*(Fig.1) Electric force is generated by emitting virtual photons ?*

The current quantum theory uses **unreal** virtual particles as force mediator and particle physics.

This virtual particles can have "imaginary mass (m^{2} < 0)", disobeying Einstein mc^{2}, which cannot be observed as real particle ( this p.5, this p.6 ).

Forces such as electromagnetic are real, but they are caused by **unreal** virtual particles ? This is why the current physics is **wrong**, and must be replaced by real one.

*(Fig.2) Total energy and momentum must be conserved.*

When an electron emits a photon (= light particle ? ), this photon **always** must be **virtual** (= Not real ) with *imaginary* mass ( m^{2} < 0 ) !

In all reactions, total energy (= E ) and momentum (= p ) must be conserved.

The initial energy and momentum of an electron are E and p, respectively. This electron stops after emitting a photon.

According to Einstein mass relation, the energy of the stationary electron is rest mass energy (= m_{0}c^{2} ), and its momentum is zero.

Due to conservation law, the energy and momentum of the emitted photon is E - m_{0}c^{2}, and p, respectively.

*(Fig.3) ↓ Einstein relativistic relation.*

Acccording to Einstein relativity, all ( real ) particles have to obey his energy-momentum-mass relation.

E, p and m_{0} are each particle's energy, momentum and rest mass, respectively.

*(Fig.4) Photon with negative mass squared is virtual, NOT real.*

Inserting the energy and momentum of the emitted photon into Einstein's relation, you'll easily find this emitted photon has **unreal** mass (= its mass squared is negative ! ).

In Fig.4, rest mass energy (= m_{0}c^{2} ) is always smaller than total energy (= E = the sum of rest mass and kinetic energies ), so the final result is negative.

So when a photon emitted from an electron conserves total energy and momentum, its mass squared becomes **negative** (= *imaginary* mass ) and unreal.

It means a photon model in quantum field theory fails and we have to consider other realistic **wave** model involving the "whole atom" and medium.

*(Fig.5) ↓ A neutron consists of a proton and an electron, Not quarks ! *

The current physics says a proton and a neutron consist of fractional-charge quarks, which can Not be separated or detected.

They insist a nucleus is filled with **unreal** virtual sea quark-gluon, and governed by imaginary time and extradimension.

The fact of neutron decay tells us each neutron simply consists of a proton and an electron, **Not** unseen quarks !

The current nuclear physics **lacks** reality, full of imaginary concepts and artificial adjustable parameters (
this p.5 ), so useless and prevents nuclear fusion research.

*(Fig.6) ↓ The current physics uses unreal virtual W boson.*

A neutron decays into a proton and electron in beta decay.

The current physics insists *imaginary* quarks inside neutron decays into virtual Weak boson, which is 80 times heavier than a proton ( or a neutron ) ! ← lacking reality.

It is **impossible** that a neutron emits weak boson, which is much **heavier** than a neutron itself, so they call it **unreal** virtual particle.

We don't need these contradictory, unreal, useless particles or artificial models.

We can simply say a neutron decays into a proton and an electron !

*(Fig.7) ↓ The current nuclear model is full of unreal concepts. *

The current nuclear model is full of **imaginary** concepts, such as **unseen** fractional-charge quark, virtual sea quark-gluon ..

We need to describe nuclei using realistic concepts !

Nuclei always consist of protons and neutrons.

As protons increase inside nuclei, neutrons increase, too. A neutron consists of a proton and an electron.

The current physics completely **ignores** these **electrons** inside nuclei !

Electrons very close to protons must exert strong *attractive* force.

From the proton radius (= 10^{-15} m ), we can estimate Coulomb energy between an electron and a proton inside nuclei, which is very big.

This short-distance Coulomb energy becomes about 1 MeV (= 10^{6} eV ), which is almost equal to electron's mass energy (= mc^{2} )

So, we can say strong nuclear force is caused by **Coulomb** force between a proton and a **electron** inside neutron, instead of *imaginary* quark- gluon.

