*(Fig.1) Electric force is generated by emitting virtual photons ?*

The current quantum theory uses **unreal** virtual particles as force mediator and particle physics.

This virtual particles can have "imaginary mass (m^{2} < 0)", disobeying Einstein mc^{2}, which cannot be observed as real particle ( this p.5, this p.6 ).

Forces such as electromagnetic are real, but they are caused by **unreal** virtual particles ? This is why the current physics is **wrong**, and must be replaced by real one.

*(Fig.2) A moving electron emits a (virtual) photon and stops, conserving total momentum (= p ) and energy (= E ).*

When an electron emits a photon (= light particle ? ), this photon **always** must be **virtual** (= Not real ) with *imaginary* mass ( m^{2} < 0 ) !

In all reactions, total energy (= E ) and momentum (= p ) must be conserved.

The initial energy and momentum of an electron are E and p, respectively. This electron stops after emitting a photon.

According to Einstein mass relation, the energy of the stationary electron is rest mass energy (= m_{0}c^{2} ), and its momentum is zero.

Due to conservation law, the energy and momentum of the emitted photon is E - m_{0}c^{2}, and p, respectively.

*(Fig.3) ↓ Einstein relativistic relation.*

Acccording to Einstein relativity, all ( real ) particles have to obey his energy-momentum-mass relation.

E, p and m_{0} are each particle's energy, momentum and rest mass, respectively.

*(Fig.4) Photon with negative mass squared is virtual, NOT real.*

Inserting the energy and momentum of the emitted photon into Einstein's relation, you'll easily find this emitted photon has **unreal** mass whose **mass squared** is **negative** (= a virtual photon's m^{2} < 0 ), which means this virtual photon has an **unreal** imaginary mass.

In Fig.4, rest mass energy (= m_{0}c^{2} ) is always smaller than total energy (= E = the sum of rest mass and kinetic energies ), so the final result is negative.

So when a photon emitted from an electron conserves total energy and momentum, its mass squared becomes **negative** (= *imaginary* mass ) and unreal.

In Einstein relativistic theory, all observers see this same imagnary mass of a virtual photon, though the imaginary mass itself is unobservable.

It means a photon model in quantum field theory **fails** due to these contradictory virtual photons with unreal masses, and we have to consider other realistic **wave** model involving the "whole atom" and medium.

*(Fig.5) ↓ A neutron consists of a proton and an electron, Not quarks ! *

The current physics says a proton and a neutron consist of fractional-charge quarks, which can Not be separated or detected.

They insist a nucleus is filled with **unreal** virtual sea quark-gluon, and governed by imaginary time and extradimension.

The fact of neutron decay tells us each neutron simply consists of a proton and an electron, **Not** unseen quarks !

The current nuclear physics **lacks** reality, full of imaginary concepts and artificial adjustable parameters (
this p.5 ), so useless and prevents nuclear fusion research.

*(Fig.6) ↓ The current physics uses unreal virtual W boson.*

A neutron decays into a proton and electron in beta decay.

The current physics insists *imaginary* quarks inside neutron decays into virtual Weak boson, which is 80 times heavier than a proton ( or a neutron ) ! ← lacking reality.

It is **impossible** that a neutron emits weak boson, which is much **heavier** than a neutron itself, so they call it **unreal** virtual particle.

We don't need these contradictory, unreal, useless particles or artificial models.

We can simply say a neutron decays into a proton and an electron !

*(Fig.7) ↓ The current nuclear model is full of unreal concepts. *

The current nuclear model is full of **imaginary** concepts, such as **unseen** fractional-charge quark, virtual sea quark-gluon ..

We need to describe nuclei using realistic concepts !

Nuclei always consist of protons and neutrons.

As protons increase inside nuclei, neutrons increase, too. A neutron consists of a proton and an electron.

The current physics completely **ignores** these **electrons** inside nuclei !

Electrons very close to protons must exert strong *attractive* force.

