest quantum computer has only a very small number of 127 qubits which number is far smaller than the present practical classical computer with more than billions of bits.
For these fictional quantum computers to be useful, each quantum computer has to have more than 1 million qubits ( this 3rd paragraph, this 14th paragraph ) which are far larger than the current largest quantum computer's 127 qubits, which means the dream-like practical quantum computers will be unrealized forever, end up being Ponzi scheme.
The 8th-last and 7th-last paragraphs of this site say
"At IBM, we have a prototype quantum computer that works with 65 qubits, kept in superposition for just a few fractions of a second before they decohere (= easily broken fragile quantum computer ).
Later this year, we aim to have one with 127 qubits. That’s Not enough to reach a quantum advantage."
".. To maintain superposition for longer, we need to ensure that our qubits are very low noise. Then we’ll be able to correct any remaining errors using classical computers. But this approach of error correction is still theory (= still impractical )."
Even the latest quantum computer in 2022 allegedly with error free has only an extremely small number of bits = 16 qubits (= or 16 trapped ions, this 4th paragraph ). ← the alleged quantum computer with only 16 ions or 16 bitstring is far from a practical computer which needs more than millions of bits or qubits.
It is estimated that in order to correct errors of the error-prone quantum computers in a practical level, each (logical) qubit (= 0 and 1 ) needs 1000 additional physical qubits only for error-corrections ( this last-paragraph, this 7-9th paragraphs, this 12-paragraph, this p.1-right 4-5th-paragraphs ).
It means the (illusory) practical quantum computers will need at least millions of qubits by correcting a large number of errors which are often occurring in the current extremely-unstable quantum computers ( this 2nd-paragraph, this 2nd-paragraph ).
Unlike the error-prone impractical quantum computers (= still with only less than 150 bits = a very small number of qubits ), the current practical (classical) computers have almost No errors, and can perform many useful calculations manipulating billions of bits or transistors (= classical computers far outperform the dubious quantum computers ).
So only outputting the random meaningless numbers without any meaningful calculations is the only task which can be done by the alleged quantum computers with more than 50 qubits prone to many errors (= the present 50 qubits are still far less than a million qubits which will be necessary for building as-yet-unrealized practical quantum computer ).
IBM tends to exaggerate only the number of qubits without clarifying what this dubious 127-qubit quantum computer can do.
Actually, there have been No research papers utilizing these 127 qubits, since IBM announced this largest 127-qubit eagle quantum computer in Nov. 2021.
For example, in Aug 2022 (= after IBM unveiled the dubious 127-qubit quantum computer ), IBM research center published the paper in arxiv using only less than 8 qubits (= far less than 127 qubits ! this p.8-middle ).
↑ With these only 8 qubits in IBM quantum computers (= Not a computer or calculator at all with only 8 bitstring ! ), all they can do is just rely on the artificially-created effective Hamiltonian energy (= effective Hamiltonia energy is fictitious, Not real atomic energy, ) artificially modified for the (useless) quantum computers with only less than 10 qubits using the artificial Schrieffer-Wolff transformation ( this p.5 ).
↑ It is impossible for the current quantum computers with an exrtremely small number of qubits to calculate complicated molecular energies. Don't be misled by the hyped news.
Other papers published in 2022 (= after IBM 127-qubit eagle quantum computer was unveiled in 2021 ) did Not use the latest IBM 127-qubit eagle quantum computer, either ( this p.5-7, this p.3-4 ).
The latest paper published by IBM research center in 2022 (= after their 127-qubit computer was announced in 2021 ) used only less than 65 qubits, which did Not conduct any meaningful calculation, except for checking only two-qubit error rate ( this p.5-Fig.5 )
So all the dubious IBM quantum computers with the allegedly largest numbers of qubits (= still too small number to be useful ) lack experimental evidence. We should take their (misleading) announcement of the alleged largest-qubit quantum computers with a grain of salt.
We often see the media-hype baselessly claiming the quantum computers harness the supernatural phenomena such as quantum superposition or (fantasy) parallel worlds to calculate multiple different values (= each different value is supposed to exist in a different parallel world ) simultaneously ( this 3rd-paragraph, this p.2, this p.4 ).
Each quantum bit or qubit is said to take 0 and 1 bit states simultaneously (= unobservable, so No evidence ), unlike the ordinary classical computer's bit which can take 0 or 1.
So they spread the unfounded hypothesis that n × qubits could take 2n different superposition states existing in 2n different parallel worlds.
But there is No evidence of these (fantasy) quantum superposition which is equal to a unreal dead and alive cat living in fictional parallel worlds.
Because they claim, the moment we try to observe such unseen quantum superposition or parallel worlds, these quantum states and each qubit suddenly collapse into only one state = a dead cat or an alive cat living in one single world like the ordinary computer's bit ( this 4th-paragraph, this-lower-Discussion, this p.2-left-3rd-paragraph ).
To realize the (illusory) truly-faster quantum computer, these multiple different quantum parallel worlds must conveniently interfere with each other and leave only desirable values, by another unfounded hypothesis called "quantum interference ( this 12th-paragraph )."
↑ But this (imaginary) quantum computer's speed-up mechanism is self-contradictory and impossible, so the quantum computers can never be faster ( this 1st-paragraph ).
Because if the (imaginary) multiple different quantum superposition or parallel worlds can interfere or interact with each other from the beginning, the simultaneous calculations of different (independent) values using different independent parallel worlds are impossible (= parallel worlds interfering with each other means they are Not parallel worlds, but a single world where they can affect each other from the beginning, and calculate only one single value, hence, Not faster simultaneous calculations ).
This is why quantum computers are still useless (= forever ) despite the long-time researches across the world ( this 1st-paragraph, this-middle-Caveats, this 7th-paragraph ).
Furthermore, the alleged (imaginary) quantum superposition or parallel worlds in the quantum computer (= still Not a computer ) is said to be too impractical, fragile and short-lived, though the quantum computer with still only less than 150 qubits is far bulkier than ordinary efficient classical computer with more than billions of bits or transistors ( this 1st, 3rd paragraphs ).
The lifetime of still-impractical quantum computers or qubits is defined by how long each qubit maintains the occult quantum superposition (= called coherence, this 3rd paragraph ) = an imaginary dead and alive cat state in parallel worlds.
But of course, it's impossible to observe such an unrealistic cat in parallel-world superposition state. = Quantum mechanics baselessly claims each cat, each particle or each qubit can be in imaginary superposition states until we try to measure them, meaning each cat ( each qubit ) is observed as dead or alive ( 0 or 1 ) contrary to their unfounded claim that each quantum computer's qubit can be 0 and 1 at once while we don't see it.
Hence, physicists usually "cheat" and artificially changed the original definition of the lifetime of the (imaginary) quantum superposition or parallel-worlds into how long each qubit can (classically) oscillate between two bit states 0 ↔ 1 where each qubit can be only observed as 0 or 1 with some probabilities (= instead of a qubit being two different imaginary superposition states 0 and 1 at once ), treating this qubit's oscillating time (= called Rabi or Ramsey oscillation ) as the qubit's superposition lifetime, without actually "seeing" a (unobservable) dead and alive cat state ( this 3rd paragraph, this Fig.4 ).
↑ So the hackneyed phrase (= or impossible dream ) "quantum computer may have the potential to calculate faster by simultaneous calculations using quantum superposition or a dead-alive cate state (= allegedly utilizing fantasy quantum mechanical parallel worlds ) !" is a baseless lie, because such an illusory quantum superposition (= parallel worlds ) can Not be observed or utilized due to fatal flaws underlying illusory quantum parallel computing mechanism.
The lifetime of the most popular superconduncting-qubit quantum computers used by IBM, Google, China.. is still far less than 1 second ( this p.3, this p.11 ) with a lot of errors which fragile unstable quantum computer cannot calculate any meaningful values, while the current classical useful computer has almost infinite lifetime with No errors, as you know.
The current quantum computer with less than 100 bits (or qubits ) is far inferior to the already-widely-used classical (= ordinary ) computer that can do many useful complicated calculations manipulating billions of bits or transistors (= a bit 0 or 1 × billions = a practical classical computer or PC ) with No errors.