According to Virial theorem, particle's kinetic energy is equal to minus total energy. Electrons can probably approach protons until they are accelerated to light speed (= mc^{2} ).

*(Fig.8) ↓ Helium-2 without electrons do Not exist.*

In Helium isotope, there are **only** Helium-3 and Helium-4, both of which contain electrons (= neutron ).

Helium-2 consisting only of two protons **without** electrons cannot exist.

This fact proves that **electrons** inside nuclei act as "**adhesive**" *among* protons inside nuclei.

Nuclei include more protons than electrons, so electrons are oscillating among protons, instead of rotating around protons.

When there is only a pair of an electron and a proton like in neutron, the electron tends to *rotate* around the proton, become a hydrogen where the elecrton's orbital is stable, when its length is an integer times de Broglie wavelength.

*(Fig.9) ↓ Electron emits light in the "transverse" direction.*

Electromagnetic wave (= light, photon ? ) is said to be "transverse" wave.

If the light is emitted from a single electron, it becomes **unreal** virtual photon with *imaginary* mass, when the total energy and momentum are conserved.

But the light = electromagnetic wave is a **real** thing !

We need to think about the *whole* system of not only an electron but also a **nucleus**.

Electron's de Broglie wave was experimentally confirmed, which inteference indicates the existence of some " medium".

An electron orbits around a nucleus, their total momentum of an electron and a nucleus is **zero**.

Even after an electron loses energy emitting light and its orbit shrinks, the sum of the electron's and nuclear momentums remains **zero**.

So an electromagnetic wave which is "**pushed out**" in the transverse direction carries mainly "**energy**" rather than "momentum". This light wave occurs in the medium (= Not emitted from an electron ! ) around the atom.

If the light is emitted in the both directions, or the whole system of an electron and nucleus is pushed a little in the opposite direction of the emitted light, both the energy and momentum are conserved.

This is the mechanism of "**real**" electromagnetic transverse wave emission **without** virtual photon.

Basically, an electron loses kinetic energy ( and shrinks its orbital radius ), when the electron's de Broglie waves **crashes** into each other by destructive interference.

The direction (= parallel to electron moving direction ) in which an electron crushes into its destructive de Broglie wave corresponds to "light amplitude oscillating (= transverse ) direction" where an electron's kinetic energy is transfered to the medium (= around electron ) potential energy which becomes higher (= as strong as electron's kinetic energy ) by being **compressed** from both sides (= moving electron crushes its destructive de Broglie wave in the opposite directions ).

This "compressed medium accumulating potential energy from electron's lost kinetic energy" is **pushed** out as light wave in the direction (= longitudinal direction of light wave ) **perpendicular** to electron's original moving direction.

*(Fig.10) ↓ Elecromagnetic wave is similar to water wave.*

Light is transverse wave, but it has momentum also in the longitudinal direction, so it is "complex" wave like water wave.

Transverse and longitudinal waves are caused by "medium osillation" in the vertical or horizontal directions.

"Complex" wave is a combination of these vertical and horizontal oscillations, local medium returns to its original position like spring pushed by its surrounding medium.

In the normal air or water, the "spring" strength (= to get the medium back to its original position ) in the transverse direction is too weak without gravity or tsunami.

If the light medium is denser, its transverse vibration of the light can affect electron's orbital energy, and its longitudinal vibration causes Complton scattering.

*(Fig.11) Why "neutrino" and "light" always travel at light-speed c ? *

It is known both neutrino and electromagnetic wave **always** travel at **light-speed** c.

"**Constant**" speed means these things are some **oscillations** travelling in the same **common** *medium*.

We can naturally think that this neutrino is longitudinal wave, the light is "transverse (= complex )" wave travelling through the common medium with the light speed.

If the neutrino is longitudinal wave, it doesn't interact with electron's orbit in the transverse direction, which can explain why "neutrino wave" can pass through things like ghost.