From the proton radius (= 10^{-15} m ), we can estimate Coulomb energy between an electron and a proton inside nuclei, which is very big.

This short-distance Coulomb energy becomes about 1 MeV (= 10^{6} eV ), which is almost equal to electron's mass energy (= mc^{2} )

So, we can say strong nuclear force is caused by **Coulomb** force between a proton and a **electron** inside neutron, instead of *imaginary* quark- gluon.

According to Virial theorem, particle's kinetic energy is equal to minus total energy. Electrons can probably approach protons until they are accelerated to light speed (= mc^{2} ).

*(Fig.8) ↓ Helium-2 without electrons do Not exist.*

In Helium isotope, there are **only** Helium-3 and Helium-4. ← Both of these He-3 and He-4 nuclei contain electrons as a form of neutrons (= each neutron consists of a proton and an electron ).

Helium-2's nucleus consisting only of two protons **without** neutrons or electrons cannot exist.

This fact proves that **electrons** inside nuclei act as "**adhesive**" *among* protons inside nuclei.

The fact that electrons are also major components of nuclei can be confirmed from observing nuclei absorbing electrons (= electron capture ) or nuclei emitting electrons (= beta minus decay ).

Nuclei include more protons than electrons, so electrons are oscillating among protons, instead of rotating around protons.

When there is only a pair of an electron and a proton like in neutron, the electron tends to *rotate* around the proton, become a hydrogen where the elecrton's orbital is stable, when its length is an integer times de Broglie wavelength.

*(Fig.8') ↓ True Coulomb nuclear force can explain why Helium-2 cannot exist, and Helium-4 is the most stable and abundant. *

If the current mainstream (fictional) particle physics is true, Helium-2 whose nucleus is composed only of two protons or diproton, must exist stably.

But this Helium-2 cannot exist, because Helium-2's nucleus consists only of two positive protons, and strong Coulomb **repulsion** between these two protons prevents Helium-2 formation.

↑ This means the (fictitious) strong force through imaginary unseen fractional-charge quarks and (virtual) gluons is **weaker** than **short-distance Coulomb** force, even if such a strong force via (fictional) quarks existed.

So the fictitious quantum mechanical strong force allegedly via virtual quarks and gluons is **meaningless** (= less influential, even if it existed ), and only realistic Coulomb force can exert strong decisive repulsion and attraction also inside nuclei.

It is known that atomic nuclei consist of protons and neutrons where the number of protons is equal to or less than the number of neutrons.

A neutral neutron consists of one positive proton and one negative electron, so this negative electron inside a neutron works as **adhesive** between repulsive positive protons through short-distance Coulomb attraction between positive protons and negative electrons.

This short-distance **Coulomb force** used as **true nuclear force** can explain why Helium-2 (and Lithium-3's nucleus with three protons ) cannot exist due to **lack of negative electrons** (= adhesive ) between two or three protons.

In Helium isotope, Helium-4, whose nucleus consists of two protons and two neutrons (= which are equal to four protons and two electrons, because each neutron consists of one proton and one electron ), is known to be the most stable and abundant.

Helium-3, whose nucleus consists of two protons and one neutron (= which are equal to three protons and one electron ), is also stable but far less abundant than Helium-4, because its (short-distance) Coulomb attraction is about two times weaker than the Helium-4's Coulomb attraction (= the above figure numbers such as 1.268 < 2.602 means the ratio of the strengths of short-distance Coulomb nuclear attraction between Helium-3 and Helium-4 ).

It is known that each atomic nucleus consists of **almost same** number of protons and neutrons.

One proton and one neutron ( a neutron = proton + electron ) are equal to two protons and one electron.

As shown in the above figure-lower, we show that it is possible to add one proton + one neutron (= equal to two protons + one electron ) to the rest particles of each nucleus consisting of an arbitrary number of protons and neutrons, obeying Coulomb attraction (= in the upper figure, the distance between a new electron and an already-existing proton is supposed to be a half of the distance between a new electron and new protons ).