The 3rd paragrah of this news mentions the current miserable situation of the useless quantum computer which needs at least a million qubits for performing some meaningful calculations, but even the latest cryostat technology cannot maintain even thousands of qubit state at the extremely low temperature which is required for maintaining fragile quantum computers.
What they call "quantum superposition" of each qubit 0 and 1 states simultaneously actually means just the classical middle states between 0 and 1 where physicists observe only one of 0 and 1 (= instead of observing 0 and 1 simultaneously ) with 50% probability.
Contrary to the common explanation such as quantum bit taking two states of 0 and 1, each quantum bit needs more than two different states such as "negative 0" and "negative 1" in order to utilize the (imaginary) quantum inferference between different parallel-world qubit states and cause destructive (or constructive ) interference for leaving the only desirable values ( this-negative probability ).
↑ Physiclsts never explain about what these "negative 0", "negative 1" and "imaginary phase" qubit states mean ( this 11-12 paragraphs ). ← The point is physicists artificially create more than two (classical) bit states and wrongly treat one of them (= such as the classical middle state between 0 and 1 ) as a (illusory) quantum superposition taking 0 and 1 simultaneously using parallel worlds.
This is trick of the illusory quantum superposition which can never be created, so the faster quantum computer based on thse baseless superposition and parallel worlds is illusion.
For example, they often baselessly say the quantum computer with 27 qubits could take as many as 227 (= each qubit can allegedly take 0 and 1 states simultaneously ) different superposition parallel-world states, without showing any evidences .
But according to the recently published paper, IBM quantum computer using 27 qubits could take only two states (instead of 227 ) where all 27 qubits could be either 0 (= 00000.. ) or 1 (= 11111.. ) called GHZ entangled superposition states.
↑ These are Not quantum superposition or parallel worlds, but just a classicaly oscillating state between all 27 qubits becoming 0 and all 27 qubits becoming 1, and they can observe only one state of them (= No multiple different quantum superposition states can be observed simultaneously ) with some probability ( this p.20 ).
Even preparaing only these two (seemingly-superposition) states ( = just classically oscillating between two states ) is difficult suffering from high 50% error rate (= 0.5 fidelity, this p.3-4 ), which inferior quantum computers cannot conduct any precise quantum (illusory) parallel-world simultaneous computing, so useless and Not faster.
Contrary to the media-hype, the current useless quantum computers can never perform any practical calculations such as molecular energy and drug discovery ( this 1st-paragraph ).
This 9th-paragraph says
"it will take many, many years before companies can actually do something useful with the system (= quantum computers )."
This Abstract says
"We have not yet reached the advent of useful quantum computation, "
This 7th paragraph says
"Still, battery researchers say quantum computing doesn’t make sense in a commercial setting yet.. so don’t expect it to play a significant role in battery research anytime soon."
This 3rd paragraph says
"Quantum computers are not yet better than classical computers. They are very 'noisy,' meaning that any outside disturbance knocks the fragile qubits out of quantum states crucial for the calculation too early for them to run meaningful computations."
This 2nd-paragraph says
"it is unlikely that near-term quantum hardware will be able to simulate molecules that are sufficiently large and complex for industry applications"
The current fragile quantum computers having only less than 150 bits (= only 150 bitstring ) with high error rates can Not do any meaningful calculations, much less perform molecular energy calculation.
In fact, quantum mechanics itself cannot calculate any meaningful molecular energies, no matter how excellent computers are used, because the basic physical theory is wrong and broken.
No quantum mechanical Schrödinger equations for multi-electron atoms or molecules can be solved.
So all the quantum mechanics can do is artificially choose (fake) approximate trial wavefunction with freely-adjustable parameters by the fictitious approximate method called "variational" which cannot predict any meaningful atomic or molecular energies, so useless.
Quantum computer tries to use this useless quantum mechanical variational approximate method by deliberately replacing the original complicated variational method with the much simpler more unrealistic method called "Variational quantum eigensolver (= VQE)" which has almost No relationship with the original quantum mechanical Schrödinger equation,
The current (useless) quantum computers have a very small number of bits = less than 150 qubits (= just 150 bitstring ), which cannot perform any complicated quantum mechanical calculation based on variational method using the original Schrödinger equation.
The trick is they use both the ordinary classical computer with billions of bits and the (still-impractical) quantum computer with only less than 50 qubits (= they call it "hybrid" of classical and quantum computers, this 8,11 paragraphs, this 3-5th-paragraphs ), and let this conventional classical computer do almost all the complicated molecular energy calculations, the adjustment and picking of trial wavefunction parameters ( this last-paragraph ).
↑ So their phrase "hybrid computer" is misleading, because this seemingly hybrid computer substantially means the classical computer where the (impractical) quantum computer does almost nothing.
The current quantum computer with less than 50 qubits (= only 50 bit or bitstring ) with higher error rate can do No meaningful molecular energy calculation ( this last-paragraph ).
This 9th-paragraph says
"Today, quantum computers aren’t used to solve these problems (= molecular calculation ) faster than classical computers"
For example, Google quantum computer has only 53 qubits, but they use only 16 qubits out of 53 qubits for the allegedly quantum part of the hybrid computer ( this 2nd paragraph ), because they cannot control or fix many errors caused by 53 qubits ( this 3rd paragraph ), which is why all Google quantum computer can do is just output random meaningless numbers without any meaningful calculation.
↑ It is said that (illusory) quantum computer, which could perform the molecular energy calculation, needs at least a million of qubits ( this 2nd-paragraph, this 6th-paragraph ), which is far larger than the current (useless) quantum computer with less than 50 qubits.
Physicists need to artificially change the original quantum mechanical Schrödinger equation ( whose energy calculation needs billions of bits or qubits ) into much simpler pseudo-energy (= effective Hamiltonian ) equation (= allegedly usable for only a few bit or qubits, so this effective Hamiltonian energy does Not represent the real molecular energy whose calculation needs billions of bits or qubits at all ) for these (still-impractical) quantum computers with a small number of qubits ( this p.2, this p.13-right, this middle-4.mapping ).
And they set some few (physically-meaningless) chosen parameters onto these small number of qubits of the (still-impractical) computers and just tweak them a little without any meaningful quantum computer's calculation, which is all the current quantum computer with an extremely small number of fragile qubits can do ( this 17-20th paragraphs ).
All other complicated molecular energy calculation and adjusting parameters must be done using the conventional classical computer ( this 2nd-paragraph, this p.2-Fig.1 ), so the frequently-appearing news headlines such as "quantum computer could perform molecular calculation ! or it will outperform classical computers someday in the future !" are a complete lie ( this 4th-last-5th-last paragraphs ).
The recent IBM quantum computer's alleged calculation of the LiH and H2 molecualr energies used only a very small number of 2 ~ 6 bits or qubits ( this 7th-paragraph, this p.4 ). ← It's impossible to conduct any complicated energy calculations such as LiH and H2 molecules with only 2 ~ 6 bits or qubits (= only 2~6 bitstring is meaningless ).
This 2nd and 6th paragraphs say
"equipped with a seven-qubit quantum processor, its researchers had successfully simulated the behavior of a small molecule.."
"Classical computing remains a fundamental part of Qiskit, and of any quantum operation carried out over the cloud."
↑ They often call it "hybrid computer ( this 5th-paragraph )", but almost all of the calculations must be done by the conventional classical computers with billions of bits.
The recent paper published in Nature claiming "(Australian) scientists' quantum processor might emulate a small organic molecule (= only polyacetylene )" is untrue and misleading ordinary people into falsely believing their quantum computer (= still Not a computer ! ) might actually calculate some molecules.
Because they used only 10 bits or qubits (= only 10 bitstring, this 4th paragraph ), which is too small number to calculate any molecular energies, compared to the current useful classical computer with billions of bits.
Actually, No news mentioned this research allegedly emulating a small molecule is useful for us.
The 5th paragraph of
this news just vaguely says
"This suggests we're now a step closer to finally using quantum processing power to understand more about the world around us (= the use of vague words of "suggest" and "step closer (= Not arrived yet )" means this dubious quantum processor is still useless, cannot be used to understand the world around us ).
