Top page ( correct Bohr model )

New Bohr model Neon.

New Molecular bonds.

*(Fig.1) "Virtual" photons in QED is "unreal", de Broglie wave is realistic. *

The current quantum mechanics argues that Coulomb force is caused by ( **unreal** ) virtual photons. See this, this. And they say the magnetic force is also due to **virtual** photons. See this, this.

In Feynman diagram, the **square** of mass of *virtual* photon always becomes negative ( m^{2} < 0 ), which means this virtual photon is **faster**-than-light tachyon. So **unreal**. See this, this.

The important point is that the *progress* in our science **stops** in these virtual particles, because they are "virtual" (= **NOT** real ). Physicists **avoid** clear pictures and property of virtual particles, **forever**. See this, this.

It is known that a **moving** electron (= electric **current** ) generates de Broglie waves.

So it is quite natural that we think this **magnetic** force is caused by **de Broglie** wave *interference* rather than **unrealistic** virtual photons.

*(Fig.2) One de Broglie wavelength of electron.*

When an electron moves, **electric** fields (= E ) around the electron also moves with it.

So this *spreading* electric field causes *de Broglie* waves, which can be confirmed by Davisson-Germer experiment.

We can naturally think this de Broglie wave is a kind of longitudinal waves through some *medium*.

If so, double slit interference can be explained by this "**real**" de Broglie waves, **NOT** by "fantasy" many-worlds.

Longitudinal wave consists of "low" (= **sparse** ) and "high" (= **dense** ) pressure areas.

It is thought that an electron **pushes** the field around it toward "dense" area, and is moving with "low" pressure area.

*(Fig.3) "Dense" area oscillates in propagation direction, "sparse" area is the opposite. *

As shown in this and this, the field included in "**dense**" area oscillates in the **propagation** direction, and the field in "**sparse**" area oscillates in the **opposite** direction.

For the total amount of currents in both directions to be the same, the **velocity** in the "sparce" field is higher than that of "dense" area, because there are less obstacles in "sparse" area.

Each "field particle" **stops** on *both* ends of its oscillation, which have "**medium**" density.

*(Fig.4) The same phase areas have the "opposite" oscillations in the "opposite" waves.*

So, when two **de Broglie** waves in the **opposite** directions approach each other, the *oscillating* **velocities** of the **same** phase areas ( sparse-sparse, dense-dense ) become the **opposite**.

So both fields **crash** into and "**repel**" each other, when two de Broglie waves propagate in the **opposite** directions.

*(Fig.5) Magnetic (= Lorentz ) force between two wires = de Broglie waves. *

As shown on this site and this, according to Lorentz magnetic force, two wires carrying electric currents in the **same** direction **attract **each other. And the **opposite** currents **repel** each other.

The electric current is the flow of ( moving ) charged particles (= **electron** ).

*Moving* electrons generate their *de Broglie* waves, so it is clear this **de Broglie** wave has something to do with **magnetic** force !

*(Fig.6) The opposite de Broglie waves (= currents ) have the "opposite" oscillating velocities. *

As I said, electron's de Broglie waves propagating in the **opposite** directions contain the **opposite** *oscillating* fields in the **same**-phase areas, so these opposite waves **repel** each other.

The electric **currents** are moving **electrons** (= *de Broglie* waves ).

So the repulsive de Broglie waves express the electric currents **repelling** each other by **magnetic** forces.

*(Fig.7) de Broglie waves in the same direction contain the same oscillation.*

When two de Broglie waves propagate in the **same** direction, their oscillations are the same and **harmonize** with each other (= **constructive** interference ).

As a result, two de Broglie waves ( electric currents ) in the same direction **attract** each other, which is thought to be Lorentz "**magnetic**" force. It is similar to Magnus effect.

*(Fig.8) Moving electric fields with different strength cause different magnetic force. *

Of course, the electric field lines **radiate** outwards ( or inwards ) from electric charges.