As a result, we can also explain why atomic nuclei consist of almost the same numbers of protons and neutrons using the realistic short-distance Coulomb force replacing fictitious meaningless strong force via virtual quarks and gluons.

As I said, if each nucleus contains the same numbers of protons and electrons (= which means this nucleus consists only of neutrons without protons = excessive neutrons ), each electron cannot stay between two protons (= because the number of electrons increases to the same number of protons ), and some electrons tend to **rotate** around the positive protons (= remain as a part of nucleus with the remaining less electrons or neutrons ) like the ordinary atomic orbits where the electron de Broglie wave interference (= orbital length cannot be shorter than an integer number 1 × de Broglie wavelenth to avoid destructive interference of de Broglie wave ) **prevents** some electrons from returning to the initial very small area between protons inside nuclei, hence, nuclei always become positive Not neutral.

So the realistic short-distance Coulomb force and de Broglie wave nature can perfectly explain why the number of protons is almost equal to (= or slightly less than ) the number of neutrons inside each nucleus.

*(Fig.9) ↓ Electron emits light in the "transverse" direction.*

Electromagnetic wave (= light, photon ? ) is said to be "transverse" wave.

If the light is emitted from a single electron, it becomes **unreal** virtual photon with *imaginary* mass, when the total energy and momentum are conserved.

But the light = electromagnetic wave is a **real** thing !

We need to think about the *whole* system of not only an electron but also a **nucleus**.

Electron's de Broglie wave was experimentally confirmed, which inteference indicates the existence of some " medium".

An electron orbits around a nucleus, their total momentum of an electron and a nucleus is **zero**.

Even after an electron loses energy emitting light and its orbit shrinks, the sum of the electron's and nuclear momentums remains **zero**.

So an electromagnetic wave which is "**pushed out**" in the transverse direction carries mainly "**energy**" rather than "momentum". This light wave occurs in the medium (= Not emitted from an electron ! ) around the atom.

If the light is emitted in the both directions, or the whole system of an electron and nucleus is pushed a little in the opposite direction of the emitted light, both the energy and momentum are conserved.

This is the mechanism of "**real**" electromagnetic transverse wave emission **without** unreal virtual photon.

Basically, an electron loses kinetic energy ( and shrinks its orbital radius ), when the electron's de Broglie waves **crashes** into each other by destructive interference.

The direction (= parallel to electron moving direction ) in which an electron crushes into its destructive de Broglie wave corresponds to "light amplitude oscillating (= transverse ) direction" where an electron's kinetic energy is transfered to the medium (= around electron ) potential energy which becomes higher (= as strong as electron's kinetic energy ) by being **compressed** from both sides (= moving electron crushes its destructive de Broglie wave in the opposite directions ).

This "compressed medium accumulating potential energy from electron's lost kinetic energy" is **pushed** out as light wave in the direction (= longitudinal direction of light wave ) **perpendicular** to electron's original moving direction.

*(Fig.10) ↓ Electromagnetic light wave emitted from the orbiting electron is a transverse and longitudinal oscillating wave whose wave phase velocity is the constant light speed c, and the light energy is proportional to frequency f satisfying photoelectric effect.*

We can naturally explain the photoelectric effect by the normal electromagnetic light wave without using the current problematic mainstream quantum mechanical unrealistic ( virtual ) photons that need fictional parallel worlds for photon interference.

Maxwell equation showed the light is electromagnetic wave where electric and magnetic fields are oscillating in the transverse (= polarization ) direction (= light wave moving direction is longitudinal, and the direction perpendicular to light moving direction is transverse ).

When an electron orbiting around a nucleus absorbs or emits light wave (= the electron's de Broglie wave's oscillating energy is transferred to the emitted light wave energy due to destructive interference ), the energy of this light wave interacting with the electron is known to be proportional to the light frequency (= f ) as shown in the photoelectric effect (= light wave energy = hf, h is Planck constant ).