The 10th paragraph of this news also just vaguely says
"According to Simmons, their invention might be commercialized in around five years ? (= still impractical, Not commercialized now )"
↑ None of these news clearly say this quantum computer's research could be useful for moleculer calculation now, because they did Not actually calculate any molecular behavior (= it's impossible to calculate even a small molecule with only 10 bits or 10 bitstring ! )
The 25th-paragraph of this news says
"One of the most promising potential uses (= the word "potential" means it is still unrealized ) of quantum technology is to use one quantum system to simulate other quantum systems.. In this work, the authors considered a chain of ten quantum dots (= only 10 bits ) and used them to emulate the so-called SSH model."
↑ The problem is this "SSH model (= Not quantum Schrödinger equation )" is just a nonphysical useless fictitious model ( this p.3 ), which has nothing to do with actual molecules.
In this unphysical abstract SSH model, each electron is expressed as a nonphysical math operator with No concrete figure ( this p.3 left ).
And physicists just artificially choose several free interaction parameters between these nonphysical electrons ( this p.7, this p.3, this p.1-2 ) without executing any meaningful calculation or prediction.
So this abstract SSH model has No ability to predict any molecular behavior, completely a useless and meaningless task.
All they did was just artificially change the applied voltage and electric currents between only 10 qubits to adjust and fit these free interaction parameters without conducting any molecular calculation ( this p.2 right ).
All other kinds of quantum computers (= still Not a computer or calculator which will need at least millions of qubits as shown in this abstract, which is impossible ) such as ion qubits are also unable to have more than 50 bits ( this lower, this 2nd-last paragraph ). = completely useless.
For example, the ion-type quantum computer uses the unstably-floating ions trapped in the external electromagnetic field as qubits, which cannot be scaled up to millions of qubits or millions of trapped ions, which are required for (illusory) practical quantum computers ( this p.4-lower, this 2nd-last-paragraph, this p.5 ).
The 2nd-last paragraph of this news says
"it’s important to reiterate that quantum computing is still in its infancy... to date, there aren’t any truly useful quantum computers."
The 11th and 15th paragraphs of this news say
"some experts claim that 1 million qubits might be required. And because superconducting qubits need to be cooled to around -270 Celsius (-454 Fahrenheit), cooling even thousands of them could prove to be an almost insurmountable headache (= practical quantum computers are impossible )."
"Some competitors remain unconvinced about superconductors and ion traps, despite their frontrunner status. Their systems are currently almost unusable — you can only put toy problems on them."
The 4th-paragraph of this news says
"A thousand logical qubits is thought to be the minimum for doing any meaningful, but you need a million physical qubits to have 1,000 logical ones. That's because physical qubits are sensitive to vibration, and you need so many of them in order to correct for the noise and the errors in qubits today."
↑ It means even a small number of 1000 logical qubits usable for calculation need a million additional qubits in order just to correct many errors caused by the quantum computers.
The current alleged quantum computers with less than only 150 qubits are completely useless, far from this pie-in-the-sky million-qubit goal, and they are far inferior to the current practical classical computers with billions of bits or transistors with No errors.
The 7th-last-5th-last paragarphs of this news says
"Superconducting qubits (= used by Google, IBM, D-Wave.. ) are quite large and they operate in systems the size of 55-gallon drums, which makes it hard to scale up the design of the quantum system to the millions of qubits necessary to create a truly useful commercial system."
"Spin (= silicon-type ) qubits are much smaller in physical size.. researchers aim to scale the system to the millions of qubits that will be required for a commercial system"
The problem is this silicon or semiconductor-type quantum computer with the alleged tiny electron's spin qubits (= unphysical spin itself cannot be seen, they just imagine "spin" through the electromagnetic field ) is the most fragile and unstable in all quantum computers, hence the silicon-type quantum computer is the most impractical.
Despite the very long time researches across the world, this most fragile semiconductor (or silicon )-type quantum computers could build only a few bit or qubits (= only a few bitstring ), which is completely useless.
The 3rd paragraph of this news says
"Electrons trapped in quantum dots, semiconductor structures of only a few tens of nanometres in size, have been studied for more than two decades as a platform for quantum information. Despite all promises, scaling beyond two-qubit logic has remained elusive."
The 4th-paragraph of this news says
" silicon spin qubits are still lagging behind with only three-qubit gates demonstrated so far."
Even in 2022, this impractical silicon-type quantum compters (= still Not a computer at all ) could build only two qubits ( this 2nd-paragraph, this 4th-last paragraph ), which are far from the (illusory) practical millions of qubits.
Just recently (= Oct 2022 ), physicists finally claimed to have barely controlled (only) 6 silicon qubits (= just six bitstring like 010011, which is completely useless and unable to calculate anything ).
But this fragile silicon-type qubit's lifetime is only several microseconds, and its error rates are still higher, which is more than 20% error rate (= and cannot be corrected ). even when they try to control just three qubits out of six for only a short time (= so they did Not control even three qubits at all, this Fig.2, 5 ), which silicon-type quantum computer (= still Not a computer at all ) is useless and far inferior to the current ordinary classical computers with more than billions of bits or transistors with almost No error rate.
The problem is the quantum computer's companies and academia colluding with the media tend to intentionally spread many exaggerated news misleading laypersons into thinking this most fragile silicon-type quantum computers could potentially achieve a million of qubits.
For example, The 19th-last and 11th-last paragraphs of
this intentionally-exaggerated news says
"The researchers found the (magnetic) field generated by the resonator could control an area that could potentially fit four million qubits (= the use of vague phrases "could potentially" means they have Not achieved a million of qubits at all )... The thing they’re not showing is they don't have a million qubits."
↑ The same team publishing this paper could build only one or two qubits ( this 2nd-last and last paragraphs, this p.1-right-last ) even in the latest research in 2022
The 3rd-last paragraph of this exaggerated news says
"it can accelerate its research efforts and hopefully scale one day to mass-produce thousands or even millions of qubits for commercial quantum computers (← They have Not achieved a million qubits at all now, except just "hoping" )."
↑ So the quantum computer's company and academia desperately try to hide the inconvenient fact that these most impractical silicon-type quantum computers with only a few qubits despite long-time researches (= still Not a computer al all ) are useless, hopeless forever, unable to build even more than two qubits, by spreading the misleading and exaggerated news almost every day.
The recent Harvard-MIT and its start-up company QuEra's alleged 256-qubit quantum simulator is Not a real quantum computer like fake D-Wave annealing quantum computer.
This 2nd-paragraph says
"Notably, the system made is an experimental quantum simulator and Not an actual working quantum computer but a simulator "
The 2nd-last paragraph of this site says
"QuEra’s device is a quantum simulator rather than a computer, though. That means it can be used to model certain physical phenomena, but it isn’t a general-purpose device that can run all kinds of algorithms."
This 6th paragraph says
"Now QuEra steps in, claiming to have built a device with far more qubits (= still only 256 qubits ) than any other competitor. However, the start-up does Not call its machine a quantum computer but a quantum simulator."
What has this dubious quantum simulator done ?
The 8-9th paragraphs of this news explain
"system allowed the researchers to capture ultra-cold rubidium atoms and arrange them in a specific order using a one-dimensional array of individually focused laser beams called optical tweezers."
"Using the tweezers (= laser ), researchers can arrange the atoms in defect-free patterns and create programmable shapes like square, honeycomb, or triangular lattices to engineer different interactions between the qubits.."
↑ So all they did was arrange some (51~256) neutral atoms in some pattern, which they call "programming". ← But this "programming" has nothing to do with the actual computer's programming for computation.
What this fake quantum simulator did was just arrange 256 atoms in some patterns and excite them using ordinary laser beams, and call it "simulator" without any meaningful calculation ( this 2nd-last paragraph, this p.2 ).
↑ This so-called quantum simulator is Not an actual simulator or computer at all, because they try to falsely treat these meaninglessly arranged 256 atoms by laser as pseudo-many-body system expressing some irrelevant materials such as antiferromagnet and solid-crystals ( this 15-20th paragraphs, this 16th-paragraph ).
The last paragraph of this site says
"in a quantum simulator we pick the atoms in such a way that they interact with each other the way we want them to interact, without individually programming them (= No real programming is executed )."
Contrary to the exaggerated news, this (fake) quantum simulator is completely useless (forever) with No practical application.
This 8th-paragraph says
"it’s unlikely that they (= quantum simulator ) will find many practical applications."
This 11th-paragraph says
"Lukin said the group has only created a baby version of the topological qubit that is far from being useful for actual application."
