Youhei Tsubono, Japan
(22/9/19 ) Relativistic QED, particle physics are wrong.
Quantum mechanics failed in (22/5/15 )
(Fig.1) Quantum mechanics is the epitome of contradictions and unreality.
Quantum mechanics is a completely failed pseudo-science which unscientifically claims each single particle can exist in multiple different places simultaneously, like a cat can be dead and alive living in fantasy parallel worlds.
Quantum mechanics is said to magically utilize invisible fantasy parallel worlds to give each particle an occult power to pass through two slits at once, rewrite the past, and make us God immortal.. ← Physically impossible !
↑ These unphysical dead-and-alive cat or quantum parallel worlds are unobservable when we measure them (= unseen parallel worlds conveniently choose only one single observable world or state when we measure it, they claim ), so all these quantum mechanical nonphysical concepts have No evidences literally.
This fictional quantum mechanics is contaminated with so many paradoxes and self-contradictions that even its founders did Not believe the quantum mechanics was right, physicists just reluctantly say "Nobody understands weird quantum mechanics ! Physicists should stop knowing about quantum mechanical atomic behaviors !" ← Unscientific attitude that stops the normal scientific progress based on continuously delving into deeper physical mechanisms.
The tired cliche "(fantasy) Quantum mechanics is the most successful theory used in our daily life technology !" is a big lie.
Contrary to the mainstream interpretation, any daily-life devices such as computer transistors and smartphones do Not use such an unrealistic quantum mechanics based on unpredictable uncertain quantum world, because uncontrollable quantum mechanical states are intrinsically unusable for computer transistors which need precise deterministic control as a switch.
Without depending on quantum mechanical uncertain theory, practical transistors were "discovered" accidentally by conventional trial-and-error approaches like great inventors Edison and Wright brothers, after researchers repeated many failures caused by the useless existing quantum mechanical theory unable to give them useful advice or predictions for avoiding failures ( this 7th-paragraph ).
Not only in transistors, quantum mechanics has been completely useless in all applied science such as biology and medicine ( this 4.Biologists, this 12th-paragraph ).
The so-called "quantum biology" about which you may have heard recently is just an impractical pseudo-science irrelevant to real biology or medicine.
This is why there are still many incurable diseases such as cancers, Alzheimer, HIV.. ← Because the current only atomic theory = (fantasy) quantum mechanics failed to give the exact atomic and molecular behaviors inside body and disease-formation mechanisms.
The dead-end basic physics = fantasy quantum mechanics stopping progressing forced "scientists" and corporations across the world to create "fictional scientific targets" such as parallel-world quantum computers (= never realized ), unseen black holes, BigBang, global warming, vaccine passports.. in order to get the world's science budgets which huge amount of "science" money is enough to control the media, academia, bureaucrats, corporations and politicians across the world..
The lack of technological innovation due to the stalled fictional basic quantum science (= green energy remains useless, depending on fictional quantum quasiparticle model ) makes people's life inconvenient and unhappy (= instead of real useful science making our life convenient and happy ) by increasing the living cost and unnecessary "science taxes."
But if someone tries to delve into the still-unknown real underlying atomic mechanisms by discarding the unphysical quantum mechanical theory, the mainstream academia desperately tries to stop them from clarifying deeper truth, saying "Nobody understands paradoxical quantum mechanical world, but it's (baselessly) successful ! So everyone has to shut up and stop complaining about the unreality of quantum mechanics !"
↑ These familiar misleading hackneyed phrases "quantum mechanics (and Einstein theory ) is successful ! But Nobody understands its true physical meaning, no matter how we try to understand it !" are used as a "excuse" for the current mainstream academia living on fictional quantum mechanics and Einstein relativity to discourage people from clarifying the true underlying atomic mechanisms (= inconvenient truth ) that contradict the paradoxical quantum mechanical theory.
Historically, there were No such things as "successful theories" which could magically predict any physical values before researchers conducted experiments and observed phenomena.
↑ If such a ( illusory ) successful quantum mechanics could really predict any atomic behaviors inside our bodies, why will we have to suffer from many incurable diseases such as deadly cancers with still No effective drugs ? (= "successful" quantum mechanics cannot tell us any atomic mechanism of cancers at all, because quantum mechanics is unsuccessful and just fantasy. ) ← "Successful quantum mechanics" is completely a misleading and deceptive phrase, so harmful for us.
The misleadingly exaggerated cliche "successful (fictional) quantum mechanics and Einstein !" was created to make suspicious people look away from the utter unreality and fatal flaws underlying the current dead-end mainstream basic science.
For example, the alleged only practical application of Einstein relativity = GPS clock does Not depend on paradoxical Einstein theory, because GPS needs almost real-time correction of its clock time errors caused by the large discrepancy between the theory and observations.
↑ These almost-real-time obervations (= Not Einstein useless relativistic theory ) for correcting satellite clock time errors (= caused by the difference between theory and observed times ) can tell us exact GPS clock times and keep GPS practically usable ( this p.2, this p.2 ).
↑ "Einstein theory is very successful, magically predicting anything !" is a total lie to make people falsely believe that the current useless fictional mainstream theory (= originally ignored as worthless pseudo-science ) may be worth something.
Despite an incredible amount of "science research money" wasted across the world ( as seen in COVID-19 fruitless 'science' treatment money ), we are unable to cure many diseases, cancers, viruses, because the current medical advancement is miserably forbidden by the impractical basic science = quantum mechanical atomic theory.
Biologists and medical researchers have to "find lucky proteins or enzymes" from "natural organisms" that could modify our biological reactions instead of researchers creating artificial biological tools by themselves, because the failed quantum mechanical atomic theory prevents biological researchers from designing and creating useful biological tools ( to cure diseases ) from scratch utilizing real atomic interactions.
For example, DNA polymerase enzymes for PCR tests of COVID-19 have to be found from natural bacteria, and the antibodies for immunotherapy and vaccines have to be obtained using natural immunological responses from humans and animals, instead of researchers artificially designing those biological tools, antibodies and enzymes from (impractical) quantum mechanical atomic theory.
Very old medical technique = vaccines (= whose basic technology stops progressing ) failed to contain the recent COVID-19 viruses because of useless quantum mechanical atomic theory still unable to give researchers the detailed atomic mechanism of immune system.
After all, sooner or later, governments will have to rely on natural herd immunity, giving up fruitless vaccine passports or mandates, admitting the current mainstream science has No power to cure diseases and viruses, just wasting a huge amount of taxpayers' money in the current impractical mainstream science.
The problem is those abundant pseudo-science money enabled the media and academia to censor free speech and restrict free real science like in the old Galileo era for academia colluding with corporations making money from the current (fishy) mainstream science ( chosen by them ) to protect their old vested scientific interests such as selling their seeming science books.
↑ Unfortunately, the current "mainstream science" such as quantum mechanical parallel worlds and the theory of everything = fantasy extradimensional string theory is much more unrealistic than the old geocentric theory supported by the then-academia 400 years ago = old catholic churches.
The present fictional mainstream "science" focuses only on meaningless "religious rituals" worshiping and deifying old deceased scientists by repeating their worn-out past stories, selling history (= Not science ) books, and celebrating empty "anniversaries" forever ( only to convince taxpayers to put more money into their unreal useless "science" by exploiting these "religious rituals or ceremonies" ), with No substantial technological innovation.
Contrary to the media-hype, quantum mechanics is inherently an unsuccessful theory with No power to predict physical values of ordinary atoms, molecules or materials, so quantum mechanics is a useless failed theory unusable for any applied science.
Quantum mechanics can Not predict any physical values in any muti-electron atoms and molecules whose calculation tool = Schrödinger equations cannot be solved except for the one-electron hydrogen atom (= quantum mechanical electron must have the unrealistic zero angular momentum, though ) whose energy values just agreed with successful Bohr's atomic model.
Successful Bohr's realistic atomic model, which could perfectly predict even complicated atomic fine structure energy splitting, was favorably accepted by the then physicists as a legitimate theory ( this last ) and awarded the most prestigious Nobel prize for its correct prediction of atomic energy levels ( this p.2 ).
So the wrong narratives such as "Bohr's atomic moving electron may be unstable, radiating energy" was fabricated later to justify unrealistic quantum mechanics.
↑ If Bohr's realistic moving electron really radiates and loses energy to be unstable, quantum mechanical electron with kinetic energy (= hence, moving and losing energies ), is also unstable easily losing energy. ← self-contradiction.
Furthermore, unrealistic quantum mechanics allows the impossible negative kinetic energies ( this p.8 ). ← nonsense
Unfortunately, Bohr's realistic atomic model with No self-contradiction with respect to the electron particle (= of course, with only real positive kinetic energies unlike unrealistic quantum mechanical negative kinetic energies ), wave and Coulomb electric forces had no choice but to give up calculating two-electron complicated real helium's orbits whose calculation becomes an infamous three-body problems and needs modern computer's calculation.
But there were No modern computers in 1920s to compute realistic Bohr's helium atom.
Of course, quantum mechanical Schrödinger equations were also unable to solve three-body helium atoms, but only quantum mechanics was unfairly allowed to artificially choose fake approximate methods called variational methods (= originally-unphysical quantum mechanics was allowed to rely on unphysical artificial calculation methods ). ← This was the start of the current terrible fantasy quantum mechanical pseudo-science.
Originally, the infamous unsolvable three-body problem such as a helium atom with two moving electrons needs the simulation using modern computers (= which did Not exist in 1920s when quantum mechanics was born ) to know its electrons' behavior.
But even in the lack of calculating resources, physicists had to continue their researches to develop their ( even if fake ) physical theories which pseudo-atomic theory is the so-called quantum mechanics which had to rely on many unrealistic concepts such as parallel-world-exchange energies based on superluminal spins, and fictitious quasi-particle model to falsely and forcibly explain multi-electron atoms which quantum mechanical pseudo-model is completely unsuccessful, can Not predict any physical values.
In any multi-electron atoms and molecules, quantum mechanics has to artificially guess and choose arbitrary fake approximate solutions called trial wavefunctions or basis sets, and adjust free parameters to obtain fake atomic energies by integrating (= instead of solving ) Schrödinger equations ( this p.18, this p.18 ).
↑ Just artificially choosing arbitrary fake trial wavefunctions and adjusting free parameters without authentically solving ( unsolvable ) Schrödinger equations to get fake (seeming) total energies (= called variational approximate methods ) means quantum mechanics is completely unsuccessful with No ability to predict any physical values in multi-electron atoms and molecules ( this p.7 ).
Because in these useless quantum mechanical methods, which can neither solve any multi-electron Schrödinger equations nor predict exact atomic energies, there is No way of knowing true atomic energies until we compare their (fake) calculated energies given by artificially choosing fake solutions adjusting many free parameters with the experimental values ( this p.4-5th-paragraph, this p.3-last, this 2nd-last paragraph ).
↑ Hence, it's far better to use the experimentally-obtained values from the beginning without wasting time in these meaningless quantum mechanical methods which have No power to predict any physical values.
Even the fake quantum mechanical approximate methods of integrating artificially-chosen fake solutions (= usually complicated forms of wavefunctions ) are extremely time-consuming and impractical in calculating ordinary multi-electron atoms, molecules and materials ( this p.1-2nd-paragraph, this p.4, this p.8-left ).
↑ This present impractical quantum mechanics forces physicists to rely on nonphysical models such as band theory and unreal quasiparticle models (= Not actual particles, as seen in their ridiculous claim that quasiparticles can even split unbreakable fundamental charges, particles and magnets into fantasy monopole ) to explain various physical phenomena in molecules, semiconductors, superconductors, still-useless solar energy, and even fictitious cells.
Because useless quantum mechanics unable to deal with any multi-electron atoms and materials has to outrageously treat the whole many-electron materials or semiconductors as one-pseudo-electron or quasiparticle model with fake effective masses (= these fake quasi-electron masses in materials are freely-adjustable parameters, so quantum mechanical methods cannot predict any practical values ).
Incompetent quantum mechanics makes physicists rely only on fake approximate models such as one-pseudo-electron band model (= quasi-particle with fake effective mass ) and the present most popular pseudo-calculation method based on "one-pseudo-electron density functional theory (= DFT or Kohn-Sham theory, this p.11-lower )", which are unsuccessful, unable to explain actual molecules and materials composed of differently-separable electrons and atoms.
Because all quantum mechanical multi-electron (fake) models such as molecular orbital (= MO ) theory failed to explain unphysical quantum mechanical exchange energies allegedly representing Pauli principle. → Unreal one-pseudo-electron DFT is left as the quantum mechanical only approximate pseudo-model for describing multi-electron molecules. ← paradox !"
It's impossible to use such an unphysical quantum mechanical model DFT, which model unscientifically replaces the whole many-electron material by one inseparable pseudo-electron model and replaces the original true potential energies by artificially-chosen effective pseudo-potential energies called exchange-correlation functional (= exact form is unknown, this p.3, this p.17 ), in any applied science such as computer transistors (= based on band theory ) and medical research.