Because the energy of this orbiting electron is proportional to the frequency of the electron's de Broglie wave (= when electron's mass is m, and its velocity is v, using de Broglie wavelength λ = h/p = h/mv, the frequency f of the electron's de Broglie wave with wavelength λ becomes frequency f = v/λ = mv^{2}/h = electron's kinetic energy × 2/h ), which can Not ignore Maxwell light wave energy (= εE^{2} where E is electric field, ε is permittivity ), as shown in Maxwell equation successfully giving the light speed c.

In Maxwell equation, the light wave energy is expressed as the sum of electric (= 1/2εE^{2} ) and magnetic (= 1/(2μ) B^{2} ) field energy (= total energy density is εE^{2} per volume, this p.16 ).

Each light wave has some (polarization) amplitude, and the square of the light amptitude is proportional to the light intensity or energy (= quantum mechanics tries to express this light intensity using the number of unphysical photon particles ).

For example, when two light waves with the same wavelength or frequency overlap and constructively interfere with each other, the resultant light wave has twice the original light amplitude, and its light energy or intensity becomes four times larger (= forget unreal photons ).

From the experimental observation such as light interference and rafraction, we can naturally think the light is the electromagnetic wave travelling though the medium (= due to medium oscillation ) like sound wave.

When the light amplitude or intensity increases, it increases the medium's oscillating maximum speed (= the point of ① in the above figure ) like the oscillating spring, which corresponds to the increased light intensity or electric field strength, **without** increasing frequency (= like oscillating spring's frequency is related only to spring constant k, Not to spring's amplitude ), so the total light energy increases as shown in the light energy density = εE^{2}.

Also when the light wave amplitude remains the same, its electric (= E ) or magnetic (= B ) field strength can be stronger when the medium's gradient or low-high density difference is bigger, which corresponds to string constant k increasing with unchanged amplitude. ← The total light wave **energy** is larger with increased light **frequency**. = also in this case, Maxwell's light energy = εE^{2} is valid and larger due to the stronger electric (or magnetic) field.

We can associate this light wave energy with the oscillating spring's energy expressed as 1/2kx^{2} where k is spring constant and x is the spring's displacement or amplitude.

When the light amplitude (= medium displacement ) is larger, it is silimar to the larger spring's amplitude (= spring's k and frequency are unchanged ).

When the light electric (or magnetic) field is stronger by increasing the light medium's pressure caused by steeper medium's gradient or larger density difference (= without increasing light amplitude ), it corresponds to the increased spring's constant k and and the increased spring's oscillating **frequency** (= f or ω ).

When the electric field of the light increases (= medium gradient is steeper ), the light's frequency increases, and resultantly, the light energy increases, which Maxwell light wave theory is **compatible** with the photoelectric effect even **without** the unphysical photon.

This is why the light frequency is related to the light wave energy emitted from or absorbed into the orbiting electron whose energy is proportional to (de Broglie wave) frequency (= electron's orbiting or oscillating direction is the same as light's transverse direction ).

↑ When only the light amplitude increases with No frequency change, this light can neither synchronize with nor influence the electron's de Broglie wave frequency or electron energy, which is why the light amplitude alone is not enough to eject electron in photoelectric effect.

↑ When the orbiting electron or light energy increases obeying de Broglie wave theory (= wavelength is equal to h/p = h/mv where p is momentum ), the light (= spring ) frequency (= electric field strength or medium gradient ) increases, and the light amplitude slightly decreases (= as shown in higher-energy electron causing shorter de Broglie wavelength ), hence the resultant light energy is proportional to the light frequency.

This means Maxwell light wave energy equation is also **valid** in the photoelectric effect, and the contradictory quantum mechanical photon particle is unnecessary.

As shown in the above figure, the medium gradient caused by medium density difference is in the both transverse and longitudinal directions, so the light wave consists of mixed transverse (= polarization ) and longitudinal oscillations (= light momentum pressure ).