If we suppose the **de Broglie** waves are caused by **moving** ( or propagting ) electric fields, we have to consider the **difference** in the distribution of *electric field* lines.

In Fig.8, an electron and its electric field are moving upward.

In the left area (= "1" ), the spaces of electric field is **narrow** in the propagation direction, so the fields can be more **compressed**.

So the generated *de Broglie* waves become **stronger** (= more compressed ) in the **narrow** electric fields than the wide electroc fields (= "2" ).

*(Fig.9) Biot-Savart law -- magnetic and electric fields. *

The relation between electric fields and de Broglie waves can naturally explain Biot-Savart law.

In Biot-Savart law, the magnetic fields become **stronger** at points (= "1" in Fig.9 ) which are **perpendicular** to the electric currents.

This relation between magnetic force strength and currents is just **equal** to that between the electric field's **spaces** (= narrow or wide ) and **de Broglie** waves in Fig.8.

*(Fig.10) Moving charges "push" the rest field. *

Considering fatal paradoxes of special relativity, it is natural we think some aether-like matter **moving** with the earth can explain Michelson-Morley experiments.

In this **rest** field ( with respect to the **earth** ), when a charge ( and its electric field ) starts to move, it *pushes* and **compresses** the fields.

This compressed field causes longitudinal waves, and oscillates back, passing charge.

As a result, this charge can move with "sparse" area of this longitudinal waves **smoothly**.

*(Fig.11) Two particles can keep their velocities due to energy conservation. *

Even when two particles with the opposite velocities (= ±v ) crash into each other, they **never** stop ( if potential energies or field densities do not change ).

Because if they **suddenly** stop after collision, it **violates** energy conservation and needs "infinite" acceleration.

So if the total energy is conserved ( like elastic collision ), two particles can move with the **same** speeds as before collision.

*(Fig.12) de Broglie wavelength becomes shorter, as momentum is bigger. *

Even if the velocities of charged particles are the same, its momentums becomes bigger as its **mass** is greater. Because **bigger** mass tends to **push** and compress **more** fields.

On this page, we can naturally think the large difference between *electron* and *proton* **masses** are due to their "**density**" difference (= heavy proton has much **denser** fields ).

So Coulomb attractive force is caused by "**dense**" *positive* proton is **attracted** toward "**sparse**" *negative* electron. Repulsive Coulomb force is caused by the combinations of "dense" -"dense", and "sparse"-"sparse".

In "denser" (= heavy ) proton, the field around it feels more resistance and "pushing" force than "sparse" (= light ) electron. So the pushed field becomes more **compressed** in proton's field.

"Compressed" fields mean higher potential energy and lower field particle's velocities, considering total energy conservation.

As a result, a proton causes **shorter** (= steep ) de Broglie waves than an electron at the same speed.

Compressed fields can push back the same amount of fields at **higher** speed through **narrower** gaps inside "**dense**" *positive* fields.

*(Fig.13) Two de Broglie waves in the same direction and phase interfere constructively. *

When the **same** *phases* of two de Broglie waves in the **same** *direction* approach each other ( sparse-sparse, and dense-dense ), they interfere with each other **constructively**.

Because each oscillating direction in longitudinal wave **agrees** with each other.

*(Fig.14) "Sparse" and "dense" areas interfere destructively. *

But when **different** phases ( sparse - dense ) of two de Broglie waves overlap, they interfere **destructively**. In this case, each electron **repels** each other, as shown in double-slit interference experiment.

*(Fig.15) The opposite de Broglie waves contain the "opposite" oscillations.*

When two de Broglie waves in the **opposite** directions approach each other, they have the **opposite** oscillation in each phase, so crash and **repel** each other.

*(Fig.16) The opposite de Broglie waves = destructive interference.*

As shown in Fig.16, de Broglie waves in the opposite directions contains the same oscillation in the **different** phases ( sparse-dense ).