The 2nd-last paragraph of this news about 256-qubit (fake) quantum simulator just vaguely says
"The researchers are currently working to improve the system by improving laser control over qubits and making the system more programmable. They are also actively exploring how the system can be used for new applications.." ← They never specified what exactly this (fake) quantum simulator has actually achieved.
The 2nd-paragraph of this exaggerated news also just vaguely says
"The company says its technology will empower enterprises to execute computational tasks that are currently not possible" ← They talk only about uncertain future (= using the word "will" ), and never said this (fake) quantum simulator has achieved anything useful so far.
This (fake) quantum simulator just arranging a small number of atoms with laser is said to solve optimization problems (= traveling salesman problem ) quicker ( this 4-5th-paragraphs, this 6th-paragraph ). ← This is untrue.
↑ If this quantum simulator or computer could really solve some problems faster than the ordinary classical computer, we would have already utilized this (illusory) faster quantum computer now.
But all the current (alleged) quantum computers and simulatros are completely useless and impractical ( this 6th-paragraph ), and No companies or persons use them in the practical scene.
This optimization problem has been already done by D-Wave annealing (fake) quantum computer, which proved to be Not faster than the ordinary classical computer ( this p.10, this p.18, this 3rd-paragraph ).
↑ In this optimization problem, physicists just set the lowest-energy state as the solution (= so physicists need to know this solution in advance, which cannot calculate unknown values ), and let the (fake) quantum computer or simulator gradually settle down to this lowest energy equilibrium state (= solution ? ) without performing any calculations except for watching it ( this 6th-paragraph, this p.2 ).
And they unfairly imposed the very time-consuming calculation method only on classical computers (= time-consuming calculations of all possible states into which each atom may change, one by one ), which means the deliberate unfair choice of the time-consuming method only for classical computers causes this illusory faster quantum computer, instead of truly faster quantum computers.
This 12th-paragraph says
"The trouble is, it’s possible to build a device that produces a similar result to quantum annealing without any quantum behavior—i.e., without invoking superpositions and parallel universes. So the question is: Is the D-Wave machine doing quantum annealing ?"
This 3rd paragraph says
"It’s mostly still research and experimental," Bo Ewald, D-Wave International’s president, told Gizmodo. "No production applications yet"
Photon's quantum comptuer's advantage or speed-up is illusion.
The media is flooded with misleading news trying to wrongly associate fictional quantum computers and AI or machine learning which quantum calculation is still only a theoretical illusion Not realized by any (useless) quantum computers as seen in the recent IBM researchers ( this p.7 2nd-paragraph ).
↑ All of these "actual" AI or machine learning calculations could be done only using "classical ordinary computers" (= hence, No quantum computer's speed-up )
Microsoft's hypothetical "topological quantum computer (= once retracted as a fake theory )" is ridiculous and useless forever, because it tries to use unreal quasiparticles such as the impossible fractional-charge anyons and Majorana as fictional future quantum bits or qubits in vain. ← Microsoft still has Not realized even a single working qubit based on fictitious quasiparticles which cannot even be isolated as real particles.
This 6th-paragraph says
"The researchers hope to obtain such immunity with so-called topological quantum bits. These would be something completely new that No research group has yet been able to create."
The fictitious Majorana quasiparticle, which could allegedly become (illusory) topological quantum computer's qubit, can Not be observed, because the quasiparticle itself ( this 3rd-paragraph ) is Not a real particle.
Physicists just measured some classical electromagnetic fields and electrical conductance, and baselessly claimed these measured conductance might indicate (fictional) Majorana quasiparticles ( this 6th-paragraph, this p.2-4th-paragraph, this 9th-paragraph ) instead of directly detecting such an illusory quasiparticle ( this p.2-left-5th-paragraph, this p.2-middle-last-paragraph ).
This 2~4 paragraphs say
"Majorana quasiparticles appear in materials in extremely restricted conditions. When a nanowire made from a semiconductor is connected to a superconductive material, researchers see a so-called zero-bias peak in the case of certain electric and magnetic fields... This perfect quantization of the Majorana conductance is the final proof of the existence of the Majorana’s"
↑ So physicists try to (mis)interpret the ordinary (classical) electric conductance under some special condition and material as (fictitious) unobservable Majorana quasiparticle, though this pseudo-particle does Not actually exist.
This p.6-right-2nd-paragraph says
"Can we now claim that Majoranas have been observed ? We can Not, because topological protection has Not yet been demonstrated."
↑ No fictitious Majorana quasiparticle has been found (= because quasiparticle is an unreal particle from the beginning ), No single topological quantum computer's qubit has been built despite the very long time researches, which means neither topological quantum computer nor Majorana quasiparticle is real.
↑ Their topological quantum computers are based on unfounded hypothesis that fictional fractional-charge quasiparticles may produce other fictional strings or "unseen braids" and entangle those fictional braids, which may realize robust future quantum computer, though physicists avoid showing what those illusory unseen topological braids are made of ( this 4th-paragraph ) except for showing only nonphysical abstract math hypothesis ( this p.2-4 ). ← nonsense.
Actually all these fictional quantum computers such as topological ones are still useless, just exaggerating imaginary future unwarranted words ( this last paragraph )
"the next step is a topological qubit. We hypothesize that the topological qubit will have a favorable combination of speed, size, and stability compared to other qubits. We believe ultimately it will power a fully scalable quantum machine in the future.. ?" ← unrealized and useless now and forever.
This last paragraph also just vaguely says
"Current research focuses not just on the neutrino but also on (unreal) quasi-particles .. called Majorana fermions.. they could be used for error correction.. " ← just use the uncertain speculative word "could" without saying this unreal quasiparticle has achieved anything useful.
The so-called quantum internet, quantum information, cryptography and entanglement are also useless forever (= infinite steps are needed to be practical = quantum internet is impractical forever ), and the quantum internet has nothing to do with quantum computers.
This last paragraph says
"we're still about a decade or more away from truly functional quantum internet."
This 3rd paragraph says
"However, creating a quantum internet is complicated, as the technology is quite fragile."
This 12th paragraph says
"Reliable teleportation around a quantum network remains some way off, and this work makes clear the massive challenge ahead for the true realization of the quantum internet."
Quantum internet and teleportation are said to use fictional faster-than-light spooky entanglement which are unable to send any real information ( this p.2-left-1st-paragraph ).
↑ "Faster-than-light quantum internet or entanglement will come !?" is a blatant lie or just the commonly-seen media-hype ( this 2nd-paragraph ).
Neither quantum teleportation nor entanglement can send any real informations, much less faster-than-light. ← It means physicists have to use the ordinary classical devices to send information (= ordinary classical light ) also in quantum internet whose quantum technology is meaningless.
↑ In order to send real and useful information in (fictitious) quantum internet or entanglement, they always have to rely on the ordinary standard classical communication methods such as sending light or radio wave (= a fictitious photon is just very weak classical light wave ), which cannot exceed the light speed c ( this 2nd-paragraph, this introduction-1st-paragraph, this last-paragraph ).
So they gave up "(illusory) faster quantum internet" and started to say quantum internet using very weak fragile light (= or fictitious photon ) could detect eavesdropping by seeing if such a fragile weak light (= or illusory photon ) is simply destroyed by eavesdropping ( this 8th-paragraph, this 2-4th paragraphs, ).
↑ This destroyed weak (classical) light used as a means to detect eavesdropping has Nothing to do with quantum mechanics. It's just an ordinary classical light wave phenomenon.
The 11th paragraph of this news explains the dubious mechanism of quantum internet,
"The laws of physics mean that if anyone gains any information about the encoded state, that inevitably changes the encoded state. So, eavesdropping can always be detected on the communications chann."
The 2nd-last and last paragraphs of this site says
"The team is using photons — quantum particles of light.. Quantum particles are extremely delicate and have a tendency to break down with the slightest perturbation, such as vibration or temperature changes, so sending them over long distances in the real world is quite difficult.."
".. any attempt to observe (photon) particles in a quantum state automatically alters the particles and destroys the transmitted information (= encoded in photon or light polarization ). It also alerts the sender and recipient of an eavesdropping attempt."
↑ This meachanism of detecting eavesdropping or allegedly-secure internet by finding the destroyed fragile photon does Not need the quantum mechanics and its fictitious photon at all.