*(Fig.12) light energy = h × frequency f.*

Photoelectric effect shows the light emitted from atom has the energy of hf ( h is Planck constant, f is light frequency ).

We suppose an electron with kinetic energy of 1/2m_{e}v^{2} ( m_{e} and v are electron's mass and velocity. ) emits light.

( To be correct, the whole atom of electron and nucleus emits light, avoiding virtual photon, but the nuclear kinetic energy is too small, can be neglected ).

*(Fig.13) de Broglie wavelength (= λ ) = h/p, p is momentum*

According to wave relation, frequency f is equal to velocity (= v ) divided by wavelength ( λ ).

When an electron is moving at a velocity of v, its de Broglie wavelength becomes λ = h/mv = h/p ( p is electron's momentum ).

From Fig.12 and Fig.13, we get the relation of electron's de Broglie wave frequency (= f_{e} ) equal to twice emitted light frequency (= 2f ).

*(Fig.14) Oscillating electron emits light and gradually loses its energy. *

We think about the case in which oscillating electron **gradually** *emits* light and loses its kinetic energy.

The initial electron's frequency is equivalent to **2** × f (= emitted light frequency ), as shown in Fig.13.

The more light the electron emits, it loses more energy, and its oscillation becomes **slower** ( to be zero ).

It means the **average** electron's frequency becomes **half** of the original value (= 1/2 × f_{e} = **f** ) .

As a result, we can prove there is an **important** relation between electron's and emitted light frequencies. Planck constant (= h ) connects light and electron.

This is the mechanism of photoelectric effect using "real" light and electron.

*(Fig.15) Imbalance in "field pressure" causes plus, minus charges. *

Quantum mechanics **cannot** answer "why the universe contains exactly the **same** amount of plus, minus charges" as protons and electrons. And they have **NO** definite answer, "why a proton is much **heavier** than an electron".

If we suppose *Coulomb* force is caused by the **difference** in field **pressures** (= density ), we **can** naturally answer all these basic questions.

In Fig.15 upper, some amount of field matters are **transferred** to another places.

This causes a **pair** of "**thin**" area with *lower* pressure, and "**dense**" area with "*higher*" pressure in the field.

If the field matters are **unevenly** distributed, they try to go **back** to the *uniform* density, which is the origin of **Coulomb** attraction. "Dense" proton is naturally **heavier** than "thin" electron.

Due to pressure **balance**, the combinations of "dense-dense (= +, + )" and "thin-thin (= -, - )" areas **repel** each other, which is why the **same** charges **repel** each other in Coulomb forces.

Due to energy conservation, this density imbalance in medium can be kept, which is more realistic than unreal quantum virtual photon model.

*(Fig.16) An proton is 1840 times heavier (= denser ) than an electron. *

It is known that a *proton* is about 1840 times **heavier** than a electron. If we suppose, a proton (= positive field ) is 1840 times **denser** than an electron (= negative field ), this big difference in **mass** can be explained.

Due to **imbalance** in field densities (= "positive" is dense, "negative" is thin ), the **opposite** charges **attract** and start to move towards each other.

Total momentum ( and center of mass ) must be **conserved** due to the law of *action* and *reaction*.

So a "light" electron must move much ( 1840 × ) **faster** than a heavy proton during the same time.

*(Fig.17) ↓ Parallel currents = attract, antiparallel = repel.*

In Lorentz magnetic force, when electric currents are in the same direction, they attract each other. When the currents are opposite, they repel each other. Why ?

In Fig.17 left, when an electron is moving in the same direction as electric current, Their Coulomb repulsion becomes **weaker** due to the target electrons moving *away*.

When the electron is moving in the opposite to the current, their Coulomb repulsion becomes **stronger** because the electrons are moving *towards* each other.

This indicates that Coulomb force travels through some "medium" at **finite** light speed c, and this force is affected by two charges' movement.

2019/1/23 updated. Feel free to link to this site.