So after all, the **opposite** de Broglie waves end in **destructive** interference, which gets fields back to the original "**medium**"-density .

*(Fig.17) One de Broglie wavelength orbit consists of sparse and dense parts. *

Fig.17 right is an **one** de Broglie wavelength circular orbit, which consists of a pair of "**sparse**" and "**dense**" parts. "Medium"-dense parts are in the middle between them.

*(Fig.18) Interference of de Broglie waves in "different" directions.*

**Inside** the circular orbit, the direction of de Broglie waves become **parallel** to de Broglie waves **closest** to them on the *circumference*.

As shown in Fig.18 right, we can consider **two** de Broglie waves in **different** directions generate **one** new de Broglie wave just between them.

*(Fig.19) Interference of two de Broglie waves generates one new de Broglie wave.*

As I said in Fig.15 and Fig.18, two de Broglie waves in the **opposite** directions **cancel** each other, due to their **opposite** oscillations.

In Fig.19, only **vertical** components of de Broglie waves are the **opposite**, so **cancel** each other.

As a result, new de Broglie wave in the **horizontal** direction is generated by this interference.

*(Fig.20) de Broglie waves in "elliptical" orbit. *

In the interference inside "eplliptical" orbit, we have to consider the "**angle**" of each de Broglie wave.
In Fig.22, "**gentle**" and "**steep**" de Broglie waves on the circumference interfere with each other between them.

*(Fig.21) Moving electric fields with different strength cause different magnetic force. *

As I said in Fig.8, we can explain this interference considering the movement of the electric field lines **radiating** outwards ( or inwards ) from electric charges.

In Fig.8, an electron and its electric field are moving upward.

In the left area (= "1", "gentle" in Fig.20 ), the spaces of electric field lines are **narrow** in the propagation direction.

So the generated de Broglie waves become **stronger** in the **narrow** electric fields than the wide electroc fields (= "2", "steep" in Fig.20 ).

But the "gentle" part is **farther** away than "steep" part in Fig.8, which can **cancel** this "gentle", "steep" difference.

As a result, de Broglie wave can be **parallel** to that on the circumference also inside elliptical orbits.

*(Fig.22) Biot-Savart law -- magnetic and electric fields. *

The relation between electric fields and de Broglie waves can naturally explain Biot-Savart law.

In Biot-Savart law, the magnetic fields become **stronger** at points which are **perpendicular** to the electric currents.

This relation between magnetic force strength and currents is just **equal** to that between the electric field's **spaces** (= narrow or wide ) and **de Broglie** waves.

Using this mechanism ( considering the distance, too ), we can explain the interference inside elliptical orbits.

*(Fig.23) 2 × de Broglie wavelength can contain two electrons.*

2 × de Broglie wavelength orbit consists of **two** pairs of electrons and its opposite phases. And it means two midpoint lines (= zero phase ) are included.

*(Fig.24) Four orbits cross each other "perpendicularly" in Neon. *

On this page, we can explain Neon using four orbits crossing each other.

*(Fig.25) Periodic motions of Neon eirht valence electrons (= four orbits ). *

As shown in Fig.25, we can show the periodic motions of Neon eirht valence electrons included in four **symmetrical** orbits.

*(Fig.26) 2 perpendicular orbits + 2 midpoint lines = 4 orbits in Neon.*

We can explain new Neon model using **4** orbits, each contains **two** electrons ( 2 × 4 = 8 valence electrons ). Each two orbits form a pair, when they cross **perpendicularly**.

When "two orbits" (= e1, e2 ) cross **perpendicularly** in each pair, other orbits (= e3, e4 ) are **NOT** perpendicular to e1, e2.

For these e3 and e4 electrons to move stably, their de Broglie waves must not be disturbed.

So e3 and e4 electrons must be on the **midpoint** lines of e1 and e2 to avoid destructive interference.