Because not only fantasy quantum mechanics but also the ordinary classical objects (= such as classical light wave ) are changed or destroyed by someone (= eavesdropper ) trying to touch or affect them for getting some information from classical objects.
↑ If this "change" of the target state by external stimulator (= such as eavesdropper ) can be used for detecting eavesdropper and unhackble communication, the ordinary classical objects or very weak classical light wave (= which can be also changed by external stimulator ) can be used for unhackable internet.
← Still-impractical quantum internet, information, cryptography are unnecessary and useless.
This paper argues
"The security of quantum cryptography is guaranteed by the no-cloning theorem, which implies that an eavesdropper copying transmitted qubits in unknown states causes their disturbance (= this is Not specific to quantum mechanical phenomena ! )"
↑ Classical objects also cause disturbance by eavesdropper's intervention, and this alleged quantum mechanical "non-cloning theorem" is just one of speculative theorems lacking any grounds or experimental evidences, So there is No guarantee that quantum internet is secure.
The 4-6th paragraphs of this site says quantum internet is still (or may forever ) useless.
"The prospect of a quantum internet has been much-hyped, unlike its predecessor, but we still don’t yet know what the precise capabilities of quantum internet actually are or even when it is likely to be widely operational... The quantum internet is not a supercharged version of today’ internet."
A fictitious photon allegedly used for quantum internet is just a weakened classical light wave. → A weak light wave or photon is easily destroyed, when an eavesdropper tries to measure it. → The destroyed weak light wave or photon could be detected as a sign of eavesdropping (= secure and unhackbale internet ? ← nonsense, this 2nd-paragraph ) ← The weak light wave = fragile photon, which is easily destroyed, cannot be sent stably while someone keeps trying to measure it ← So "unhackable" quantum internet based on "fragile photon" is an useless technology where the stable communication is impossible.
The use of very weak fragile light or illusory photon as information transmission, which is easily lost or destroyed, means such an unstable quantum internet or information technology is impractical and useless forever.
↑ It's impossible for us to constantly and stably communicate using this easily-lost photon (= very weak classical light ) or easily-destroyed quantum internet vulnerable to any external stimuli ( this 1st-paragraph, this 4th-paragraph, this introduction-2nd-paragraph, this p.1-right-lower, this p.1-right-3rd-paragraph ).
This 13th-paragraph~last paragraph says
"the message (= photon or light ) can only travel a few tens of kilometers (in a fiber optic cable) before it becomes useless... We are not at the point where quantum communications can be deployed to protect our internet communications.."
The 22-23th paragraphs of this news mentions how vulnerable the quantum internet and photon are,
"But they also address a more fundamental challenge for quantum networking.. To entangle two qubits between two quantum machines, you can send their photons (= weak classical light ) across today’s fiber-optic cables. But this is limited to systems that are only a few miles long: an effect known as light attenuation means photons can get lost while traveling down the fiber-optic cable. First-generation quantum internet, like China’s record-setting network, relies on repeater nodes to convert quantum information into digital data, so it can be amplified and passed along. But these repeaters, so called “trusted nodes,” are inherently vulnerable to attack or eavesdropping; "
Actually, despite long-time researches across the world, the quantum internet still consists only of 2~3 atoms (= or bits, this, this 2nd-paragraph, this p.5, this 5th-last paragraph ), which cannot match the current useful ordinary classical internet technology using infinite numbers of atoms or bits at all. ← Large-scale quantum network or internet is just a pipe dream
So far, the longest distance physicists could send photon or light through optical fiber is less than 50 km just between two points (= Not a quantum internet yet. Just sending light or photon less than 50km between two points shows No quantum advantage ).
↑ Even this short distance ( compared to the current practical classical internet connecting all the world ), photon or light could easily get lost, and impractical.
The 2nd-last paragraph of this news says
"However, most quantum memories emit light with wavelengths in the visible or near-infrared range. In fiber optics, these photons make it just a few kilometers before they are lost.. "
".. For this reason,.. his team optimized the wavelength of the photons for their journey in the cable. Using two quantum frequency converters, they increased the original wavelength from 780 nanometers to a wavelength of 1,517 nanometers (= this is just classical light wave, because a photon's rigid particle cannot be elongated ! )... team accomplished the conversion with an unprecedented efficiency of 57 percent (= a lot of photons or light get lost ). "
↑ If optical fiber cable is used to send photons or light, eavesdroppers cannot get the information of photon or light, unless they destroy the optical cable, and this destroyed cable can be easily detected, so eavesdropping is also easily detected (= but we can no longer send information due to the destroyed optical cable, so this quantum mechanical eavesdropping detection mechanism is useless ). ← Whether classical light or quantum photon, eavesdropping can be easily detected by seeing the destroyed optical cable. ← Quantum mechanics or quantum internet is meaningless.
The 2nd-last~last paragraphs of this news admits
"However, it is very challenging in quantum mechanics to store your qubits without errors accumulating... The Quantum internet is still over a decade away (= or unrealized forever )."
In order only to hide this hopelss and extremely-impractical quantum internet, a lot of misleaningly hyped news about the (illusory) quantum internet and teleportation is circulated.This exaggerated news argues
↑ The frequent use of only uncertain speculative words such as "will" and "could" means this (illusory) quantum internet is still unrealized now (= and forever ).
This 7th paragraph just vaguely says (= due to still-useless quantum internet )
"it's not yet clear what the new center will be doing.. We don’t break that information out, especially at such an early stage of the technology. I can share with you that the AWS Center for Quantum Networking will be working directly on quantum hardware relevant to solving the main challenge in the field: how to build a scalable, commercial quantum network.."
The last paragraph of this hyped news about latest (fictitious) quantum internet or entanglement research just vaguely says
"The researchers think (= Not realized yet ) that the system they developed could be used to construct large-scale quantum networks (= still unrealized ).. The experiment is an important step (= infinite steps are needed, so useless forever ) on the path to the (illusory) quantum internet ?"
↑ Despite decades of researches across the world, all the hyped quantum technology news talks only about the uncertain future ( this 3rd-paragraph, this 2nd-paragraph, this 22th-paragraph, this last ), which shows quantum internet or information will be unrealized forever.
Time crystal is also a meaningless concept = just randomly-oscillating atoms with No practical application.
Controversial D-Wave machine is Not a real quantum computer, hence, Not faster than ordinary classical computers, contrary to the company's claim ( this 3rd paragraph ).
Actually, D-Wave machine is Not even a computer or calculator.
It is called a "quantum annealer" where D-Wave machine just gradually changes and settles down to the lowest (= equilibrium ground-state ) energy state (= this artificially-set lowest energy state is the D-Wave version of solution ) without any meaningful calculation ( this 3rd paragraph ).
While many leading quantum computer companies such as IBM still have Not realized quantum computers with even 100 qubits, only D-Wave could magically achieve 2000 qubits 5 years ago ?
This weird contradiction reveals the controversial D-Wave machine does Not use the very fragile quantum mechanical superposition where each qubit allegedly can be 0 and 1 simultaneously like a dead and alive cat using parallel worlds, hence, D-Wave cannot utilize the real quantum computer's powerful faster parallel-world calculations ( this 12th paragraph ).
↑ No speed-up ( this p.8-lower ~ p.9-upper ).
As some car makers promote, D-Wave machine is said to be able to find the shortest route in the so-called "optimization problems".
But contrary to such a potential, D-Wave is the only major company using the annealing quantum computers which attract attention from only a few car companies ( this 5th paragraph ), because D-Wave machines are actually useless for any practical purposes except for attracting attention and investment money using "exaggerated news".
In the optimization problem, for example, a traveling salesman is supposed to find the shortest possible route between a given list of cities, with the constraint that all cities must be visited exactly once.
When he has to visit 20 different cities, there are an extremely large number = 20×19×18× .. = 2 × 1028 of possible different routes ( this 3rd paragraph ) connecting all 20 cities.
Finding the shortest route out of such a huge number of all possible routes will take an enormous amount of time.
D-Wave tries to map such a problem of finding the shortest route into a search for the lowest energy state.
So in D-Wave machine, the lowest-energy (= equilibrium ) state is supposed to be the "right solution (ex. = the shortest route which a traveling salesman tries to find )".
In order to carry out this D-Wave machine, the first thing to do is to determine the lowest energy state representing the right solution. ← This is the trick.