It means all quantum mechanical calculations miserably failed to predict actual physical values, hence, quantum mechanics is completely an unsuccessful theory.
The original Schrödinger equations with No power to predict anything (= just choosing fake approximate solutions ) are unusable in ordinary molecules ( this p.11 ). ← unsuccessful
→ One-pseudo-quasi-electron DFT or band model (= the most widely-used quantum mechanical approximation = DFT just chooses unknown pseudo-potential energies called exchange-correlation functional = choice of different exchange-correlation functionals gives different calculation results and errors with No prediction power ) is unable to predict many physical phenomena such as molecular energies and materials due to their artificial manipulation of many freely-adjustable parameters ( this p.23-last, this p.11 ). ← unsuccessful
↑ The hackneyed phrases which often misleadingly claim as if quantum mechanics was a successful theory magically predicting any physical values turn out to be a big lie.
We can prove quantum mechanics is a wrong theory based on its inherent self-contradictions by showing its multi-electron Schrödinger equations can never have true solutions (= conserving total energy like one-electron hydrogen atom is impossible in any multi-electron atoms of Schrödinger equations )
Electron spin is unreal.
A tiny electron must be unrealistically spinning much faster than the maximum light speed c to generate the observed magnetic field of each electron ( this 3rd-paragraph, this p.1-lower, ).
So the paradoxical quantum mechanics started to say contradictory things "An electron has spin and angular momentum, but the spin does Not mean actual spinning or rotation ( this p.16-18, this lower ) !" ← This self-contradiction shows the quantum mechanical spin is illusion.
Actually, the electron spin-spin magnetic energies are extremely weak (= even if electron spin existed ), cannot explain strong Pauli principle's repulsive energies or stable ferromagnetic materials ( this p.4 ). ← Quantum mechanical spins disagree with experimental observations. ← Quantum mechanics or relativistic quantum field theory is Not successful at all.
↑ Paradoxical quantum mechanics makes a contradictory claim that any real forces such as electric and magnetic forces (= including illusory electron's spin magnet ) can Not explain the repulsion allegedly caused by mysterious Pauli exclusion principle ( this p.5 this p.10 ), though you can easily measure and feel this Pauli repulsions as real forces when you touch some rigid objects.
Instead, the unsuccessful quantum mechanics artificially made up nonphysical "exchange energy" which cannot be explained by any real concepts or forces ( this p.6, this p.8-lower ), because quantum mechanics irrationally claims there is only "exchange energy", but there is No "exchange force." ← nonsense, there is No such thing as the ( illusory exchange ) energy (= expressed as force × distance ) without real force
The most serious problem is the current two mainstream theories of quantum mechanics and Einstein relativity have given up clarifying detailed underlying physical mechanisms involving unrealistic quantum superposition or a dead-and-alive cat allegedly caused by fantasy parallel universes and still-unknown Pauli principle mechanism, just reluctantly saying "Nobody undestands it", which unscientific spirit clearly obstructs our science progress.
Physicsts gave up "real physical pictures" for describing electrons and their unrealistic spins, and escaped into the nonphysical meaningless math world (= irrelevant to our real world's phenomena ) called relativistic quantum field theory, Dirac equation ( this p.11 ) or fraudulent quantum electrodynamics (= QED ) that just artificially manipulates the nonphysical spin magnetic moment using the wrong math trick of renormalization subtracting meaningless infinities from infinities to illegitimately get some arbitrary finite values (= Not prediction ! this 1st-paragraph ) allegedly caused by infinite fictional virtual particles.
Quantum mechanics also unscientifically claims the faster-than-light fictional action may be possible by spooky entanglement which contradicts another mainstream theory of Einstein relativity, without showing detailed mechanism of how exactly each particle can send such a superluminal ghost-like information.
If quantum mechanical faster-than-light entanglement action is right, another mainstream Einstein relativity is wrong. ← The current mainstream theory is self-contradictory and unsuccessful at all.
Actually these quantum entanglement and teleportation send No real informations or particles, hence, a completely meaningless and useless theory ( artificially-created meaningless concept called "quantum internet" is also one of junk science that will be useless forever ). ← Then, such an useless quantum mechanics turned out to be unsuccessful at all.
Quantum mechanics makes another unrealistic claim that electrons can penetrate a very thin barrier (= less than a few nanometers ) even using (unreal) negative kinetic energies without showing the detailed mechanism of how each particle can have such an impossible negative kinetic energy ( this 3rd-paragraph ).
↑ In the normal scientific progress or process, if physicists encounter such a paradoxical negative kinetic energy, they have to naturally replace such an unphysical quantum mechanical theory by other realistic atomic models.
↑ But quantum mechanics just repeats the unscientific poor excuse "Nobody understands ( such a fantasy negative kinetic energy ) ! So stop trying to understand this weird quantum tunnel mechanism !" ← It's impossible to say quantum mechanics is a legitimate 'successful theory' explaining any phenomena scientifically.
In this unphysical quantum mechanical "negative-kinetic-energy tunneling", their baseless assumptions of "imaginary potential barriers (= often meaning empty vacuum, No physical barriers )" in quantum tunneling are likely to be wrong and must be replaced by realistic ones.
↑ The (imaginary) potential energy barriers can change and decrease when the distance between two atoms are extremely short = less than a few nm through which extremely short empty space an electron can naturally penetrate with real positive kinetic energies, because negative kinetic energy (= 1/2mv2 < 0 ) is physically impossible in electrons with positive mass (= m > 0 ). ← This is far more rational explanation eliminating fantasy negative kinetic energies haunting the occult quantum tunneling.
Einstein relativity, which blindly discarded "real space medium," ends up relying on unreal and paradoxical virtual particles as fictitious force carriers (= these infinite illusory virtual particles must be filling the space like the medium, after all, to mediate forces between particles such as electrons = Einstein relativity is self-contradictory denying the space medium, but instead, replacing it by another fictitious medium filled with unphysical unobservable ghost virtual particles, this p.7 ).
The present mainstream quantum field theory or QED allegedly uniting (fantasy) quantum mechanics and Einstein relativity is just an unphysical abstract math theory with No ability to give detailed physical mechanisms of how exactly particles interact with each other through fictional virtual particles.
As a means to describe (fictitious) particles' interactions, the relativistic quantum field theory uses just abstract unphysical Feynman diagrams including unreal virtual particles with imaginary (= Not real positive physical ) masses ( this p.6, this p.16 ), and describes each electron and photon as nonphysical meaningless math symbols with No concrete shapes or sizes which tells us nothing about the detailed atomic figures and their interactions, so a completely useless theory.
These virtual particles or virtual photons allegedly having nonphysical imaginary masses or unrealistically faster-than-light motions contradict Einstein relativistic mass relation ( this p.5, this p.4-2nd-last-paragraph ), so the current mainstream theories are self-contradictory and false ( this 6-8th paragraph ).
↑ Quantum mechanics + Einstein relativity = relativistic quantum field theory based on paradoxical virtual particles is completely unsuccessful.
Quantum electrodynamics (= QED ) irrationally claims the vacuum contains infinite numbers of (unreal) virtual particles with infinitely large energies, hence, all calculated values by this nonphysical quantum field theory or QED miserably diverge to the physically meaningless "infinite values".
Physicists had no choice but to rely on ad-hoc unrealistic methods called "renormalization" where they had to artificially cancel out infinite virtual particles' energies by another infinite invisible bare charge and mass of an electron ( this p.4 ) like sweeping infinites under the rug.
↑ The unreasonable trick of this QED renormalization is they just artificially change and manipulate infinite meaningless values allegedly caused by unreal virtual particles by artificially subtracting other infinite meaningless parameters of unseen bare charge (or mass ) of electrons to obtain arbitrary finite values ( ∞ - ∞ = finite physical value ? ). ← nonsense
↑ The artificial manipulation of invisible and unmeasurable infinite virtual particles' values means this QED is Not a successful theory at all, as shown in the fact that even its founders Dirac and Feynman openly criticize the QED ad-hoc renormalization method as "hocus-pocus".
Actually, No scientists have used this nonphysical quantum field theory, QED and their unreal virtual particles ( this p.35 ) for any practical science, because QED has No power to predict any actual useful values except for meaninglessly manipulating fictional unseen virtual particles.
Particle physics based on religious God particles or something is also an useless and meaningless pseudo-science ( except for selling sci-fi books or conducting rituals celebrating "religious anniversaries" ), dealing with the imaginary unstable useless particles which extremely-short-lived pseudo-particles (= even if they existed ) can never be isolated from particle colliders or utilized for our daily life, just wasting taxpayers' money in gigantic meaningless colliders and fictional theories.
The present particle physics just imagining unseen unstable fictional objects is like other useless pseudo-science such as BigBang and black holes (= which are fiction forever, because unseen black holes are too far away from the earth to confirm, no matter how many times physicists claim they might have found new black holes in the distant universe in vain ).
All experiments of the present particle physics based on unpredictable particle collisions ( = many irrelevant particles flying in uncertain random directions ) using particle colliders and accelerators are meaningless, chaotic and unreliable, = cannot be called "precise tests".
All these imaginary unseen ghost-like elementary particles such as Higgs and quarks are unnecessary for us and allegedly so short-lived decaying into other irrelevant particles that we can Not observe those illusory short-lived particles such as Higgs, fractional-charge quarks and W,Z bosons directly ( this 3rd-paragraph ).
Furthermore, all these illusory unstable unnecessary particles are said to appear transiently only once in billions or trillions of particle collisions ( = after smashing protons and electrons ) like finding a needle in haystack, and almost all data produced by these meaningless particle collisions are mercilessly discarded regardless of whether the data are irrelevant or not ( this 5th-paragraph, this p.34 ).
↑ It's impossible that such a chaotic particle physics experiment of randomly colliding many irrelevant particles and selecting only a tiny amount of convenient data could predict some reliable physical values. ← The present particle physics experiments based on random chaotic particle collisions are unable to conduct rigorous precise tests, hence "successful particle physics" is completely baseless.
Actually, even after many years have passed since physicists claimed (imaginary) unseen quarks, weak and Higgs bosons might have been discovered (= Not directly, though ), those unstable doubtful particles are still useless, producing only fictional concepts, except for physicists selling "sci-fi" books, repeating same old lectures, unscientific episodes, podcasts, getting prizes and demanding wasting taxpayers' money in another unnecessary ( endlessly-more ) gigantic colliders. ← No practical application at all
The important point is that all the media's colorful particles' pictures are fake just for misleading laypersons, because the present nonphysical particle physics irrelevant to the real world outside colliders can Not give any concrete shapes and colors to these (illusory) particles.
Particle physics and standard model just describe each (fictional) elementary particles using nonphysical math symbols ( this p.6, this p.7 ) and abstract Feynman diagrams allegedly interacting with unreal virtual particles which nonphysical particle models tell us nothing about detailed mechanisms of each particle generation or interaction, just by aritificially manipulating freely-adjustable parameters in vain ( this p.5 ).
↑ Nonphysical particle physics is completely dead-end and unsuccessful with No power to predict any meaningful values (= this is why many illusory short-lived particles inside colliders are useless, unusable for our daily life ), just choosing convenient data from chaotic randomly-flying particle collisions, manipulating free parameters and describing each particle as meaningless math symbols with No concrete physical figures ( this p.4, this p.6 ).
Due to the useless basic quantum mechanics, all physicists could do was just artificially fabricate nonphysical meaningless math concepts such as "symmetry", imaginary hypercharges ( this p.4 ) and various nonphysical math gauge or phase transformations, all of which have nothing to do with our real world phenomena, so completely useless concepts.
↑ Nonphysical SU2 or SU3 transformations and symmetries (= invariant equations under some meaningless artificial transformations ) are supposed to represent weak force (= W boson ) and quarks, and these meaningless symmetry breaking allegedly means illusory Higgs according to this useless particle theory ( this p.10, this p.9, this p.11 ).
The present only unified theory of (fantasy) quantum mechanics and Einstein relativity called the "theory of everything" is also a nonphysical meaningless math theory which allegedly combined the original fantasy 26-dimensional string theory with supersymmetry into the new fantasy 10-dimensional superstring theory ( this p.13, this p.10-12, this p.19-20 ) which abstract math model shows all the media's colorful pseudo-particles' pictures are fake and baseless just to falsely excite laypersons.
↑ The current only "theory of everything" = extradimensional string theory and nonphysical supersymmetry include as many as 10500 freely-adjustable parameters or different solutions, hence, the current particle physics and its unified theory combining quantum mechanics and Einstein relativity are completely unsuccessful with No ability to predict any physical values.