As shown here, the electric field strengh (= E ) and electric field energy (= εE^{2} ) are influenced by both the light frequency (= medium gradient with unchanged amplitude like spring constant k ) and light amplitude (= medium displacement or spring amplitude change ).

Both in transverse and longitudinal oscillations, the wave oscillation (= or spring ) frequency f can be associated with spring frequency relation of the square root of k/m (= k is spring constant, and m is the mass oscillating ).

↑ At the point of ① in the upper figure, some amount of the medium (= mass m related to light frequency ) is moving at the maximum speed (= related to light amplitude ) in the upper direction (= transverse wave ) through the stationary medium (= related to spring constant k or light frequency ), by synchronizing with and crashing into the longitudinal wave (= ② ) at the same frequency f

↑ As the light frequency is lower or slower, it has more enough time for the oscillation to spread over the larger area or more medium (= the amount of medium or the mass m oscillating increases ), and the amount of the remaining medium at rest blocking the oscillation (= spring constant k or resistance ) decreases.

As the light frequency is higher or faster, during such shoter time, the oscillation spreads over only smaller area or the smaller amount of medium (= the medium's oscillationg mass m becomes smaller ), and the amount of the remaining medium at rest resisting the oscillation (= spring constant k ) increases.

↑ The light amplitude is related to the maxium speed of the oscillating medium instead of the amount of the oscillating medium (= m ) or spring constant k.

This is the realistic photoelectric effect compatible with successful Maxwell theory without relying on unreal virtual photons.

--------------

For example, when the light energy associated with the spring potential energy = 1/2kx^{2} (= k is spring constant, x is amplitude ) becomes four times larger, we can explain this same light (= or spring ) energy using two different mechanisms.

One case (= case-1 ) is the spring constant k becomes four times larger with no change of the amplitude x where the light (or spring) frequency f becomes twice ( f → 2f due to the increased spring constant k. ← To make Maxwell light wave energy match the photoelectric effect, the electromagnetic wave's amplitude x or the oscillating medium's mass m needs to be adjusted in addition to the spring constant k, which is **possible** ), and the electric field strength becomes four times bigger (= F = E = kx where spring constant × 4 ).

↑ The electric field strength can be expressed as the medium density gradient associated with the increased spring potential energy or force.

The magnetic field energy is the motion or kinetic energy of the medium (= electric field ). ← As the electric field potential (= medium's density difference ) is increasing or decreasing in the sinusoidal way, the medium's velocity or kinetic energy (= magnetic field energy ) is also decreasing and increasing in the sinusioidal way in the upper figure conserving the total energy, which is just compatible with Maxwell's electromagntic wave picture.

Another case (= case-2 ) is the light (or spring ) amplitude x becomes twice longer (= x → 2x ) with no change of the spring constant k or frequency, which case-2 has the **same** energy (= 1/2kx^{2} ) as case-1 (= their frequencies are different ). ← In this case-2, the electric field strength or spring force F = kx becomes twice stronger.

According to Maxwell theory, the total light energy is expressed as the electric field energy density (= εE^{2}) × volume.

In case-1, this total energy is 16 × εE^{2} (= E → 4E ) × ( volume = 1 ) = 16.

In case-2, the total energy is 4 × εE^{2} (= E → 2E ) × ( volume = 4 ) = the square of (2 × amplitude) = 16 which energy becomes the same as case-1, though they have different frequencies.

By adjusting the amplitude x (and spring constant k), this Maxwell's electromagnetic wave energy becomes **compatible** with the photoelectric effect where the light energy is proportional to the light frequency.

↑ These light volumes express the area inside the core medium oscillators. the actual light wave vaguely spreads over much larger area interacting with the widely-spreading electric field and de Broglie wave of a single electron (= Instead of the fictitious quantum mechanical point-like particle's electron, the actual electron or proton is **spreading** out over **larger** area as the **far-reaching electric** field or de Broglie wave (= need to reach many atoms to cause the observed interference ), which has **enough volume** to absorb the energy of the spreading electromagnetic wave ).