↑ If the lowest-energy state of D-Wave machine allegedly representing the right solution must be determined in advance, it means users must already know what the right solution is in the process of artificially determining and setting the lowest-energy state even before the D-Wave machine is used.
↑ D-Wave machines or annealing quantum computers are meaningless and unnecessary.
Users have to artificially determine parameters so that the lowest energy state becomes their solution (= ex. shortest route ).
After setting those parameters, users just wait for D-Wave machine to gradually change and settle down to the lowest equilibrium energy state (= solution ? ) with performing No calculations.
D-Wave quantum annealing is still very much in its infancy, and can only handle very small and impractical optimization problems ( this 4th-last-3rd-last paragraphs. )
And D-Wave is Not a real quantum computer based on the orthodox quantum superposition or parallel-world calculations, so we can easily construct similar "classical annealing machines" which can also gradually change and settle down to their lowest energy state as the final solution like D-Wave. But we didn't need to construct such a machine.
Because we do Not need such a very expensive bulky D-Wave annealing machine to just find the shortest route for salesman who can just choose one of the proper routes considering various other factors such as transportation and costs using his "brain" or ordinary classical computers.
When we can choose and determine the lowest energy state as the right solution ( and set various parameters in D-Wave beforehand ) so that the whole system can automatically and smoothly move into the lowest energy or artificially-prepared right solution without being stuck in many other wrong solutions or local energy minima, we must already know the true solution even before running D-Wave machine ( this 6th paragraph ). ← This is the trick of the fake quantum speed-up.
Setting the lowest energy as the right solution = That solution has been already found before D-Wave is used. ← An expensive, bulky D-Wave machine is unnecessary.
Various dubious news such as "D-Wave might calculate faster than classical computers" is false based on an unfair comparisons by deliberately picking different methods for quantum computers (= for which, very easy method is chosen ) and classical computers (= for which, very time-consuming difficult method is chosen, this 18th paragraph ).
D-Wave deliberately replaced "finding the shortest route" by an easy method of letting the system gradually change into the lowest-energy equilibrium state, while they made only classical computers perform a very-time consuming method of randomly flipping one bit at a time, calculating and comparing energies before and after the bit-flip, deciding whether the bit is returned or not, calculating the probability,.. repeatedly until they luckily find the lowest-energy state.
Regardless of whether classical or quantum objects, all things tend to gradually change and settle down to their lowest-energy or equilibrium states.
So the annealing machines such as D-Wave, which just wait for the whole system to gradually change into its lowest-energy state without executing any calculations, do Not represent quantum mechanical effect, hence, the D-Wave quantum computer's speed-up is just fake news ( this 5th-last paragraph ).
For example, in the recent (illusory) D-Wave quantum advantage news, physicists unreasonably chose a very time-consuming and inefficient method called "Monte-Carlo" only for classical computers ( this 8th paragraph ).
↑ D-Wave machine, which cannot do any calculations, is unable to carry out even this Monte-Carlo method chosen for classical computers. ← "D-Wave is superior to classical computer ?" is illusion.
In this very time-consuming Monte-Carlo method, when many particles gradually mix and settle down to their equilibrium state, physicists deliberately and randomly choose only one particle at a time, calculate its transition probability, and determine in which direction the randomly-chosen particle will move repeatedly, until all particles can luckily reach the lowest energy state ( this p.3, this p.15 ).
↑ Any classical objects in the nature do Not take such a time-consuming Monte-Carlo method artificially created by humans to find their lowest-energy states spontaneously.
So the outrageous idea that the very time-consuming, artificially-created Monte-Carlo may represent the natural classical phenomena is just false and inconsistent with reality.
In this unrealistically time-consuming Monte-Carlo method artificially chosen by quantum computer's companies as a (fake) classical method, they just randomly and blindly flip one qubit at a time (= without predicting energy change or "force direction" beforehand ), and only after that, they calculate the energy difference before and after the random qubit's flip, and determine whether they return the qubit to the original state or not, repeatedly, until they luckily reach the lowest energy state.
On the other hand, all the natural and real classical particles tend to be automatically (= not randomly ) attracted by "force", smoothly and swiftly changes into the lowest energy state simultaneously instead of the upper fake classical method = Monte-Carlo which just randomly and blindly moves one particle at a time without even pre-estimating the force direction in which each particle will be naturally attracted.
So all the fishy speed-up or advantage of the annealing (fake) quantum computers such as D-Wave is just illusion and unreal, caused by "unfair choices" of unrealistic time-consuming methods as (fake) classical methods.
Actually, this D-Wave machine is still useless, as seen in the 5th-last paragraph of this news vaguely saying
"Volkswagen believes quantum computing has the potential to revolutionize how we use and learn from data in the real world. Even though the technology is still in its early stages.."
↑ Just using multiple vague future words such as "believe", "potential" and "early states" means D-Wave machines is still useless for us.
Actually nobody around you uses this D-Wave bulky expensive and impractical machines, and now D-Wave seems to try to give up this still-impractical quantum annealing machine ( this 7-8th paragraphs )
When the system gradually changes into the lowest-energy (= solution ) state, D-Wave is said to rely on fishy quantum tunneling besides normal thermal fluctuation.
But this quantum tunneling is Not specific to quantum computers. Ordinary classical computers also use this quantum tunnel, so the quantum tunneling cannot be used as the reason for (falsely) claiming D-Wave machine can be faster than the ordinary classical computer.
The quantum tunnel is just a classical (= realistic ) phenomenon, Not a quantum mechanical occult phenomenon where an electron seemingly penetrates even the rigid wall by unphysical negative kinetic energy.
When the conductor tip becomes very close (= ~nm ) to the target conductor and some voltage is applied, it is natural that electrons can get through the very "narrow empty space" such as air and vacuum (= the air or vaccum's empty space is falsely treated as rigid-wall like "insulator barrier" by unscientific quantum mechanics which loves unreal negative kinetic energies ).
Aside from fake quantum computer D-Wave, a real quantum computer or its speed-up is also inherently impossible.
Unlike the ordinary (= classical ) computer's bit, each quantum bit or qubit is said to be 0 and 1 states simultaneously like a fictional cat can be dead and alive using unscientific quantum superpositon or fantasy parallel worlds ( this last paragraph ).
Of course, it is impossible for us to observe such a grotesque dead and alive cat unrealistically splitting into different quantum mechanical parallel worlds in this real world.
So quantum mechanics makes a poor excuse that when we try to observe each qubit (or cat ), it suddenly and conveniently chooses only one state 0 or 1 ( dead or alive ) picking only one parallel world out of infinite different parallel worlds as a single real world. ← nonsense.
No direct observation or proof of such a mythical quantum superpostion state means there is No quantum mechanical superposition or parallel worlds, hence the quantum computer's speed-up allegedly taking advantage of such a fantasy parallel-world calculation is illusion, too.
In fact, the fraudulent quantum mechanics just calls some classical states "superposition" or "parallel worlds", though there are No such things as quantum superposition or (unobservable) parallel worlds in this real world.
Quantum computer's physicists often treat an atom's (or ion's ) lowest ground state as "0" and the first excited state as "1" of a quantum bit or qubit.
When illuminating each qubit or ion by some classical laser light, the qubit's state changes and oscillates between the lowest-energy state (= 0 ) and the excited state (= 1 ) alternately (= instead of simultaneously using fantasy superposition or parallel worlds ), which "classical motion" is called Rabi oscillation.
When such an oscillating qubit's state is just between the lowest-energy state (= 0 or ↓ or S ) and excited state (= 1 or ↑ or D ) in this classical Rabi oscillation, quantum mechanics outrageously claims the qubit is in two states 0 (= lowest-energy state ) and 1 (= excited state ) simultaneously using fantasy superposition or parallel worlds ( this p.25-26 ).
The most popular quantum computers studied by Google and IBM use a bulky and big superconducting circuit as a single qubit or a single artificial atom with two artificial energy levels 0 and 1.
In the space occupied by such a very big artificial atom or superconducting qubit (= one qubit is as big as ~1 mm ! ), more than 10000 classical computer's compact bits (= each bit is only ~50 nm ) can be packed.
So even if such a very big quantum bit or artificial atom can take two different states 0 and 1 simultaneously, the more than 10000 classical computer's very small bits packed in a single big qubit can take more than 10000 different states simultaneously, hence, classical computers can calculate much faster than quantum computers, even if quantum superposition, or a dead-and-alive cat is real.