All the current doubtful extremely-short-lived elementary particles represented by the unscientific standard model such as unseen Higgs, fractional-charge quarks, W,Z bosons .. are just useless nonphysical fictional particles wasting our taxpayers' money in meaningless gigantic colliders.
Some physicists claim one of those doubtful short-lived particles called a muon may be "useful" for roughly knowing the inside of volcanos and nuclear reactors due to the higher-energy muons' ability to penetrate solids more easily than electrons, but this is untrue. Imaginary unneeded muons are also useless, so fictional particles.
Imaginary unnecessary muons are just extremely-high-energy electrons or other realistic particles moving at almost light speed c.
Because an unstable muon easily decays into an electron or other realistic particles within a extremely-short time of 2.2 microsecond. ← Physicists just measure stable electrons or light (= instead of muon itself ) and imagine the existence of (fictional) unstable muons.
A muon is said to be heavier than an electron (= the mass and instability are the only difference between unseen muons and electrons ).
The present particle physics can neither determine such an unstable muon's mass nor distinguish a muon from other abundant electrons (= to know the precise mass and charge of each particle, Millikan oil drop experiments have to be conducted, which is possible only in stable electrons, Not unstable muons ).
For example, even when physicists tried to measure the very tiny anomalous magnetic moment (= tiny-energy ) fluctuation of the unobservable muon, they measured the irrelevant extremely-high-energy electrons (= moving at light speed ) and guessed the extremely-tiny anomalous magnetic moment of a unseen muon, instead of measuring the ghost-like muon's magnetic moment directly ( this p.11 ).
↑ Even when they measure extremely-tiny-energy anomalous magnetic moment of the muons, they have to unreasonably accelerate the muon to the light speed c by giving extremely high energy to the unseen muon (or protons. ← an unseen muon is said to appear from the high-energy proton's collision ), which extremely-high-energy makes it impossible to know the precise tiny-energy magnetic moment's fluctuation, so these experiments are unreliable and meaningless.
The energy required to accelerate the muon to light speed c is said to be 105 MeV (= 0.1 GeV = mc2 ), but physicists accelerate the muon to more than 3.0 GeV (= much higher than light speed c, this p.18-19, this p.10, this p.26 ), even when they try to measure the extremely-tiny anomalous magnetic moment of a muon. ← unreasonable !
So an imaginary muon is just a high-energy electron (or other realistic stable particles ) moving at almost light speed, which extremely-high-energy allows an electron to penetrate solids such as nuclear reactors and volcanos, which means the unstable illusory muon itself is Not useful, because it's just a high-energy electron.
This electron moving at the light speed c can modify the ordinary electromagnetic forces, which electromagnetic force's traveling speed cannot exceed the light speed c, and make an electron at the light speed c appear to be heavier and harder to accelerate (= this high-energy electron appears to be a heavier illusory muon, which is a trick ).
Recent news showed the current mainstream standard model in particle physics disagreed with experimental results of the measurement of the alleged weak (= W ) boson's mass.
The problem is the present unscientific physics just tries to add another artificially-created nonphysical new theory to the original already-broken mainstream theory instead of replacing it by more realistic theories, even if some physicists find the clear disagreement between experimental results and the theory.
Actually, though physicists have already confirmed the present quantum electrodynamics (= QED ) disagreed with the experimental results of proton radius (= which may affect Lamb shift ), they hesitate to admit the current mainstream theory is wrong (= originally, QED has No power to predict Lamb shift = just artificially adjusting free parameters ).
It is clear that the tired cliche "the current mainstream particle physics theory = standard model is the most successful theory agreeing with experiments !" turned out to be a lie, media-hype only to waste taxpayers' money in those useless fictional science.
The current particle physics or standard model has No power to predict any physical values. All particles' masses, charges and coupling ( or interaction ) strength are freely adjustable parameters which must be (vaguely) determined by the chaotic unreliable particle collision experiments ( this p.19, this p.3-lower ).
The only predictable value by such an useless standard model is said to be the mass of ( illusory ) weak or W boson ( this 11th-paragraph ).
But all the current doubtful unstable elementary particles are too short-lived to detect directly. Particle physicists just "pick up" only a small part of a lot of irrelevant particles' data, and baselessly claim they might have found ( directly-unmeasurable, though ) elusive W bosons or God particle Higgs. ← So No direct evidence that such extremely short-lived and unseen elementary particles were actually created transiently.
This latest research paper ( p.1-right ) says
"All fundamental particle masses, including that of the W boson, are generated in the SM through interactions with the condensate of the Higgs field ... the Higgs boson are parametrized but not explained by the SM (= standard model ). A number of hypotheses have been promulgated.."
↑ So the precarious W boson mass is just obtained from freely-adjustable parameters based on artificial models or hypotheses with No prediction power.
The conventional main method of roughly predicting W boson mass is said to be based on the old nonphysical value called Fermi constant ( this p.2-3 ).
This parameter called Fermi constant GF related to the very heavy W boson's mass (= MW ) is said to be obtained by measuring the lifetime and decay of (illusory) muons ( this p.1 ).
↑ The problem is the muon is also a very unstable, short-lived and impossible to isolate from other irrelevant more abundant particles such as electrons and nuclei, hence, such an unstable and unnecessary muon can be thought to be just an illusory particle or artifact caused by physicists intentionally misinterpreting some multi-particle Coulomb scattering among other more abundant electrons and protons.
Anyway, unnecessary short-lived muons and W bosons have No value for wasting taxpayers' money. We should focus on more realistic and practical physical model.
Muons and neutrons are said to decay into unseen W bosons which further dacays into electrons and neutrinos by weak forces.
But the theoretical mass of the W boson is unrealistically big (= 80.1 GeV, this p.1 ) = a W boson is 800 times more massive and heavier than a tiny muon (= muon mass is only 0.105 GeV ) or neutron !
So the ligher muon (= μ ) or neutron can Not emit a much heavier W boson, instead, those lighter muon or neutron is allowed to emit or decay into only unreal virtual W boson with unmeasurable imaginary masses ( this 2nd-last paragraph ).
↑ So it's intrinsically impossible to predict such an illusory virtual W boson mass (= real massive W boson mass can Not be generated from muon decay ! ) using the muon-decay-related Fermi constant, and the so-called standard model prediction of W boson mass is impossible and just a lie.
These unreal virtual W bosons in muon and neutron beta decay are unobservable, violating Einstein mass relation which is called off-mass shell ( this p.8 ).
But in order to get Fermi constant for the suspicious W boson mass prediction, particle physicists had to ignore this obvious contradictory virtual W bosons with imaginary mass, and try to apply the impossible pseudo-theory of unrealistically-massive W bosons created from the much-ligher muon (= μ ), even by changing the original QED Feynman relation and violating energy conservation law ( this p.5-right-p.6-left, this p.10 ) !
So the present particle physics of the alleged W boson mass prediction (= this is almost the only prediction by useless standard model, all other values are just free parameters ) is based on the wrong unphysical theory, Not a legitimate prediction at all.
Measuring the ligher muon (= μ ) lifetime. → Replacing the original unreal virtual W boson (= unmeasurable imaginary mass ) by the impossible heavier W boson, assuming the ligher muon unrealistically decays into a heavier W boson ( mμ << MW, this p.22 (or p.14 ), this p.14-15 (or p.20-21 ), this p.18 ).
As shown in this (= p.8, p.14 ), very small energy of only 4.1 MeV muon is used to measure its dubious lifetime or unphysical Fermi constant for predicting illusory 80000 MeV (= or 80 GeV ) heavier W boson mass by violating energy conservation law. ← nonsense.
↑ This ad-hoc standard model method blatantly ignoring mass and energy conservation law (= a ligher muon decays into a heavier W boson !? ) disagrees with the original Feynman diagram and QED muon decay process based on ( originally-unreal ) virtual particles ( this 9-10th paragraph ), so Not the prediction of the original quantum theory at all.
↑ Particle physicists artificially and unscientifically changed the rule and original quantum field theory equations or Feynman diagram in order just to obtain their convenient prediction of unseen massive W boson, which means the present particle physics is completely an illegitimate and unsuccessful theory with No power to predict any real physical values in the right way.
Precise rigorous test or prediction is impossible in the present particle physics based on random chaotic collisions of high-energy particles producing an incredible number of meaningless irrelevant particles and background noises.
Another important ( illusory ) elementary particle of the current standard ( Glashow-Weinberg-Salam ) model is a neutral Z boson which is also ghost and useless = too short-lived to detect directly (= No real evidence that these Z or W bosons exist ).
This ghost-like neutral Z boson is said to be involved in weak interaction of unseen neutrinos (= ν ) being scattered by other particles such as electrons and nuclei, which interaction is called neutral current (= NC ).
This unseen illusory Z boson was said to be discovered by observing the scattering of such an unseen neutrinos (= neutrino itself cannot be detected, its existence must be inferred from "missing momentum" or other surrounding particles ).
↑ Of course it's unrealistic to obtain reliable data from these uncertain, unpredictable particle scattering experiments using unseen elusive neutrinos, hence, these scattering experiments often gave different wrong results in different physicists, disagreeing with the standard model's predictions.For example, one important standard model's parameter called Weinberg angle or weak mixing angle obtained in these unreliable neutrino scattering often disagreed (= sin2 θw = 0.3-0.5, this p.18, this p.21-last ) with the current accepted or adjusted values ( sin2 θw = 0.23 ).
So particle physicists tended to discard conflicting results and pick up only convenient results agreeing with the mainstream theory's prediction ( this p.17 ).
This unseen Z boson is extremely massive (= 90 GeV, which is 90 times heavier than a proton ).
But the unscientific standard model allows even the violation of energy and mass conservation law, so even lighter neutrinos with lower energies ( < 50 GeV, this p.2-right, this p.25, this p.55, this p.20-lower ) could magically generate heavier Z boson with higher energies (= generating a Z boson or its mass should need at least 90 GeV or 90000 MeV ), which is impossible, hence a wrong contradictory theory.
The present particle physics or standard model is Not successful at all, instead, it just blatantly violates the inviolable physical laws to artificially change parameters and rules in order just to fit experimental results.
The present particle physics and quantum chromodynamics (= QCD, familiar colorful pictures are fake = just nonphysical math theory ) make a baseless claim that a nucleus and a proton consist of infinite unobservable unreal virtual fractional-charge quarks and gluons. ← So the origin of mass of proton is still unknown, Not simply equal to the sum of unseen three quarks' masses.
The present particle theory and QCD have No ability to calculate or predict any physical values such as nuclear masses and spins allegedly generated from fictional virtual quarks and gluons. ← QCD is also an unsuccessful theory with No power to predict anything.
Due to strong coupling between unseen inseparable quarks and gluons, QCD calculation results always diverge to infinities, which are irreparable and unable to get analytical finite solutions (= hence, the exact states inside nuclei are unknown, called non-perturbative, this p.5-3rd-paragraph ) by the standard (deceptive) QED methods based on renormalization and Feynman diagram ( this 2nd-last-paragraph, this p.5-upper, this p.3-left-lower, this p.6-lower ).
As a result, the present physics completely discarded the existing quantum mechanics and QED, and then introduced a new independent unrealistic nuclear quark model called lattice QCD which just gives artificial numerical values (= Not predicting analytic values, this p.4-lower, this p.11-lower ) by adjusting many free parameters with No power to predict any physical values, so completely useless (= actually, No physicists have used this QCD, QED or virtual particles for any practical application ).
This unrealistic lattice QCD treats a nucleus or proton as a fictitious lattice (= consisting of quark's points connected by gluon's lines governed by unreal imaginary times ) where unseen quarks' masses ( this p.8-10 ), lattice spacing, coupling constants, quark's interaction energies (= called action, choice of different actions gives different results ) are all freely-chosen parameters ( this p.11-14, this p.19 ).
↑ Basically, there are No ways to get analytic exact solutions in QCD ( this p.6-14 ), so all nuclear values such as the masses of protons, hadrons, mesons, quarks are all meaningless freely-adjustable parameters (= Not only unseen quarks' masses but also all hadrons' and mesons' masses are also freely-fitting parameters, contrary to QCD physicists' exaggeration, because QCD methods themselves are artificially created pseudo-models independent from the original quantum mechanics ), which cannot predict any physical values ( this p.10, this p.1-2, this p.2, this p.2 ), so useless.
And the present useless mainstream (lattice ) QCD using the unrealistic discrete space and imaginatry time clearly violates Einstein relativistic Lorentz symmetry (= the relativistic theory needs the continuous space time ).
As a result, the present quantum mechanics and quantum field theory, QED and QCD are all useless and unsuccessful theories which cannot predict any meaningful values of atoms, molecules, nuclei, materials and applied science.
The present unscientific attitude of physicists giving up solving the mysteries and paradoxes of quantum mechanical conflicting idea of a particle and wave clearly obstructs our science advancement utilizing real atomic interactions for applied science such as medicine.