*(Fig.11) Why "neutrino" and "light" always travel at light-speed c ? *

It is known both neutrino and electromagnetic wave **always** travel at **light-speed** c.

"**Constant**" speed means these things are some **oscillations** travelling in the same **common** *medium*.

We can naturally think that this neutrino is longitudinal wave (= because the neutrino is basically emitted from nuclear reaction, not from atomic electrons periodically orbiting around nuclei ), the light is "transverse (= complex )" wave travelling through the common medium with the light speed.

If the neutrino is longitudinal wave, it doesn't interact with electron's orbit in the transverse direction, which can explain why "neutrino wave" can pass through things like ghost.

*(Fig.12) light energy = h × frequency f.*

Photoelectric effect shows the light emitted from atom has the energy of hf ( h is Planck constant, f is light frequency ).

We suppose an electron with kinetic energy of 1/2m_{e}v^{2} ( m_{e} and v are electron's mass and velocity. ) emits light.

( To be correct, the whole atom of electron and nucleus emits the light or electromagnetic wave by pushing the medium around them, avoiding the contradictory QED virtual photon allegedly emitted from the inside of an electron, the nuclear kinetic energy is so small that it can be neglected ).

If Einstein's paradoxical extremely-large rest mass energy of an electron (= mc^{2} where m is the rest electron's mass, c is the light speed ) is put into the above light energy (= hf ) in addition to the electron's kinetic energy, this matter wave speed unrealistically exceeds the light speed c, which shows Einstein relativistic mc^{2} is false ( this p.2, this p.3 ).

The reason why the energy of the light (or fictitious photon) is related to the frequency f is the electron's moving frequency orbiting around the nucleus (= electron's oscillating de Broglie wave ) is involved in the emitted light.

The light (or photon) energy (= hf ) by photoelectric effect is **silent** about the electromagnetic field's intensity of each light (= but there must be some **threshold minimum light intensity** necessary to eject an electron ). ← The light intensity or energy linked to the frequency (= when the light interacts with the atomic orbiting electron's de Broglie wave ) is also one of important factors necessary to eject the atomic electron illuminated by light in photoelectric effect.

It means the light with **higher frequencies** emitted by the orbitting electron tends to have **stronger light intensity** to satisfy Maxwell electromagnetic wave theory (= the emitted light energy = hf = εE^{2} where E is the electric field ).

↑ For the light's energy to be absorbed into the orbiting electron, its light frequency is also related (= light frequency needs to **synchronize** with the oscillating de Broglie wave of the orbiting electron ), which does **Not** mean Maxwell electromagnetic wave theory (= electromagnetic wave energy is 1/2εE^{2} ) is wrong in the microscopic world.

↑ Maxwell classical electromagnetic wave's energy and momentum is the universally-valid concept common to macroscopic and microscopic worlds (= only in microscopic world, the light frequency f is **also** related **in addition to** the light intensity due to the interaction with the orbiting atomic electron's de Broglie wave. Each electron's de Broglie wave or electric field spreads out over large area, so each electron has enough volume to absorb the spreading light wave's electromagnetic field satisfying Maxwell's light energy ).

*(Fig.13) de Broglie wavelength (= λ ) = h/p, p is momentum*

According to wave relation, frequency f is equal to velocity (= v ) divided by wavelength ( λ ).

When an electron is moving at a velocity of v, its de Broglie wavelength becomes λ = h/mv = h/p ( p is electron's momentum ).

From Fig.12 and Fig.13, we get the relation of electron's de Broglie wave frequency (= f_{e} ) equal to the electron's kinetic energy × 2/h (= mv^{2}/h ), which is twice the emitted light frequency (= 2f ).