2 × de Broglie wavelength orbit contains **two** midpoint lines.

As a result, Neon can contain the maximum **4** orbits (= **2** crossing + 2 midlines ).

*(Fig.27) When "e3" is just between "e1" and "e2", it must pass "midpoints". *

In Fig.27 middle, "e3" electron just passes the point wich is the **same** distance from e1 and e2 orbits.

At this point, e3 de Broglie wave can be perpendicular to **neither** of "e1" and "e2" orbits.

To prevent disturbing "e3" de Broglie waves, two symmetrical de Broglie waves of e1 and e2 must be **cancelled** out. As shown in Fig.26, at this time, "e3" is just on the **midpoint** lines in **both** of e1 and e2 orbits.

As shown in Fig.22 (= de Broglie waves and Biot-Savart law ), when an electron **crosses** another orbit, this electron is influenced **only** by this orbit (= "*perpendicular*" to each otther ), because "**crossing**" means their distance is **zero**, which makes its de Broglie wave power the **strongest**.

*(Fig.28) When "e3" is just between e1 and e2, it must pass midpoints. *

As shown in Fig.28, "e1" and "e2" orbits are just **symmetrical** with respect to "e3", when it pass the point which is the **same** distance from e1 and e2.

As I said in Fig.27, the wave phases from "e1" and "e2" must be **cancelled** out to be zero at this point **NOT** to disturb "e3" de Broglie waves. So the wave phases of e1 and e2 must be just the **opposite** (= ± ), or both **zero**.

The important point is that e1 and e2 orbits must be symmetrical ( considering Coulomb force ) with respect to "e3". So there is the only one choice in which **both** e1 and e2 are **midpoints** at this point.

If "e1" wave phase is "+" and "e2" wave phase is "-", it is **NOT** symmetrical from the viewpoint of "e3", which causes **different** shaped "e3" orbit.

*(Fig.29) "Opposite" wave phases interfere with each other, destructively. → "perpendicular".*

Helium atoms contains two **1 ×** de Broglie wavelength orbits ( **n = 1** ).

So, two **opposite** wave phases cause "destructive" interference and *instability*.

To avoid this destructive interference, two orbits of helium have to cross each other "**perpendicularly**", because "perpendicular" means each wave phase can be **independent** from another.

*(Fig.30) Two electrons have to pass each other on "midpoint" lines. *

In one de Broglie wavelength orbit, a **half** of it is "**opposite**" wave phase.

So, "e1" electron of Fig.4 must go in the direction *perpendicular* to "e2" orbit to **midpoint**.

Two electrons in "perpendicular" orbits have to **pass** each other in the "**parallel**" direction at "*midpoint*", because "midpoint" line is **zero** phase, which has **NO** influence on another wave.

*(Fig.31) Midpoint between ±opposite phases has NO influence on another wave.*

"*Midpoint*" line between **±opposite** phases contains "**medium** (= neutralized )" zero phase.

So this midpoint has **NO** influence on **another** wave *phase* (= **NOT** disturb other de Broglie waves ).

So, de Broglie wave can **pass** each other in the **parallel** direction, **NOT** disturbed on the *midpoint* lines.

*(Fig.32) When two orbits of 2 × de Broglie wavelength cross perpendicularly. *

In Fig.32, two orbits of 2 × de Broglie wavelength cross each other **perpendicularly**.

When "e1" direction is **parallel** to e2 in Fig.32 right, "e2" wave phases are **different** from helium case.

*(Fig.33) = Fig.32 right case.*

In Fig.32 right, "e1" electron is passing the "**center**" point of "e2" orbit.

As I said in Fig.15, de Broglie waves in the **opposite** directions cancel each other, because their **oscillating** directions are the **opposite**.

As a result, "e1" electron de Broglie wave can **avoid** destructive interference, even when, it is parallel to "e2 in Fig.32 right"

2015/4/19 updated. Feel free to link to this site.