Quantum mechanical wavefunction which forcibly and irrationally mixes two conflicting concepts of electron's particle and de Broglie wave is expressed as a vague electron cloud which must spread all over the space symmetrically around the nucleus.
In fact, this nonphysical quantum mechanical electron cloud or wavefunction can Not form real molecular bonds between two neutral atoms based on normal Coulomb electric forces where the Coulomb force generation for molecular bonds requires each electron to periodically move around the nucleus, being attracted to the other nucleus and repelled by the other electron using real Coulomb electric forces.
Quantum mechanics, which cannot utilize real Coulomb forces for molecular bonds, has to artificially create the contradictory non-existent concept called "exchange energy" to cause fictitious molecular bond and mysterious Pauli principle repulsive energies (= Not real forces ).
So quantum mechanical molecular bond energies were caused by nonphysical exchange energies. ← Real Coulomb electric energies by electron's and nuclear charges contributed almost nothing to the unrealistic quantum mechanical molecular bonds ( this p.11, this p.3-4 ).
This quantum mechanical exchange energy is Not a real energy, because these exchange energies are artificially created by manipulating pseudo-kinetic energies ( this p.7-last ) Not by any real force carriers such as Coulomb electric charges.
↑ Thinking commonsensically, it is impossible for only kinetic energy change (= magically changed by unknown unreal force carriers ) to cause fictitious molecular bonds or Pauli repulsion which were actually measured.
As shown in Coulomb electric forces caused by electric charges and gravitational forces caused by stars' masses, real forces must be generated by some real objects or force carriers. ← Quantum mechanical (fictional) exchange forces allegedly causing molecular bonds and Pauli exclusion repulsion lack these origins of forces and force carriers. ← Impossible !
So this nonphysical quantum mechanical (Pauli) exchange energy has No physical meaning ( this p.8-lower, this p.6, this p.11 ), because there is No such thing as "exchange force (= only exchange energy exists, but exchange force does Not exist !? ← physically-impossible concept ! )."
↑ Pauli exclusion repulsion can be actually measured as real forces by atomic force microscopes (= You can easily feel Pauli repulsion when you touch some rigid objects ), but quantum mechanics is unable to interpret those measurable Pauli repulsions as real forces ( this p.5 ), and started to say contradictory things "You cannot touch objects even when you touch them !". ← Nonsense. This is clearly paradox invalidating quantum mechanics
Furthermore, quantum mechanics has to rely on illegitimate cheating = violation of energy conservation law, which is another proof that quantum mechanics is wrong.
↑ To cause fictitious molecular bonds by artificially manipulating kinetic energies, the overlapped region (= exchanged region ) of wavefunctions between two molecular atoms has to have lower total energy (= by lowering kinetic energy, this p.6 ) than other regions. ← Different total energies in different regions inside a single molecule shows the violation of total energy conservation in a quantum mechanical molecule.
This is why physicists have avoided clarifying the physical origin of quantum mechanical molecular bonds as 'paradox', hiding truth even in textbooks, fearing further investigation can expose quantum mechanical inherent unreality and contradiction ( this p.3-2nd-paragraph ).
Reason why the quantum mechanical wavefunctions or electron clouds illogically mixing electron's particle and wave natures obstruct science progress is generating unphysical exchange energies requires each electron to exist in all different atoms and orbitals simultaneously (= as if each electron utilizes fantasy parallel worlds ).
For example, inside materials, crazy quantum mechanics claims every single electron-1 must unrealistically exist in all different orbitals and atoms simultaneously where all different electrons and atoms are indistinguishable and inseparable with respect to positions, which quantum mechanical unrealistic model is unusable for explaining actual chemical or biological reactions where different separable electrons need to move from one atom to another different atom in different positions to cause manifest chemical and biological changes.
↑ These unrealistic indistinguishable and inseparable electrons ( with resprct to their positions, atoms and orbitals ) and atoms inside materials and molecules are expressed as nonphysical antisymmetric wavefunctions where exchanging any two electrons is supposed to flip the sign of the entire wavefunction (= Pauli principle ? this p.18 ), which abstract empty quantum mechanical model can clarify nothing about the detailed concrete mechanisms of atomic interaction and Pauli repulsive force's origin ( this p.1, this last-paragraph ).
So in order to utilize real atomic mechanism and real physical forces in applied science and medical treatment, the first thing to do is recover real movable electrons distinguished from its wave picture to end the unrealic exchange energies which clearly stops us from dealing with multiple atoms and electrons existing in different positions as real separable particles and designing useful molecular devices by combining different separable atoms movable by real forces.
In fact, we have already had an excellent technology of observing and manipulating even a single atom one by one to construct artificial molecules ( devices ), using atomic force and scanning microscopes.
↑ So in principle, it is already possible for humans to cure such deadly diseases as cancers and dementia by manipulating each atom, designing and building useful molecular nano-machines for treating and eliminating pathogens and harmful cancer cells by precisely distinguishing them from normal cells at the atomic level.
But such dreamlike molecular nano-machines for medical treatment are still unfeasible, as seen in the fact humans still cannot contain COVID-19 new virues, HIV or even simple common cold, despite an incredible amount of research money wasted across the world for the so-called "science" which obstinately relies on the very old technique = vaccines as the only hope, giving up clarifying deeper atomic mechanisms of diseases, blindly believing in the present only atomic theory = fantasy quantum mechanics.
Because the moment scientists look into the microscopic atomic world, they try to "forget reality", refuse to understand the atomic mechanisms, and interpret all the actually-measured atomic forces or electric properties by microscopes as fictitious quantum mechnanical model such as unreal quasiparticles which are said to have impossible negative mass, splitting the smallest charge and electron and even fictional magnetic monopoles.
↑ As you see, it's impossible to clarify true atomic mechanisms for applying atomic interaction to useful science under the current unscientific quantum mechanics, which obstinately refuses to look into reality, forever.
In order to construct larger useful molecular devices, the first thing for us to do is know the exact shapes, sizes and forces of different atoms and molecules (= usable as basic parts for building larger molecules ) by actually measuring their surface atomic forces. ← This measurement of actual forces of each single atom or molecule is already possible in the current excellent microscopes.
Next, we have to express such actually-measured atomic forces using some realistic atomic models (= as simple as possible ) or "real objects" such as electrons and experimentally-verified waves.
↑ To achieve this, we have to use "real separate electrons" movable differently from other electrons by solving paradoxical quantum mechanical wave-particle duality, and clarifying the origin and force carriers of mysterious Pauli repulsion, forgetting unreal, unobservable virtual particles of the current useless quantum field theory.
Even this important basic step (= necessary for contructing larger molecular devices ) of expressing each actually-measurable atomic shapes and forces using "real atomic models or real force concepts" is impossible in the present unrealistic quantum mechanics !
→ Constructing larger molecular devices putting together the smallest atoms and molecules with known concrete shapes and forces (= used as parts ) is impossible, though we already have technology of measuring each single atomic shape and force distinguished from other atoms ! ← how contradictory the current basic science is !
Imagine when we design and construct buildings and cars by putting together different-shaped parts, we need to know the exact shapes and hardness of parts. ← Of course, we need the concept of "forces" when we "touch" each part, actually feel each contact force (= hardness ), move, combine those parts, and build larger objects.
↑ Even this simple basic step of knowing the concrete shapes of different atoms (= parts ) and treating actual forces (= Coulomb attraction and Pauli exclusion repulsion ) as real forces is impossible in unrealistic quantum mechanics which even forbids different atoms and electrons from being distinguished and separated from other atoms and electrons.
↑ So, useless quantum mechanics even forbids each part (= each electron, atom, molecule ) from being separated from other different parts (= other different electrons, atoms, molecules ) ! → Constructing larger buildings or cars (= constructing larger molecular devices ) by putting together different parts or atoms is impossible in quantum mechanics, which contradicts actual separable atoms and molecules.
According to quantum mechanics, all repulsive forces such as resistance, contact and normal forces which we can easily feel when touching objects are said to be caused by mysterious Pauli exclusion principle at the atomic and molecular levels.
The problem is unrealistic quantum mechanics neither admits this actually-measurable Pauli repulsive forces (= as both macroscopic and microscopic repulsive forces ) as real forces ( this p.4, this p.10 ) nor gives any real physical meaning to Pauli repulsion ( this p.3-3rd-paragraph, this p.2-4th-paragraph ) !
As a result, quantum mechanics started to say even crazy things "we cannot actually touch any real objects ! " ← nonsense. How can we construct useful molecular machines without actually toching each atom and molecule ? Impossible !
How did physicists come to accept such an unrealistic and contradictory quantum mechanics, which can Not even touch, separate each atom ( from other different atoms ), or feel actual forces of them ?
Due to the lack of modern computers to calculate the complicated three-body problem of actual helium atom in 1920s, physicists had to reluctantly replace the realistic ( successful ) Bohr atomic model by fantasy quantum mechanics.
The problem is quantum mechanial unphysical wavefunction or electron cloud turned out to be unable to describe real molecular forces such as Coulomb attraction (= between electrically-neutral atoms ), hence, it had to artificially create fictitious exchange energy as fictitious molecular bond energies and Pauli exclusion repulsion.
In this quantum mechanical ad-hoc interatomic energy rule, the sign (= ± ) of the unphysical exchange energy (= exchange integral or resonance integral ) instead of ordinary Coulomb energies determines whether two atoms attract and form molecular bonds (= lower energy ) or two atoms repel each other by Pauli repulsion (= higher energy or antibond, this p.11-13, this p.3-last-paragraph, this lower-Fig.2 ).
See this p.4,5-Figure.1, and this lower-Fig.2, this p.3 (or p.5 ), this p.7-Figure.4
Because the ordinary Coulomb electric force or energy (= Coulomb integral ) between two quantum mechanical wavefunctions or electron clouds are far weaker (= quantum mechanical Coulomb energies contribute almost Nothing to molecular bond energies ) than actual molecular bond energies or Pauli repulsion expressed as nonphysical exchange energies ( this p.3-4, this p.-4-5, this p.29 ).
↑ This unphysical quantum mechanical exchange energies lack exchange force ( this p.5 ), hence Not real energies. ← Energy (= work ) must be equal to force × distance, but quantum mechanics ridiculously claims there is only exchange energy but No exchange force ! ← Quantum mechanical exchange energies lacking physical (exchange) force are unreal.
When we exert force and push some objects by hands, the touched object pushes us back by resistance. In this case, due to the law of action and reaction the hand and the object experience contact forces in the opposite directions.
↑ Hence, the hand's atoms and electrons move in the opposite direction from the touched object's atoms and electrons. The hand's atoms and electrons are separated, independent and distinguished from the touched object's atoms and electrons in realistic description of Pauli principle mediated by real ( contact ) forces.
When we take some amount of stone from a quarry and carry the stone to the construction site for using it as a part of building, of course, the atoms and electrons of the carried stone must be separate, independent things which can be moved in different directions independent from the other quarry's and building's atoms and electrons (← this case needs at least more than three independent separate and distinguishable electrons, contrary to the present most-popular unrealistic quantum mechanical one-pseudo-electron approximation ).
Also in biological and chemical reactions, when an electron is moved from one molecule-1 (or protein-1 ) to another molecule-2 through a mediator enzyme, such a movable electron must be an independent particle separable from other different electrons existing in the molecule-1, molecule-2 and enzyme.
↑ But unrealistic quantum mechanical indistinguishable electrons described by nonphysical exchange energies or antisymmetric wavefunctions forbid each independent electron from being separated or distinguished from other electrons existing in different places, atoms and orbitals in any molecules and materials ! ← impossible !
"Anti-symmetric wavefunction (= which has nothing to do with our real world )" means under all possible exchanges between any two different electrons existing in any different atoms and orbitals, the whole wavefunctions are indistinguishable and unchanged except for the ± sign added to the whole wavefunctions ( this p.7-8, this p.11-12 ).
↑ It means every single electron must exist in all possible different atoms and orbitals simultaneously from the beginning ( this p.11 ). → All different atoms are indistinguishable and inseparable from other atoms due to every inseparable single electron existing in (= bridging and connecting ) all atoms.
↑ It's impossible to define any real physical (exchange) forces between such unrealistically indistinguishable atoms inseparable from other atoms, which is why the mysterious exchange force or Pauli exclusion repulsion can Not be explained by any real forces ( this p.11, this p.6 )
This is why quantum mechanics prevents us from utilizing real separable electrons and atoms as separably-movable different particles (= like parts of cars or builduings ) for constructing bigger useful molecular machines.
Quantum mechanical Pauli exchange energies lack real force origins, because these pseudo-exchange repulsions are allegedly caused by increasing pseudo-electrons' kinetic energies by each electron unrealisticly existing in more-than-one atoms simultaneously ( this p.7-lower, this 24.2.1, this p.3-left-middle ).