↑ As shown here, the **electron**'s kinetic energy is proportional to its **de Broglie wave's frequency** (= f_{e} ), which is why the energy of the light interacting with the electron (= de Broglie wave ) must be related to the light frequency in addition to the light intensity in photoelectric effect.

Electron's de Broglie wave is known to spread over large area like light wave as shown in experiments of de Broglie wave's interference and diffraction, which can also perfectly explain why spreading light wave can interact with electron's de Broglie wave in light's absorption and emission.

*(Fig.14) Oscillating electron emits light and gradually loses its energy. *

We think about the case in which oscillating electron **gradually** *emits* light and loses its kinetic energy.

The initial electron's frequency is equivalent to **2** × f (= emitted light frequency ), as shown in Fig.13.

The more light the electron emits, it loses more energy, and its oscillation becomes **slower** ( to be zero ).

It means the **average** electron's frequency becomes **half** of the original value (= 1/2 × f_{e} = **f** ) .

As a result, we can prove there is an **important** relation between electron's and emitted light frequencies. Planck constant (= h ) connects light and electron.

This is the mechanism of photoelectric effect using "real" light and electron.

*(Fig.15) Imbalance in "field pressure" causes plus, minus charges. *

Quantum mechanics **cannot** answer "why the universe contains exactly the **same** amount of plus, minus charges" as protons and electrons. And they have **NO** definite answer, "why a proton is much **heavier** than an electron".

If we suppose *Coulomb* force is caused by the **difference** in field **pressures** (= density ), we **can** naturally answer all these basic questions.

In Fig.15 upper, some amount of field matters are **transferred** to another places.

This causes a **pair** of "**thin**" area with *lower* pressure, and "**dense**" area with "*higher*" pressure in the field (= medium ).

If the field matters are **unevenly** distributed, they try to go **back** to the *uniform* density, which is the origin of **Coulomb** attraction. "Dense" proton is naturally **heavier** than "thin" electron.

Due to pressure **balance**, the combinations of "dense-dense (= +, + )" and "thin-thin (= -, - )" areas **repel** each other, which is why the **same** charges **repel** each other in Coulomb forces.

Due to energy conservation, this density imbalance in medium can be kept (= charge is conserved ), which is more realistic than unreal quantum virtual photon model.

*(Fig.15') the potential energy of medium imbalance (= electric charge ) is conserved.*

The reason why only the definite elementary charge value (= -e or +e ) is allowed is thought to be due to the property of the medium (= field ).

The stable conservation of the electric charge (= medium density difference ) needs the enough amount of medium's density imbalance.

Each charge whose potential energy s stored as the medium's density difference is regularly oscillating outwardly and inwardly like the oscillating spring.

↑ If the amount of the charge (= medium density difference ) is smaller than e, the surrounding medium can easily enter and break the core medium's barrier (= smaller charge ) during this oscillation.

If the amount of charge is larger than e, no more surrounding medium can join the already-maximum-dense core medium (= charge ), hence, the charge cannot be bigger than e.

*(Fig.16) An proton is 1840 times heavier (= denser ) than an electron. *

It is known that a *proton* is about 1840 times **heavier** than a electron. If we suppose, a proton (= positive field ) is 1840 times **denser** than an electron (= negative field ), this big difference in **mass** can be explained.

Due to **imbalance** in field densities (= "positive" is dense, "negative" is thin ), the **opposite** charges **attract** and start to move towards each other.

Total momentum ( and center of mass ) must be **conserved** due to the law of *action* and *reaction*.

So a "light" electron must move much ( 1840 × ) **faster** than a heavy proton during the same time.

*(Fig.17) ↓ Electric current I (= positive charges are moving and negative charges are at rest ) generates magnetic field B that exerts Lorentz magnetic force F on an external positive charge (= e+ ) moving at a velocity v*

In the realistic world, there is No magnetic charge or monopole, hence, magnetic field B or magnetic force is related to the electric force, when charges are moving.

In the upper figure, positive charges (= +e ) are moving upward (= negative charges e- are supposed to be at rest ) as the electric current I.