A superconducting qubit's artificial two-energy state is said to be determined by the number of fictitious quasiparticles called "Cooper pairs ( this p.2, this p.12 )"
Each fictitious Cooper pair consists of two electrons separated by a long distance ( this 2nd paragraph ).
So when each superconducting qubit is allegedly in the (fantasy) quantum superposition between 0 (= 0 Cooper pair = 0 electron ) and 1 (= 1 Cooper pair = two electrons ), such a superposition qubit just includes the odd number of electrons ( 0.5 Cooper pair = 1 electron ) which has nothing to do with fantasy quantum superposition or parallel worlds.
A qubit is in two different superposition states of 0 Cooper pair and 1 Cooper piar. → A qubit is just between 0 Cooper pair and 1 Cooper pair. → A qubit is in one single state of including 1 electron (= 0.5 Cooper pair ). ← This is what dubious quantum superposition or parallel worlds is.
The photon's quantum computer uses the light polarizations (= ex. horizontal = 0 and vertical = 1 ) as a qubit's state, hence, its fishy quantum superposition state is just a classical state where two classical light waves with different polarizations (= 0 and 1 ) overlap each other, which has nothing to do with (fantasy) quantum computers or parallel worlds ( this p.9 ).
Or just when the very weak classical light beam (= called "photon" whose light intensity just exceeds some detection threshold of the photodetector ) realistically splits into two weaker lights in two paths at a beam splitter, physicists irrationally call the split lights "quantum superposition" where a single fictitious photon particle is supposed to unrealistically split into two paths in two fantasy parallel worlds ( this 6th paragraph, this lower ).
↑ Actually, only classical light wave is related to these phenomena.
The fantasy quantum mechanical photon and parallel worlds are irrelevant to this.
Quantum computer is said to perform parallel calculations of multiple different values simultaneously using fantasy different parallel worlds, which pseudo-concepts should be the driving force of (imaginary) quantum computer's speed-up.
But just calculating multiple different values using (unphysical) quantum mechanical superpositon, a dead-alive cat or parallel worlds does Not lead to faster calculations.
Because when the calculated values are observed, they suddenly choose only one value or state belonging to only one parallel world, and all other calculated values in all other parallel worlds miserably vanish ( this 18-19th paragraphs ) according to the stupid quantum computer's rule.
So in order to take advantage of (fictional) quantum parallel-world calculations, all calculated values in different parallel worlds have to conveniently interfere with each other and magically leave only desirable right values when they are observed. ← Too good and unrealistic !
The 26-29th paragraphs of this site explains
"A quantum computer can be in a quantum combination of all of those states, called superposition. This allows it to perform one billion or more copies of a computation at the same time. In a way, this is similar to a parallel computer with one billion processors performing different computations at the same time.."
".. In a quantum computer, all one billion computations will be running on the same hardware.. If we measured this quantum state, we would get just one of the results. All of the other 999,999,999 results would disappear. To solve this problem, one uses the second effect, quantum interference ?"
↑ In fact, this fictional quantum computer's too-good speed-up mechanism is physically impossible, so faster quantum computers will never be realized.
Quantum computer tries to make the same hardware or a single qubit perform multiple different parallel calculations using independent (= non-interacting ) parallel worlds at first.
Because if all quantum parallel worlds can influence and interact with other parallel worlds, the simultaneous independent multiple calculations of different values using different parallel worlds are impossible.
↑ If different parallel worlds can influence and change other parallel worlds constantly from the beginning, it means all parallel worlds exist in One single interacting world (= hence, calculating only one single value is possible at once ← No quantum computer's speed-up ). ← Multiple different quantum superposition states or parallel worlds do Not exist from the beginning.
But after those independent parallel-world calculations of multiple different values, quantum mechanics outrageously demands all those different calculated values interfere with (= influence ) each other like combining all different quantum parallel worlds in one single world !
If different parallel worlds can interfere with each other from the beginning, the parallel worlds are meaningless, and it means there is only one single world from the beginning, hence, faster parallel calculations of different values using independent parallel worlds or superposition is impossible.
Furthermore, quantum computers unrealistically require bulky solid qubits or ions to interfere with each other like liquids or water waves, which is physically impossible.
According to the unrealistic quantum computer's rule, when two solid qubits in different parallel worlds meet each other, they can interfere destructively (= two solid qubits collide and magically disappear !? ) or constructively (= two solid qubits or ions overlap and merge into one bigger solid qubit or a bigger new ion !? ) ← Impossible !
So both quantum mechanical parallel-world calculations and interference, which are thought to be the reason for (illusory) quantum computer's speed-up, are based on contradicting and impossible idea. ← Faster quantum computers will never happen.
If the quantum comptuer and its each single qubit could really perform parallel calculations of different values simultaneously using fantasy parallel worlds, physicists could have alreadly achieved Shor's algorithm which is supposed to factor any numbers by calculating different values simultaneously using parallel worlds ( this 6th-last to 3rd-last paragraphs, this middle ) faster than the classical computer. ← But this faster factoring has Not been achieved yet.
The largest integer the current quantum computers using Shor's algorithm have factored is only very small numbers = 21 or 15 ( this 6th paragraph, this 3-5th paragraphs ). ← Too small number, hence this alleged quantum computer's factoring is Not faster than classical computers at all ( this 18th paragraph ).
Even factoring meaninglessly small numbers such as 21 = 7 × 3 or 15 = 5 × 3 did Not use quantum superposition or parallel-world calculations. ← This fact is enough to prove the faster quantum computer using parallel calculations or quantum mechanical superposition is impossible forever.
Instead of performing parallel-world calculations of different values simultaneously, the current quantum computers can only calculate "one single value" at a time using a single world and fake Shor's algorithm of resetting and recycling each same qubit ( this, this p.2-left, Fig.1, this p.1 ).
When the answer of factored numbers is already known (= so useless for factoring unknown new numbers ), physicists can set those already-known factoring solution as the lowest-energy state of D-Wave annealing machine and get those values using annealing without any calculations or factoring, which fake method cannot factor any numbers faster than classical computers using the original Shor's algorithm ( this 3rd paragraph ).
As a result, the quantum computer speed-up by dream-like simultaneous parallel calculations (using quantum superposition or fantasy parallel worlds ) is unrealized despite longtime researches across the world, hence, proved to be impossible forever.
Physicists just "imagine" (illusory) quantum superposition state just by illuminating each qubit by classical laser light without directly observing such an illusory superposition state.
You might often hear the unscientific hypothesis that each quantum bit can take two states 0 and 1 simultaneously, hence the quantum computer with N qubits can theoretically take 2N different states ( using fantasy parallel worlds ). ← This is a lie.
For example, if the quantum computer has three qubits, it should take as many as 8 different states (= 8 = 2 × 2 × 2 ) simultaneously, if their unrealistic idea is right.
But so far, experiments showed qubits can Not take different quantum superposition states or parallel worlds, instead, three qubits can only classically oscillate between only two states (= 000 ↔ 111 = called GHZ state ) or between only three states (= 100 ↔ 010 ↔ 001 = called W state, this p.1-right 2nd paragraph, this p.3 ) by externally-applied microwave pulse.
↑ In the alleged 3-qubit "superposition" of the mixed 000 ↔ 111 GHZ state, only one of 000 or 111 states as 3 qubits can be observed with some probabilities. ← No proof of quantum superposition mixing different qubit states simultaneously or parallel-world computation.
→ Faster quantum computers relying on fictional quantum mechanical superposition states or parallel worlds are baseless and impossible forever.
Chinese team's photon quantum computer advantage is wrong. Not faster at all.
"Calculating molecular energy on quantum computer ?" is completely false news.
First of all, the current quantum mechanical theory cannot calculate or predict any multi-electron atomic or molecular energies, so useless no matter how powerful computers are used.
Useless quantum mechanics has to artificially choose fake approximate solution, insert such a fake solution into Schrödinger equation, and integrate it (= instead of solving Schrödinger equations which are unsolvable ) for obtaining fake molecular energies using variational methods.
Physicists try to use this fake useless approximate method called "variational quantum eigensolver" to seemingly "calculate" (fake) molecular energies on quantum computers (= still Not computers, so calculating something is impossible, though ).