Unphysical exchange energies distinguishing Pauli repulsion (= antisymmetric wavefunction or antibonding ) from molecular bond attraction (= symmetric wavefunction ) needs violation of total energy conservation law (= exchanged parts between two atoms contain lower or higher total energies by artificially-lowered or higher pseudo-kinetic energies, this p.8-discussion, this p.6-2nd-last-paragraph ) in molecules, so quantum mechanical molecules are false.
Why are all quantum mechanical molecules based on unphysical exchange energies wrong by violating total energy conservation law ?
Quantum mechanical useless Schrödinger equations cannot obtain the true wavefunction or solution of hydrogen (= H2 ) molecule, so it tries to approximately describe the H2 molecule by combining two hydrogen atomic wavefunctions (= HA and HB atoms, this p.3 ) as a fictitious H2 wavefunction.
One-electron hydrogen atom is the only solvable Schrödinger equation where the sum of electron's kinetic energy and Coulomb potential energy is the total energy which must be constant and conserved in any electron's positions.
When two H atoms approach each other and form attractive H2 molecular bond where each electron must exist in two different HA and HB atoms simultaneously and unrealistically from the beginning ( this p.2 ), those two ( symmetric ) wavefunctions (= an electron-1's superimposed HA and HB wavefunctions ) interfere with each other constructively, and decrease the pseudo-electron's kinetic energy, which is allegedly the (fictitious) molecular attractive bond mechanism, according to quantum mechanics.
↑ This overlapped constructively-interfered wavefunction of the two symmetric H atomic wavefunctions (= for which, the same single electron-1 must exist in two different separated H atoms in H2 molecule simultaneously from the beginning. ← Impossible ! ) makes Schrödinger wavefunction's slope (= representing electron's de Broglie wave or kinetic energy ) more gentle, hence, it decreases the (pseudo-)electron's kinetic energy.
↑ This fictitiously decreased kinetic energy is allegedly the origin of quantum mechanical attractive molecular bond energies ( this p.6, this p.6 ), but this violates the total energy conservation law, so false.
Because in order to conserve the total (= ground state ) energy of H2 molecule, as the electron-1 is closer to the other HB atom's nucleus (= Coulomb potential energy is lower due to attraction ), the electron-1's kinetic energy must increase ( for canceling lower Coulomb potential energy ), but in this pseudo-molecular bond, the opposite thing happens, the electron-1 kinetic energy decreases as it is attracted and closer to the other positive nucleus !
↑ The total energy conservation law is violated, because the total energy of the region between two H atoms is lower (= due to lowered kinetic energy ) than the other regions (= there are many different total energies inside a single H2 (or H2+ ) molecule ! ← the total energy is Not constant or conserved in a single quantum mechanical molecule in different electron's positions ).
Also in quantum mechanical illusory Pauli exchange repulsion, the total energy conservation law is violated (= total energy is Not conserved in the unrealistic quantum mechanical molecular interactions. ), so false.
When two H atomic antisymmetric wavefunctions approach each other (= an electron-1 must already exist in both HA and HB atoms which are still apart from each other for causing interatomic interference . ← this unrealistic condition proves quantum mechanical exchange energy is false ), these two antisymmetric wavefunctions allegedly interfere with each other destructively, hence, the slope of the wavefunction (= or de Broglie wave ) becomes steeper (= shorter de Broglie wavelength, this Figure MO2.2 ), and resultantly increases pseudo-kinetic energy as fictitious Pauli repulsive energy ( this p.2 lower, this p.3-left ).
↑ But in a realistic molecule, as the electron-1 becomes closer to the other nucleus by Coulomb attraction, the total energy should become lower, which contradicts the upper unphysical quantum mechanical Pauli exclusion mechanism of magically increasing kinetic and total energies.
So what causes such an excessive increase in the pseudo-kinetic energy of quantum mechanical Pauli exchange repulsion is unclear and contradictory, which is why quantum mechanics is unable to explain Pauli exchange energy as real forces.
↑ The total energy of only the middle region between two H antisymmetric wavefunctions becomes far higher (= due to higher kinetic energy caused by unknown exchange forces ) than other regions, which violates the total energy conservation law (= a single quantum mechanical molecule contains many different total energies in different regions ).
↑ If Pauli repulsion is real, the electron's kinetic energy must decrease (= instead of increasing ) by repulsive force from the other atomic electrons, but quantum mechanics says the opposite contradictory things "Pauli repulsion increases the electron's kinetic energy." ← This is attraction, Not repulsion ( this p.9-10 ) !
Also in the quantum mechanical fictitious molecular bonds, if the electrons is really attracted by the other nucleus, the electron's kinetic energy must increase by attraction. ← But again, quantum mechanics says the opposite contradictory things "the electron's kinetic energy decreases by some (unknown) exchange attractive forces !" ← nonsense.
Quantum mechanics is inherently useless, its Schrödinger equations cannot be solved or obtain exact solutions of any multi-electron atoms and molecules ( this p.4-last ) except for one-electron hydrogen atoms (= so quantum mechanics can conserve total energy only in the solvable one-electron hydrogen atom. In any other unsolvable multi-electron atoms and molecules, total energies vary in electrons' different positions = this obvious violation of total energy conservation law disproves quantum mechanics. ).
All quantum mechanical approximate methods, which just artificially chooses fake solutions and adjusting many free parameters, are unable to predict any physical values, so useless.
Even these quantum mechanical approximations (= with No power to predict actual atomic energies ) are time-consuming and impractical, physicists have relied on ad-hoc semi-empirically adjustable molecular parameters ( this p.6, this p.4, this p.3-right-last-paragraph, this p.2-quantum mechanics models. ) for a long time.
The most serious flaw of quantum mechanics is its unphysical antisymmetric wavefunctions or Slater determinants allegedly causing Pauli exchange energies cannot generate molecular attractive exchange energies in more-than-two-electron atoms or molecules.
This is why any unphysical quantum mechanical multi-electron models such as molecular orbital theory (= MO ) and valence-bond theory miserably failed to explain actual molecules, and only one-pseudo-electron density functional theory (= DFT = which also includes serious flaws, so wrong ) remains as the usable (= impractical, though ) approximate method.
So the impractical quantum mechanical model where all electrons are unrealistically inseparable and indistinguishable with respect to places and atoms forced physicists to rely on its nonphysical one-pseudo-electron rough approximate model called density functional theory (= DFT ).
This most-widely used quantum mechanical approximation called DFT ( or Kohn-Sham theory ) unrealistically replaces all different electrons existing in different atoms by the unrealistic one-pseudo-electron model where all electrons are no longer separable or distinguishable ( this p.6 ), it is compatible with the original unrealistic quantum mechanical exchange energies.
Even when physicists measure actual physical forces such as Pauli repulsion using the present excellent technology such as atomic force microscopy, the outrageous quantum mechanics compels them to use only the unreal exchange energies (= lacking real excahange forces ) expressed by this unrealistic one-pseudo-electron density functional theory or DFT model ( this p.2-left. this p.9-lower, this p.18-19, this p.79-83 ).
So even when physicists can measure and manipulate each single atom by the present excellent microscopes, all they can do is use the ueless one-pseudo-electron DFT approximation ( this p.12-13 ). ← Treating actual multi-molecular (= with multiple electrons, Not one-pseudo-electron ) chemical or biological reactions by quantum mechanics is impossible now.
↑ The fact that the present physicists blindly use the one-pseudo-electron DFT to explain physical phenomena involving multiple electrons, atoms and molecules means that physicists give up treating any multi-electron molecules and proteins as they are, and deliberately refuse to advance any applied science such as biology and medicine for curing diseases.
In actual biological and chemical reactions, it is indispensable to treat and distinguish many different electrons and atoms, but this most-widely-used impractical quantum mechanical DFT approximation, which can only consider any many-electron molecules, proteins and materials as just one pseudo-electron model, clearly prevents us from utilizing real atomic interaction for applied science such as medicine.
This one-pseudo-electron approximation DFT just chooses the artificially-created fictitious effective potential energies called "exchange-correlation functionals", which are Not real potential energies ( this p.27, this p.2 ), whose exact energy form is unknown. ← Any arbitrary artificial pseudo-potential energies or functionals can be freely chosen meaninglessly in DFT.
They claim only when the ( still-unknown or nonexistent ) exact common universal exchange-correlation functional (= true pseudo-potential energy ? ) is luckily found, this one-pseudo-DFT approximation is justified.
But it's impossible to find such a dreamlike exact universal pseudo-potential energy = exchange-correlation functional forever ( this p.2, this p.1 ).
↑ Because it is inherently impossible to express actual complicated chemical or biological reactions involving many differently-movable electrons and atoms (= need many differently-changeable independent variables representing many different electrons' positions ) as just one (illusory) pseudo-potential energy or functional using only one inseparable pseudo-electron model (= DFT = uses only one single variable representing one pseudo-electron's position ) !
So far, physicists have artificially created many kinds of different exchange-correlation pseudo-potential functionals in vain, and freely chose a different functional in different situations or molecular calculations (= so the widely-used DFT has No power to predict any physical values, this p.3 ~ ).
All of them miserably failed to explain experimental values even in simple molecules ( this p.17, this p.1-right, this p.17-20 ).
Especially, van der Waals and Pauli repulsive energies (= which intermolecular forces play important roles in protein and enzymatic reactions ) between atoms can not be described by quantum mechanics or its DFT approximate model ( this p.7, this p.2-introduction-left-lower ).
In fact, the quantum mechanical nonphysical rule expressing intermolecular attraction as symmetric and Pauli repulsion as antisymmetic wavefunctions is unable to explain actual intermolecular interactions which always mix two different opposite forces of van der Waals attraction (= symmetric ) and Pauli repulsion (= antisymmetric wavefunction ).
↑ So true intermolecular energies should be the symmetric and antisymmetric wavefunction which is impossible in the quantum mechanical exchange rule.
Because according to this stupid quantum mechanical exchange energy rule, the wavefunction can Not form the symmetric (= antiparallel-spins, molecular bond attraction ) and antisymmetric (= parallel spins. Pauli repulsion ) wavefunctions at the same time, instead, each quantum mechanical wave function between two atoms (= intermolecular energy ) has to pick up only one form of symmetric (= molecular bonding attraction ) or antisymmetric (= antibonding repulsion ) wavefunction.
↑ The actual intermolecular interaction mixing van der Waals attraction and Pauli repulsion is impossible to describe by quantum mechanics.
The so-called (fake) ab-initio quantum mechanical methods just choose artificial intermolecular or van der Waals potential energies with various freely-adjustable parameters instead of using the original real Coulomb potential energy ( this p.4-left, this p.16-17, this p.8-right, this p.16-17 ).
Furthermore in this paradoxical quantum mechanical exchange rule, unreal H3 molecule binding three hydrogen atoms is possible (= when three H atoms are aligned like spin-up, spin-down, spin-up, their neighboring H atomic wavefunctions are always symmetric (= a pair of spin-up and down ), and forming attractive molecular bonds in H3 molecules ). ← Quantum mechanics is false.
In order to approximately describe intermolecular interactions, physicists often use the empirically-obtained Lennard-Jones potential energies, whose energies have No theoretical justification ( this p.3-left-2nd-paragraph, this p.3-left-last-paragraph ), instead of using the original paradoxical quantum mechanis to describe actual mixed intermolecular energies.
This widely-used Lennard-Jones potential energies (= Not forces ) have No power to predict any atomic reactions, just by artificially adjusting free parameters of the strength of Pauli repulsive and van der Waals attractive energies ( this p.2-left, this p.2-lower~p.3, this p.11-12 ), so useless.
In larger molecules, physicists often give up using quantum mechanics, and instead, use pseudo-classical methods called molecular dynamics or molecular mechanics whose pseudo-potential energies called force fields treat actual molecules and proteins as fictitious balls connected by fictitious springs with No real electrons.
These pseudo-classical molecular dynamics and mechanics are unable to explain any chemical or biological reactions ( this p.2-last ), because these pseudo-classical models do Not contain any real electrons, instead, they just artificially adjust many empirically-obtained parameters which must be differently chosen and changed in different atoms, molecules and their different positional relationships.
As a result, all the current molecular calculation methods of these quantum mechanics, its approximations, DFT and pseudo-classical molecular dynamics are unable to predict any actual physical values, and unable to use real forces based on real separable electrons, so completely useless.
The recent Deepmind's AlphaFold AI or machine learning algorithm depeloped based on experimentally-obtained protein data (= PDB ) instead of using the impractical quantum mechanics is also unable to predict the protein interactions ( this p.2-right ), because AlphaFold did Not clarify electrons' behavior at all.
AlphaFold team tries to rely on the unrealistic one-pseudo-electron density functional theory (= DFT ) approximation to explain the multi-electron atomic mechanisms in vain ( this 3rd-paragraph ). ← It's scientifically impossible for one pseudo-electron model to describe the actual many-electron molecules or proteins, as I said above.