This electric current I generates magnetic field B that causes Lorentz magnetic force on an external positive charge (= e+ ) moving at velocity v.

↑ This external positive charge is moving in circular orbit under magnetic field at constant velocity v.

We can explain the realistic mechanism of this ordinary magnetic field B and Lorentz magnetic force by using the real medium.

*(Fig.17') ↓ Real mechanism of Lorentz magnetic force.*

Here we explain realistic mechanism of Lorentz magnetic force without using unreal virtual photons of the current unphysical mainstream quantum field theory.

The electric field caused by the electric charge can be realistically explained using the medium's density difference.

When a positive charge (= +e ) is moving, the positive electric field in the moving direction (= front region ) tends to be **stronger** due to the denser medium pushed by the moving charge, while the positive electric field in the opposite direction (= back region ) becomes **weaker** due to the **diluted**, elongated medium caused by the charge moving away.

When an external positive charge (= e+ ) is moving upward at a velocity v (= ① ) at the left side of the electric current (= current direction is also upward ), this positive charge tends to be attracted to the back part with weaker positive electric field of the current charges (= attracted toward the current by Lorentz magnetic force F ) and be moving away from the stronger positive electric field region (= the front part of the current moving charges ).

↑ But of course, the average electric current is electrically-**neutral** (= consisting of the same amount of positive protons and negative electrons ), hence, the external positive charge can neither be accelerated nor increase kinetic energy, hence, this Lorentz magnetic force perpendicular to the moving direction of the charge can**not** be exerted on the charge in the moving direction or accelerate it due to energy conservation law.

When the external positive charge is moving toward the electric current, this positive charge tends to be attracted toward the weaker positve electric field by turning downward (= ② ).

When this external charge is moving downward, it tends to crash into the stronger positive electric field of the front region of the current charges approaching, hence, this external charge tends to be moving away from the current (= ③ ) by Lorentz magnetic force.

When this external charge is moving away from the current, again, it tries to go after the weaker positive electric field of the back part of the electric current's charges and move away from the stronger electric field of the front part of the current charge, hence, the external positive charge turns upward by Lorentz magnetic foece (= ④ ).

This is the true mechanism of Lorentz magnetic force which is caused by the medium density change around moving electric field or charges.

In case of Faraday's induction law, the amount of the electric current I is increasing and accelerating, which generates much weaker or stronger positive electric fields around the current moving electric charges, hence, it can eventually accelerate the external positive charge by the acceleraing magnetic field.

*(Fig.18) Graviton can cause "time dilation" ? What mechanism ? *

The present only theory of everything allegedly unifying (fantasy) quantum mechanics and Einstein relativity is string theory or M theory which requires unrealistic 10 or 11 dimensional spacetime.

These fictitious extra-dimensional mainstream physics claims that gravity is caused by (virtual) gravitons which must move faster than light ( this lower ), which contradicts Einstein relativity, in order to escape from the black hole into outer space.

↑ So these self-contradictory gravitons are unreal, and the cause of gravitational force needs **other realistic** things.

*(Fig.19) Field "imbalance" and their oscillation cause macroscopic gravity. *

It is known that gravity is extremely **weaker** (= about 10^{-39} times Coulomb force ! ) than other fundamental forces. So it is natural to think gravity is **NOT** fundamental force but some **macroscopic** effect of other forces.

We can explain the **Coulomb** mechanism using "field *density*" **imbalance**.

Basically, "field" tends to be **uniform** in pressure, so *high* and *low* pressure regions **attract** each other.

We can think gravity as **large**-scale *imbalance* in field's **density** (= *medium* filling all space ). If there are higher (= denser ) pressure areas, they tend to **approach** lower pressure areas.

When a large number of the same kind of field attraction **synchronize**, it generates "gravity", as macroscopic effect. This idea is more **natural** than other "fantasy" 10 dimensions and graviton.

2019/1/23 updated. Feel free to link to this site.