In fact, this variational quantum eigensolver, which is a hybrid of classical and quantum computer's calculations, relies on ordinary classical computers for performing almost all calculations.
The 5-6th paragraphs of this site say
"Last year, researchers at Google’s quantum computing lab .. used three qubits (= very small number ! ) to calculate the lowest energy electron arrangement of the simplest possible molecule, molecular hydrogen..
".. IBM’s quantum computing researchers have now raised the bar. The scientists used up to six qubits (= still too small a number of qubits to calculate any meaningful values ! ) made of specialized metals called superconductors, which can carry different levels of electric current simultaneously, to analyze hydrogen, lithium hydride, and beryllium hydride (BeH2) molecule ?"
↑ Thinking commonsensically, it is impossible to calculate any complicated molecular energy values using only three (= 001 ) or six qubits (= 001001, this 2nd paragraph ).
It means their quantum computers with only a few qubits did Not perform any meaningful calculations of molecular energies, and ordinary classical computers with billions of bits did almost all complicated calculations in the name of "hybrid." ← This is the trick.
For example, when physicists try to calculate (fake) energy of a two-atomic hydrogen molecule (= H2 ), they use only two qubits (= 01 ) as a (useless) quantum computer (= hence, still Not a computer, this p.3 this p.4 ).
For these only-two qubit quantum computers (= Not a computer or calculator ! ) to seemingly calculate (fake) molecular energy, they artificially changed the original complicated molecular energy equation or Hamiltonian into a very simple form of fake meaningless Hamiltonian for two qubits ( this 3rd-last paragraph ), which too simple pseudo-equations have nothing to do with any actual complicated molecular calculations.
This is why (fictional) quantum computers are still useless (forever) for any purposes including (pseudo-)molecular energy calculations ( this 2nd-last paragraph ), because their quantum computers are still Not computers or calculators at all. + Quantum parallel worlds are illusion.
(B-1) ↓ Real force, force carriers are necessary in
Unrealistic quantum mechanics can never treat actual molecular or chemical bonds in the realistic way.
Hence, quantum mechanics has never been useful in any applied science such as computer transistors, smartphones, biology, medicine and still-impractical parallel-world quantum computers, contrary to the media-hype.
Why is the quantum mechanical atomic world useless forever in actual science and technology ?
Quantum mechanics intrinsically can neither treat actual multiple electrons (or atoms ) as they are, nor distinguish (= separate ) different electrons (or different atoms ). Why ?
In quantum mechanical rules, any atomic or electronic wavefunctions must take the nonphysical antisymmetric form generating fictional exchange energies to describe Pauli exclusion principle and (pseudo-)molecular bond energies.
In this nonphysical quantum mechanical antisymmetric wavefunctions, even when we exchange any two electrons' positions or wavefunctions belonging to different atoms and orbitals (= 1 ↔ 2 ), the entire wavefunction's forms remain unchanged except the opposite sign is added to it ( this p.8-9, this 5-6th paragraphs ).
↑ It means each single electron must unrealistically exist in any different positions, atoms, wavefunctions simultaneously.
If an electron-1 exists only in the atom-A's wavefunction and an electron-2 exists only in the atom-B's wavefunction like the entire wavefunction = [ φA (e1) φB (e2) ], this is Not a quantum mechanical antisymmetric wavefunction, hence, its entire wavefunction changes like [ φA (e1) φB (e2) ] → [ φA (e2) φB (e1) ] under the exchange of two electrons e1 ↔ e2.
If each single electrons-1 (or 2 ) unrealistically exists in both different atoms-A and B simultaneously, the entire antisymmetric wavefunction is unchanged except for the sign like [ φA (e1) φB (e2) - φA (e2) φB (e1) ] → - [ φA (e1) φB (e2) - φA (e2) φB (e1) ] under the exchange of two electrons e1 ↔ e2. ← Pauli principle ( this p.7-8 ) ?
So in this antisymmetric wavefunctions, if two electrons share the same state (= same orbital, wavefunction and spin ), the entire wavefunctions become zero. ← Pauli principle mechanism ? ← quantum mechanics gives No more detailed mechanism of Pauli principle than this nonphysical abstract antisymmetric wavefunctions ( this p.7-8 ) ! ← No scientific progress in the current atomic physics !
Due to this unrealistic quantum mechanical interpretation of Pauli principle using unphysical exchange energies caused by antisymmetric wavefunctions, any different electrons allegedly existing in all different atoms simultaneously in molecules and materials become indistinguishable and inseparable from other electrons or atoms, as if all different electrons form a single giant pseudo-electron.
Because this quantum mechanical Pauli antisymmetric wavefunction rule requires every single electron to exist everywhere in any different orbitals and atoms simultaneously, as if each electron exists in any different places using fantasy quantum mechanical parallel worlds or superposition.
In the fictitious quantum mechanical molecular bonds between two atoms, a single electron-1 must exist in two different atoms (or nuclei, protons ) A and B simultaneously (= φA (e1) + φB (e1) ) from the beginning ( this p.15-upper, this p.4-5 ).
So each single electron must exist in any different atoms and molecules simultaneously from the beginning to cause fictitious exchange energies which are thought to generate quantum mechanical fictitious molecular bonds ( this p.11 ) and Pauli repulsions between different atoms.
↑ The problem is when we consider forces between two separate atoms A and B, every single electron must exist in (= bridge ) both separate atoms A and B from the beginning. → Atoms A and B are inseparable from each other by sharing the same single unbreakable electron obeying this stupid quantum mechanical exchange rule !
As a result, we cannot consider real forces between quantum mechanical magical atoms which are unrealistically inseparable from other different atoms due to sharing the same single electron under the nonphysical antisymmetric wavefunction rule allegedly causing nonphysical exchange energies.
So the exchange energies between quantum mechanical atoms lack real ( exchange ) forces ( this p.5 ), hence, the quantum mechanical molecular bond and Pauli repulsive exchange energies cannot be explained by real things or forces ( this p.8-lower, this p.6, this p.11 ).
Unphysical quantum mechanical wavefunctions or electron clouds where each single electron must thinly spread all over the place cannot generate strong Coulomb attractive energies or Coulomb forces between neutral atoms to form real molecular bonds ( → instead, rely on unphysical exchange energy, this p.4-5, this p.3-4 ), unlike realistic atomic models separating de Broglie wave from a real movable electron which can naturally cause real Coulomb forces and energies in molecular bonds.
In this paradoxical quantum mechanical world, though physicists can actually measure real attractions and Pauli repulsive forces between separate atoms, they cannot use the concepts of real forces to explain it ! ← Quantum mechanical molecular model is useless due to its inability to use real forces.
Quantum mechanics makes a paradoxical claim that any fictitious exchange energues such as molecular bond attractions and Pauli repulsions between atoms are caused by the decrease and increase in the (pseudo-)electron's kinetic energy ( this p.9-10 ) without using real forces or the change of any potential energies such as Coulomb electric or magnetic energies.
↑ This quantum mechanical pseudo-mechanism causing strange exchange energies is impossible. Kinetic energies (of electrons ) themselves can Not be the source of forces. Only potential energies such as electromagnetic and gravitational energies can be the source of real forces such as electromagnetic force and gravity.
Actually, these unrealistic quantum mechanical molecular bonds based on Pauli antisymmetric exchange wavefunctions violate total energy conservation law, so false (= a single quantum mechanical molecule contains many different total energies in different electrons' positions, unlike the only solvable one-electron hydrogen atom which can conserve the constant total energy in any electron's position )
As a result, quantum mechanics started to say more ridiculous things "we can Not touch objects or feel real forces, even when we can actually touch them and feel real contact forces (= caused by Pauli repulsion )."
In fact, quantum mechanical Pauli antisymmetric exchange wavefunctions (= such as molecular orbital MO theory ) cannot apply to the system containing more than two electrons, which paradoxical quantum mechanical wavefunctions forced physicists to use the unphysical one-pseudo-electron approximation called DFT, which also failed.
This is why quantum mechanics can never be useful in any applied science. Quantum mechanical Schrödinger equations are unable to give true solutions or wavefunctions of any multi-electron atoms and molecules ( this p.5 ).
See previous version of criticizing top journals.
2021/6/18 updated. Feel free to link to this site.