As long as we are stuck in this unrealistic contradictory quantum mechanical model or its unphysical exchange energies, our science makes No more progress, and we can never cure deadly diseases, though we already have the excellent technology of manipulating individual atoms to design and construct useful molecular machines.
(Fig.2) Quantum mechanics + Einstein relativity = string theory.
Einstein dream = theory of everything is supposed to unify quantum mechanics and Einstein's theory of relativity.
In 1970s, as the first theory of everything, unrealistic 26-dimensional string theory was invented.
Our real world is 3-dimensional (= x,y,z ), which is incompatible with this extra-dimensional theory of everything.
In 1980s, this fictional 26-dimensional string theory incorporating another fictional theory called supersymmetry turned into new theory of everything called superstring theory which still has 10 extra-dimensions.
In 1990s, this 10-dimensional superstring added one fictitious extra-dimension, and developed into 11-dimensional M theory which is supposed to be the present leading theory of everything.
The latest version of these fantasy unified theories is 12-dimensional "F theory".
As you see, quantum mechanics and Einstein relativity were so unrealistic that their unified theory, a.k.a. theory of everything is also filled with fictional extra-dimensions, parallel worlds, and wrong math (= 1+2+3 .. = -1/12, this 4th paragraph ).
These current so-called mainstream "science" is Not "science" but just illusion which has No relation to real physical phenomena around us.
(Fig.3) Electrons in "s" orbital always crash into nucleus . → unstable
Quantum mechanical hydrogen atom obtained by solving one-electron Schrödinger equation is unrealistic due to its zero orbital angular momentum where quantum mechanical electrons ( of hydrogens, helium.. ) must always crash into nucleus and become unstable.
So quantum mechanical atomic model where the ground state electrons of all atoms with zero orbital angular momentum always crash into the nuclei and become unstable is an unrealistic and wrong atomic theory ( this p.9, this p.20-last ), which unphysical quantum mechanical atomic model must be replaced by other realistic atomic models excluding the impossible zero orbital angular momentum.
↑ The unrealistic quantum mechanical electron with zero orbital angular momentum is like the Earth crashes into the Sun in the linear orbit (= due to the zero orbital angular momentum ), which is impossible
Quantum mechanical Schrödinger equations describing atomic wavefunctions use the electron's de Broglie wave (= expressing the electron's kinetic energy, so the quantum mechanical electron must be also moving ), which was experimentally confirmed by observing de Broglie wave ( destructive and constructive ) interference.
↑ But in this unrealistic quantum mechanical zero orbital angular momentum, de Broglie wave of the electron (= moving in the linear orbit like the earth crashes into the Sun ) must interfere with itself destructively and becomes unstable in its unrealistic linear orbit (= zero angular momentum ), which fact also proves quantum mechanical atomic model is wrong and contradictory.
To gloss over these quantum mechanical contradictions, physicists started to say paradoxical things ↓
"Quantum mechanical electrons described by Schrödinger equation have kinetic energies (= so these quantum mechanical electrons must be "moving" at some speeds ), but strangely, those electrons with kinetic energies are Not actually moving ! ← This is clearly self-contradiction, but stop bothering me with more annoying questions about seeking deeper truth, because Nobody understands such an unrealistic quantum mechanical zero orbital angular momentum !"
↑ These paradoxical unscientific excuses rampant in quantum mechanical explanations are also seen in the unrealistic electron's spins which are Not real spinning or rotation, though spins have angular momentum. ← So quantum mechanics full of contradictions is inherently a false theory, which must be replaced by other realistic atomic models.
All energy levels of quantum mechanical hydrogen atom obtained by solving unphysical Schrödinger equation are known to just agree with realistic Bohr's atomic model (= with No crazy zero angular momentum, so Bohr's atomic model excluding unrealistic zero orbital angular momemtum is a right atomic model agreeing with actual phenomena, this p.28 ), which had already successfully explained all hydrogen-like atoms and ions.
"Moving electron radiating and losing energy ?" is a false explanation to unjustly criticize successful Bohr model, because Bohr's realistic atomic model was accepted by the then academia and obtained the most prestigious Nobel prize.
↑ It means physicists at that time accepted Bohr model as the right atomic model Not losing energy ( this last ), and after unrealistic quantum mechanics had to replace it due to an inevitable reason = lack of modern computer in 1920s, they suddenly started to criticize Bohr model by fabricating the false excuse such as "radiating and losing energy".
If a moving electron is really losing energy, Schrödinger equation of quantum mechanical hydrogen atom also has a moving electron (= with kinetic energy ) and must lose energy and become unstable, then, quantum mechanical hydrogen atom must be wrong, too. ← Their explanation is self-contradictory, so false.
Schrödinger equation is the only tool for quantum mechanics to calculate atomic energies. ← But "calculation" is Not a right word, because Schrödinger equation has No ability to predict any physical values by "calculation" (= No exact solutions can be found ), and its approximate method is impractical and useless, too.
Because one-electron hydrogen atom is the only atom for which Schrödinger equation has an "exact solution". In any other multi-electron atoms, Schrödinger equation is unsolvable ( this p.3 ), so quantum mechanics just chooses fake solution instead of solving Schrödinger equation ( this p.10 ).
We have proved that quantum mechanical Schrödinger equations for multi-electron atoms can never have true solutions (= conserving the constant total energy E in any electrons' positions is impossible ), no matter what (fake) trial wavefunctions are artificially chosen. ← Quantum mechanics is proven wrong.
↑ These artificially-chosen fake solutions of quantum mechanical atoms are too impractically-complex and just nonphysical wavefunctions ( this p.2 ), which quantum mechanical fraudulent method of choosing fake solutions (= called 'basis set', this p.14 ) and getting fake atomic energies is a kind of art, Not science.
Only atoms of Schrödinger equation have unrealistic orbitals with zero orbital angular momentum (= hence, quantum mechanical electrons always crash into nucleus ! ), and Bohr model does Not have such unrealistic orbits at all, which fact is enough to prove quantum mechanics is wrong.
All quantum mechanical atoms and molecules always have to include unrealistic zero orbital angular momentum ( all s-orbital such as 1s, 2s, 3s .. orbitals are zero angular momentum, this p.7 ).
When an electron moves around a nucleus without crashing into a nucleus ( like planetary orbit where the earth does Not crash into the Sun ), the electron must always have some angular momentum which is Not zero.
Abnormal zero angular momentum means quantum mechanical electrons are always headed toward a nucleus in a linear orbit, and crash into the nucleus, as seen in Fig.3.
Hydrogen and Helium atoms have 1s electrons, so their electrons are always crashing into nucleus randomly and chaotically according to quantum mechanical irrational rule which makes atomic electrons' motion very unstable.
As a result, quantum mechanical atoms with unphysical zero orbital angular momentum diagree with reality.
(Fig.4) Schrödinger's 2p radial wavefunction, negative kinetic energy area.
The easiest way to find out that quantum mechanics is wrong is to know the fact that an atomic electron of Schrödinger equation must have unreal negative kinetic energy.
Kinetic energy is defined as mass times the square of velocity of a particle, so kinetic energy can never be negative, unless a particle's velocity becomes an imaginary number ( when kinetic energy is negative = 1/2mv2 < 0, the velocity v is an imaginary number. ← Impossible ! )
In Schrodinger equation of hydrogen atom, the sum of an electron's kinetic energy and Coulomb potential energy equals total energy E. ← This total energy E value must be constant and conserved in any electron's positions inside an atom.
Kinetic energy can be divided into radial (= toward the nucleus ) and angular (= perpendicular to radial ) directions ( this p.2 ).
Fig.4 shows Schrodinger's 2p wave function of an hydrogen atom, this 2p orbital contains both radial and angular kinetic energies, because orbital angular momentum of 2p orbital is not zero ( l=1, n=2 ).
Unlike realistic orbits, quantum mechanical wave function, which allegedly represents probability of finding an electron, spreads all over the place, hence, an electron can exist in all places at once using fantasy parallel worlds.
When an electron gets close to the nucleus ( r → 0, ① area of Fig.4 ), angular kinetic energy (= also called centrifugal potential, this p.3 ) inversely proportional to the square of the distance (= r ) between an electron and nucleus increases to infinity so rapidly that it cannot be canceled out only by negative Coulomb energy near a nucleus.
To cancel out this too-rapidly increasing angular kinetic energy of an electron closer to nucleus for keeping constant total energy E, the radial kinetic energy has to become unrealistically negative (= an electron in ① area of Fig.4 ).
Not only when an electron is close to the nucleus, but also when an electron moves far awaty from the nucleus (= ③ area of Fig.4 ), radial kinetic energy has to become negative.
Because as an electron moves farther away from the nucleus ( r → ∞ ), Coulomb potential energy becomes higher than total energy.
To keep constant negative total energy E (= this E must be the lowest negative value ), again, the radial kinetic energy has to unrealistically become negative also in ③ area of Fig.4.
So both ends of the quantum mechanical wave function is classically forbidden region. A realistic electron has to turn around before it enters the area with non-existent negative kinetic energy ( this p.2 ), but quantum mechanical electrons, which have already lost reality, have to enter these unphysical negative kinetic energy area without stopping.
This negative kinetic energy has nothing to do with quantum tunnel.
For example, in ① area of Fig.4, a contradictory thing happens = only electron's radial kinetic energy is negative (= decrease to negative infinity ), and the electron's angular kinetic energy is positive (= increase to positive infinity ).
↑ So this weird electron has negative kinetic energy in radial direction and positive kinetic energy in angular direction simultaneously, which chimera-like thing is impossible in a real physical particle.
In all stable atomic ground state in quantum mechanics, total energy E (= Coulomb potential energy + electron's kinetic energy ) must be always conserved and constant ( this p.2-upper, this p.3-upper, this p.2-1st-paragraph ), as long as the atoms neither emit nor absorb the additional light wave energies.
So any atomic or molecular ground-state energies (= lowest energies ) must be conserved and constant in any electrons' positions regardless of a single or multi-electron atom. ← This inviolable energy conservation law is violated in quantum mechanical unsolvable multi-electron Schrödinger equations, so quantum mechanics is false.
Actually, the total energies of a one-electron hydrogen atom are obtained by solving Schrödinger equation under the condition that the total energy E (= sum of electron's kinetic and Coulomb potential energy ) is always constant, unchanged and conserved in all electron's positions ( this-19.5, this p.3, this p.2-4th-paragraph ).
But except for solvable one-electron hydrogen atom, in all multi-electron atoms such as helium and molecular bonds, quantum mechanics is unable to conserve tortal energy E, because all Schrödinger equations for multi-electron atoms and molecules are unsolvable.
We prove quantum mechanics is wrong by showing any Schrödinger equations for multi-electron atoms or molecules can never have true solutions conserving total energy E in any electrons' positions, no matter what artificial trial wavefunctions or basis sets are chosen as fake helium solutions.
↑ For example, if a two-electron helium atom has the true solution by solving the helium Schrödinger equation (= which is impossible, though ), this fictitiously-solvable helium wavefunction must be unrealistically split into three fictional hydrogen-like atoms (= one of which is an unreal electron-electron hydrogen-like atom ) which is impossible.
So solving Schrödinger equation for the multi-electron helium to conserve total energy E in all two electrons' positions can never happen, no matter what artificial trial functions are chosen.
Furthermore, quantum mechanical fundamental idea that each wavefunction means the (unphysical) probability of finding an electron in each position is contradictory and wrong.
For example, in the hydrogen atom, the highest probability position of an electron is supposed to be around Bohr's radius = a0.
But the electron's kinetic energy or velocity is lower and slower, as the electron moves farther away from the nucleus (= kinetic energy + Coulomb energy = constant total energy E. As an electron moves farther away from the nucleus, Coulomb potential energy is higher and electron's kinetic energy is lower and slower, and the slower electron tends to stay in the same position which must increase its probability. )
So if the quantum mechanical "probability" wavefunction concept is right, the probability of finding the electron must be higher, as the electron moves farther away from the nucleus (= hence, the slower electron's position should be higher probability ), which contradicts the fact that the electron's probability is the highest around Bohr radius (= the electron's probability becomes lower moving farther away from the nucleus than Bohr radius ).
So quantum mechanical probability wavefunction is fundamentally wrong due to its fatal self-contradictions.
(Fig.5) Quantum mechanics needs unrealistic electron spin. ↓
Electron spin is unrealistic and contradictory, because the electron is Not actually spinning, though it is said to have angular momentum. ← contradiction !
If a very tiny electron tries to spin and generate the angular momentum or magnetic moment designated by quantum mechanics, the tiny electron must be spinning much faster than light ( this 3rd paragraph, this 3rd paragraph, this p.2 ).
So the unrealistic uncanny faster quantum mechanical electron spin contradicts another mainstream theory of Einstein relativity which prohibits any faster than light motions, so false.
Why does the irrational quantum mechanics need such an unphysical and contradictory concept like "spin" ?
Quantum mechanics replaced real electron's orbit by unrealistic wave function which allegedly has unphysical zero orbital angular momentum.
This zero angular momentum means an unphysical one-dimensional "line-shaped orbit" where an electron heads for and crashes into a nucleus (= so unstable electron's orbit ), and cannot produce magnetic field which is generally produced by an electron's circular motion (= angular momentum is necessary to generate magnetic field ).
So quantum mechanical atom with zero angular momentum disagreed not only with reality but also with experimental results showing a hydrogen atom has magnetic field equal to Bohr magneton which was successfully predicted by Bohr model.
This inconvenient fact prompted quantum mechanics to artificially introduce an ad-hoc concept called electron's "spin" which is said to happen to have the same Bohr magneton as magnetic field of Bohr model. ← too good to be true !
The problem is each electron particle is too tiny to produce enough magnetic field or angular momentum ( angular momentum = mvr is closer to 0 as the radius r of a tiny electron r → 0 ).
Therefore, an electron must spin much faster than light to generate enough magnetic field and angular momentum ( this p.16-18, this p.1-lower, angular momentum = mvr where a tiny electron's radius r → 0 and velocity v → ∞ ) ! ← Electron spin is unreal, contradicting another mainstream theory of Einstein relativity.
So quantum mechanics made a poor excuse that an electron spin is Not an actual spinning contradicting its name of 'spin', and the strange spin cannot stop or slow down ! ← nonsense.
These facts prove that quantum mechanical electron spin is fake, and the atomic magnetic field is caused by "electron's orbital motion" like in Bohr's atom instead of unphysical electron spin.
Pauli exclusion principle needs strong repulsion which cannot be explained by contradictory electron spin whose magnetic field is too weak and too negligible to cause strong Pauli principle repulsive force. ← Electron spin is unreal.
So physicists had no choice but to express this physically-impossible electron's spin as the nonphysical math symbols or the meaningless matrix called "spinor (= with No concrete physical picture of spin )" using nonphysical theory called relativistic quantum field theory (= all spin-1/2 particles must be expressed using unphysical Dirac equation, this p.4 ) or quantum electrodynamics (= QED ).
This unphysical relativistic QED is just "scam" that tries to artificially remove the meaningless infinities caused by QED unreal virtual particles by ad-hoc methods called "renormalization" introducing imaginary counter-infinities called "infinite bare charge or mass."
↑ Of course, this unrealistic QED crazy idea that some finite value such as the tiny anomalous magnetic moment should be obtained by infinity minus another infinity is mathematically illegitimate and wrong, because infinities (= uncertain with no bounds ) minus infinities become indefinite uncertain values that cannot be predicted or some finite physical values.
So the QED fraudulent renormalization artificially removing infinities is harshly criticized even by founders ( this 1st-paragraph ).
Unlike the unrealistic electron's spin, a nucleus can actually 'spin'. Because a nucleus (= proton ) is much bigger and heavier than a tiny electron ( angular momentum = mvr where nuclear mass m and raidus r are far bigger than those of an electron ).
And a nuclear magnetic field is far weaker than electron's (spin ?) magnetic field, which shows each nucleus "spins" realistically slower than light speed.
(Fig.6) Why electron spin is Not a real spinning ? ↓
Unrealistic electron spin must be "spinning" much faster than light ( this p.3-lower, this p.4 ) to generate angular momentum and magnetic field which accidentally agreed with Bohr magneton ( this left ) given by Bohr model.
The famous Stern-Gerlach Experiment, which was supposed to measure electron spin's magnetic field, did Not measure an electron spin itself. It just measured the whole "silver atom's magnetic field" which can be naturally explained by electron's orbital motion instead of unreal spin.
Electron spin is Not a real "spinning", because spinning must be unrealistically faster-than-light, and the spin cannot stop or slow down.
This quantum mechanical illogical claim that the spin should Not be treated as electron's spinning clearly contradicts another quantum mechanical claim that spin has "angular momentum", which must be generated by a "spinning" object.
More unreasonable thing is electron spin needs to rotate twice (= 720o ) instead of once to return to its original state. ← No physical mechanism can be given to such an uncanny spin which is unable to return to the original state just by 360o rotation.
Such a fantasy (spinning) electron really does Not return to its original state by the ordinary 360 degree (= or 2π ) rotation, instead, it needs 720 degree rotation (= two full rotations, 4π ) to return ?
Useless quantum mechanics refuses to offer any deeper physical mechanisms of this unreal electron spin ( this p.3-4 ).
Some experiments claimed that this physically-impossible property of electron spin which needs 720o (= instead of 360o ) rotation to return to the original state was confirmed by rotating (= precessing ) neutron spin interference.
But of course, they could Not see each neutron spin actually spinning (= because spin is Not an actual spin ). They just imagined the neutron rotated twice on the false assumption that each neutron has 1/2 ℏ spin angular momentum (= angular momentum itself cannot be directly measuread, only magnetic field = Bohr magneton can be measured ).
If we assume each neutron's rotation has 1 ℏ angular momentum (= instead of 1/2 ℏ ) like Bohr's orbit, this experimental result can be naturally interpreted as the one showing neutron normally returned to its original state by rotating once (= 360o ) instead of unrealistic 720o
Because precession speed is inversely proportional to angular momentum as seen in gyroscope, so as a neutron's angular momentum increases from quantum mechanical 1/2 × ℏ to classical 1 × ℏ, precession velocity decreases from 720o to 360o rotation.
↑ These experiments of neutron precession and interference use the neutron's de Broglie wave interference ( this 7th-paragraph ) under applied external magnetic field ( this p.10, this p.6, this p.5 ).
A neutron is thought to have the small orbital rotation stabilized by the orbital length equal to an integer times de Broglie wavelength (= this neutron's position or phase is detectable as de Broglie wave interference ) in addition to the original intrinsic spin (= which could Not be detected as interference, because the intrinsic spin is irrelevant to de Broglie wavelength ).
The orbital motion based on de Broglie wave interference generates the quantized angular momentum = an integer times ℏ (= orbital angular momentum becomes 1 × ℏ instead of the unseen spin angular momentum's 1/2 × ℏ ) to avoid destructive interference of de Broglie wave (= by replacing the electron's mass with the neutron mass, you can get the same quantized angular momentum of 1 × ℏ ).
A neutron with quantized angular momentum ℏ under magnetic field started precession of its orbit (= whose de Broglie wave phase changes depending on the precession, and is detected as the neutron interference ).
The precession speed (= inversely proportional to the spin or orbital angular momentum ) becomes two times lower (= slower = 360o precession or rotation ) when we consider the neutron's (orbital) angular momentum is 1 × ℏ than when we (falsely) use the neutron's 1/2 × ℏ spin angular momentum (= two times faster false 720o precession, this 10.5.4 ).
As a result, these types of experiments based on neutron's interference just proved all particles such as neutrons returned to their original states by the ordinary classical 360o rotation instead of fantasy quantum mechanical 720o rotation (= which unrealistic wrong interpretation is caused by the false assumption of the unreal unseen spin's 1/2 angular momentum causing two times faster false precession ).
A neutron is known to be a composite particle consisting of a proton and an electron, and the magnetic moment of electron spin is far larger than the magnetic moment of proton. So if an electron's spin is real, the magnetic moment of a neutron should be as large as an electron.
But an actual neutron's magnetic moment is as small as a proton (= an electron's orbital radius is as small as that of proton inside neutron ), which means an electron's spin is unreal.
In conclusion, electron spin with 1/2 angular momentum is physically impossible. Atomic powerful magnetic field is produced by a large electron's orbital motion instead of illusory electron's "spinning".
(Fig.7) Fantasy basic theory makes even good technology useless.
Why is the current mainstream theory = quantum mechanics filled with only fantasy and impractical concepts such as quantum superposition where a dead and alive cat allegedly lives in illusory parallel worlds, unrealistic electrons spin (= impossible faster-than-light spinning ?, so Not actual spinning despite its having angular momentum ), fictional quasiparticles in condensed matter, and superluminal spooky entanglement, changing the past .. ?
Another mainstream theory = Einstein relativity is also filled with fictional and contradictory concepts such as black holes, BigBang, negative mass, time travel, unrealistic virtual particles as fictitious force carriers..
The current unphysical mainstream "theory of everything" called string (or M ) theory allegedly uniting quantum mechanics and Einstein relativity is supposed to need fantasy extra-dimensions.
↑ All of this "pseudo-science" called quantum mechanics and Einstein relativity is completely useless and unnecessary for us, just wasting taxpayers' money in the illusory mainstream science such as fraudulent parallel-world quantum computers which will never be realized except for spreading exaggerated baseless fake news.
In fact, the unscientific quantum mechanics and Einstein relativity have never been useful for practical purposes in biology, medicine and modern computer transistors.
Actually, many diseases such as cancers, Alzheimer, HIV, viruses .. are still incurable because the current only atomic theory = ( unsuccessful ) quantum mechanics has been unable to clarify true deeper atomic mechanism behind observed chemical and biological reactions despite an incredible amount of research money wasted for the so-called "quantum technology".
So the media and academia's hackneyed cliche "Quantum mechanics and Einstein relativity are the most successful theories !" turned out to be a baseless lie.
Historically, there were No such things as "successful theories" which could magically predict all physical phenomena and values before conducting experiments, without self-contradictions.
All practical theories of Newton, Maxwell, Kepler, Lavoisier, Mendeleev.. were introduced based on experimental results or observations. ← None of these theories had been created before scientists actually conducted experiments or observed something.
In the normal scientific advancement and process, scientists first conducted experiments or observed some natural phenomena, and then, later they created the physical theories or models based on those observations, eliminating any self-contradictions.
↑ Those newly-created theories could give the future directions in which scientists should proceed and design new experiments to clarify deeper real physical mechanisms, and they continued further experiments.
↑ But the current contradictory quantum mechanics desperately stops scientists from delving into deeper true atomic mechanisms, using the baseless excuse "Nobody will understand real atomic mechanisms even if we try to clarify it ! .. But at the same time, Nobody is allowed to doubt such an unrealistic quantum mechanics no matter how many paradoxes appear, because it is (wrongly) successful !" ← nonsense
So the misleading phrase "successful quantum mechanics and Einstein" is used just as an excuse to make us intentionally ignore fatal flaws, paradoxes and unreality of quantum mechanics for academia to protect their old vested interests around the current deadend mainstream science.
Actually, quantum mechanics is Not a successful theory at all, because quantum mechanical Schrödinger equations can Not be solved in any multi-electron atoms and molecules, and its seeming approximate methods are also time-consuming and impractical ( this p.2-3, this p.11 ).
Physicists just artificially choose fake solutions called trial wavefunctions or basis sets as fictitious multi-electron atoms by adjusting many artificial parameters (= called variational method ) which ad-hoc quantum mechanical methods cannot predict any values, so completely useless.
The most serious problem is that quantum mechanics cannot distinguish real electron charged particle and experimentally verified de Broglie waves, while successful Bohr atomic model can realistically define a particle and de Broglie wave without self-contradictions or quantum mechanical paradoxes.
Quantum mechanics just irrationally mixes contradictory concepts of a particle and wave, and shows vague electron clouds where precise electron's motion is uncertain and physically inexplicable forever. ← Scientists has stopped exploring deeper real atomic and electron's mechanisms at this point, reluctantly allow quantum mechanical paradoxes to continue forever.
This quantum mechanical vague electron cloud or wavefunction is unable to explain any real molecular bonds using real Coulomb forces, because for two electrically-neutral atoms to bind and attract each other, each electron particle has to periodically move and approach the other nucleus alternately and avoid the other electron, which Coulomb attractive force generation for forming molecular bonds is impossible in quantum mechanical vague electron clouds where a single electron must always spread symmetrically around the nucleus.
So quantum mechanics had to fabricate unphysical "exchange energy" to generate fictitious molecular bond energies and mysterious Pauli exclusion repulsive energies ( this p.11, this p.3-4 ).
The point is this ad-hoc exchange energies are Not real energies, because exchange interactions lack real exchange force, and giving No physical meaning ( this p.6, this p.11 ).
The "origin" of this unphysical exchange energy is the "fictitiously manipulated kinetic energy" by violating total energy conservation law. ← So quantum mechanical rules and its molecules are illegitimate and false.
↑ Physicists have avoided clarifying this paradoxical origin of quantum mechanical molecular bonds caused by unrealistic exchange energies (= with No physical meaning, this p.8-last paragraph ), which lack real exchange forces ( this p.5, this p.7-last ),
because the paradoxical exchange energies are caused by manipulating pseudo-kinetic energies Not by real Coulomb electric forces or other real force carriers.
For these illusory exchange energies to be generated, each electron has to exist in all different places, orbitals and atoms simultaneously which abnormal states are expressed as the abstract unphysical antisymmetric wavefunctions.
Due to this quantum mechanical ridiculous exchange energy or antisymmetric wavefunctions where every single electron must be indistinguishable (= with respect to electrons' positions, orbitals and atoms ) and exist in all different atoms simultaneously ( this p.9 ), physicists cannot normally separate or distinguish different atoms or electrons.
Because of the fatal flaws of any quantum mechanical multi-electron atomic or molecular orbital models, the unphysical approximation called density functional theory (= DFT ), which outrageously replaces the whole material composed of many originally-separable electrons or atoms by the one inseparable pseudo-electron or one-inseperable-atomic model, is the most widely used quantum mechanical calculation method now.
↑ The most widely-used quantum mechanical approximation = DFT is an unsuccessful theory which just artificially chooses fictitous pseudo-potential energy called "functional" (for its one-pseudo-electron model ), adjusts many free parameters and often fails to predict physical values ( this p.23-last, this p.17 ). ← So "quantum mechanics is successful (= predict any physical values ? )" is a total lie.
The most serious problem is that the fictitious electrons and atomic models given by quantum mechanics and all its approximations have "fatal flaws (= unrealistically inseparable indistinguishable pseudo-electron model required by quantum mechanical unphysical exchange energy )" = completely disagree with actual seperable atoms or electrons, which makes quantum mechanics impractical forever.
Unlike the unrealsitic quantum mechanical exchange energy or one-pseudo-electron DFT approximation, in actual chemical, biological and enzymatic reactions, all different atoms or electrons are separable, each electron has to move from one atom ( or molecule, protein ) to another different atom to cause manifest biological changes by distinguishing and identifying different atoms, molecules, proteins existing in different places separately.
In the illusory quantum mechanical world where all different electrons and atoms must be indistinguishable ( in places and atoms ) and inseparable under artificially-created exchange interactions, we cannot consider realistic atomic or molecular reactions where different atoms, molecules electrons are always moving differently and separately from one atom (place) to another atom.
This is why all the current applied science stops progressing due to contradictory quantum mechanical atomic model based on unphysical exchange energy (or antisymmetic wavefunction rule ).
Humans already have the excellent technology of observing and manipulating each single atom precisely one by one using atomic force or scanning microscopes.
But even when physicists measure actual interatomic forces and Pauli repulsion by atomic force microscopes, quantum mechanics forces them to use only unphysical one-pseudo-electron DFT approximation which forbids physicists from considering different atoms separately and realistically ( this Fig.1, this p.9-middle, this p.2-left, this p.8-right-last ) !
↑ Of course, in quantum mechanical strange exchange energies and its most popular one-pseudo-electron DFT approximation using fictional quasi-particle model ( this p.3 ), we cannot describe "actual forces" between different separate atoms or molecules by preparing their real force carriers (= electron particle and medium ).
Because the unphysical quantum mechanics forbids different electrons or atoms form being moving differently and separately as real particles, which is why the (Pauli) exchange energy lacks real exchange force and force carriers. ← It's impossible to use such an unphysical quantum mechanical one-pseudo-electron model lacking real force concepts in any applied science !
Normally, as seen in building houses and cars combining smaller (separable) parts (= of course, "real forces" are necessary to move parts and construct buildings ), after scientists measure atomic forces or shapes of each atom and molecule (by atomic force microscopes or something ), they should model and explain those measured atomic forces using real tangible objects such as movable electron charged particles (= of course, all different electrons and atoms must be distinguishable in different positions and separably movable ), and then, they combine those known smaller atoms to build larger molecular machines. → cure diseases.
↑ But unrealistic quantum mechanics disrupts and prevents this normal manufacturing process by always replacing the whole target many-electron material as one-pseudo-electron model ( or one inseparable pseudo-atom model ) called DFT.
Because in order to replace the current impractical quantum mechanical pseudo-interaction such as antisymmetric exchange energies by real atomic forces or models, physicists have to give up their old vested interests around the current meaningless mainstream quantum theory, and start to explore deeper true mechanisms by realistically separating real electron particle from real de Broglie wave (= its destructive interference is usable as the realistic origin of Pauli repulsion ) which needs some real "space medium" contradicting Einstein fantasy relativity.
The presently-used pseudo-classical methods called molecular dynamics or mechanics (= Not a real classical atomic model ) treating atomic interaction as pseudo-ball-and-string model (= called force field ) cannot explain any chemical and biological reactions involving bond changes, because these pseudo-classical models, which the current physicists use in large molecules, do Not contain any real electrons ( this p.18, this p.4, this p.3-2nd-paragraph ), instead, they just artificially adjust many free parameters in different molecules meaninglessly ( this p.9-lower ) with No ability to predict any physical values.
So to use practical atomic model ( with real separable electrons ) for applied science such as medicine, physicists have to clarify real underlying atomic mechanisms (= instead of whining "Nobody understands" ) where the electron particle and wave are clearly defined separately, and mysterious Pauli exclusion forces have to be explained by some real tangible objects. →Under this realistic atomic model, we can normally treat different atoms and electrons differently and separately (= and can treat real forces between different separate atoms ) forgetting annoying unphysical exchange energies or antisymmetric wavefunction rule by quantum mechanics.
(Fig.8) Hydrogen shows "normal Zeeman effect" without spin.
When an excited atomic electron moves back from higher energy to lower energy levels, it emits the amount of energy equal to the difference between two energy levels, which was detected as "emitted lights" with some frequencies (= showing the magnitude of energy separation between excited and lower energy levels ) called spectral lines.
Under external magnetic field, each emitted light (= line ) is split into three lines (= three energy levels ) depending on the direction of an electron's orbital magnetic field relative to external magnetic field (= electron's orbital magnetic field parallel, perpendicular, or antiparallel to external magnetic field gives slightly different energy levels ).
These split energy levels under external magnetic field is called Zeeman effect. If each electron does Not have (unreal) spin, it is called normal Zeeman effect where each energy line is said to split into only three energy lines.
Of course, each electron and nucleus are vibrating like ordinary molecules, and each electron's orbital is precessing in different directions from the magnetic field, hence, the tiny energy fluctuation and the different orbital precession angle ( causing differently-split lines with different magnetic interaction energies between the slanting electron's orbit and external magnetic field ) is likely to slightly affect atomic energies and complicate split lines especially in excited states.
At room temperature (= 300 K ), the atomic energies can change by as much as 0.0259 eV even by the ordinary thermal fluctuation which realistic energy variation is far larger than the negligibly small Lamb shift (= less than 0.000005 eV ) and hyperfine structure by nuclear spin.
It means the tiny, tiny, negligible Lamb shift is likely to be caused by the ordinary thermal fluctuation instead of unrealistic unobservable virtual photons which cannot be predicted by useless QED (= tiny Lamb shift is just an aritificially-manipulated numerical parameter, QED cannot give any analytical Lamb shift values, regardless of relativistic or non-relativistic ways, this p.3-left ), as I explain later.
One electron hydrogen atom shows this normal Zeeman effect, which means an electron does Not have spin. ← Electron spin is illusion.
Lithium with one valence electron is also known to show normal Zeeman effect pattern called "Paschen-Back effect ( this lower )."
So one-electron hydrogen atom (= with No influence of other electrons as seen in complicated spectral lines in multi-electron atoms ) shows there is No electron spin.
(Fig.8') Einstein relativistic effect = a electron is at rest ? ↓
An excited electron's spin is said to slightly split atomic energy levels into two lines (= called fine structure ) due to one of relativistic effects called spin-orbit interaction.
But this idea of spin-orbit interaction caused by the so-called relativistic effect is physically impossible, so wrong.
It is more natural to think this fine energy splitting is caused by other realistic reasons such as different electron's motions or Coulomb interaction between inner electrons and an outer electron.
Normally, a light electron is moving around a heavy nucleus at rest.
But according to stupid Einstein relativistic effect, we have to think about the unrealistic rest frame of an electron where a light electron could be magically at rest, and instead, a heavy nucleus is moving around the lighter electron, though it is impossible ( this p.3 ).
In this unrealistic rest frame of an electron, a circularly-moving heavy nucleus allegedly causes magnetic field at the point of the center electron at rest, and this fictitious magnetic field may split an energy level into two, depending on the direction of the electron spin up or down, they claim ( this p.2-3 ).
But thinking commonsensically, it is impossible that a heavier nucleus is moving around a ligher electron at rest !
A lighter electron must always be moving around the much heavier nucleus in any frames, as long as they obey physical principles, so Einstein relativistic effect contradicts other physical principles and electron's motion inside atoms, so false.
First of all, in the normal frame (= rest frame of the nucleus ), there is No fictitious magnetic field caused by (unrealistic) moving heavy nucleus, then, the electron's energy level is Not split by fictitious spin-orbit interaction, which does Not exist in this normal frame. ← Different frames of reference or different observers (= different viewpoints ) see different physical phenomena !? This is paradox !
If they claim relativistic spin-orbit interaction actually occurs in any frames, the spin-orbit interaction or fictitious magnetic field caused by an allegedly moving heavy nucleus must always exist regardless of whether electron is moving or at rest (= regardless of the electron's moving or rest frames ) in order to avoid serious paradoxes (= different frames or differently-moving observers may see different physical phenomena ) of Einstein relativity.
↑ In the normal frame of a nucleus at rest, No spin-orbit interaction occurs. Only in the rest frame of an electron, (fictitious) spin-orbit interaction may occur. ← This is clearly a paradox, so false and does Not happen.
If a heavier nucleus can be unrealistically moving around a lighter static electron as crazy Einstein relativity claims, it clearly violates the total momentum conservation (= a heavier nucleus with a larger momentum is frequently changing its moving direction or momentum, rotating around a fictitiously-static electron = total momentum is Not conserved ! )
So Einstein relativity or spin-orbit effect allegedly caused by a fictitious heavy nucleus rotating around an static lighter electron or its spin is based on wrong and impossible assumptions.
This paradoxical spin-orbit interaction is caused by illogical Einstein relativistic world where all motions must be relative with No absolute frame. → The unrealistic electron's rest frame where a heavier nucleus is rotating around a ligher static electron violating momentum conservation must be considered.
This spin orbit relativistic effect is illusion due to its fatal paradox (= only in the rest frame of an electron, total momentum is Not conserved, and the fictitious spin-orbit magnetic interaction occurs, while in the natural rest frame of the center of mass or nucleus, total momentum is conserved and the spin-orbit interaction does Not occur ) ← depending on observers' viewpoints or different frames, the spin-orbit interaction occurs or doesn't occur = paradox !
To avoid this fatal paradox, we need to dismiss fantasy Einstein relativistic world and admit the "single absolute frame (= rest frame of the center of mass )" where the momentums and velocities of different particles with different masses are correctly defined and measured with respect to the static space medium, so that the total momentum is always conserved.
The current mainstream relativistic quantum field theory based on Dirac hydrogen just uses nonphysical fake spin-orbit coupling definition, which completely disagrees with experimental results, hence, No evidence of relativistic spin-orbit fictitious mangetic interaction.
All the present solid and condensed matter physics based on unphysical quantum mechanics rely on fictional band model containing unreal electrons with fictitious effective mass, quasiparticles and effective (= fake relativistic ) spin-orbit effects (= these are all freely-adjustable parameters, so these theories have No power to predict anything, this p.3, this p.2 ).
These fake relativistic spin-orbit effects widely used in the current solid physics ( this p.7 ) are said to be unrealistically more than six orders of magnitude stronger than the original Einstein's relativistic spin-orbit effect (= this p.24, this is also illusion, though ) in vacuum, and have the opposite sign to the original relativistic effect ( this p.2-right-4th-paragraph, this p.2-left-1st-paragraph, this p.9-4th,5th paragraphs ).
↑ The alleged relativistic (pseudo-)spin-orbit coupling (= SO ) constant (= λ = 5.3 in GaAs ) in the current solid physics itself contradicts the original Einstein relativistic spin-orbit coupling constant (= λ = - ℏ2/4m2c2 = - 3.7 × 10-6 = opposite sign, and far smaller, this p.2-left-1st-paragraph, this p.6-7 ), hence, obvious self-contradiction !
↑ The original relativistic spin-orbit coupling constant (= λ = - ℏ2/4m2c2 = - 3.7 × 10-6 ) must be fixed in any materials whether they are vaccum or not, because this value consists of the fixed physical constants which can Not be conveniently changed.
But the contradictory quantum mechanics tries to change this unchangeable fixed physical constant (= allegedly represents relativistic spin-orbit coupling ) into completely different artificial values ( λ - 3.7 × 10-6 → +5.3 in GaAs = far larger and the opposite sign ! ), which is No longer the original Einstein relativity.
So the spin-orbit effect (= one of pseudo-quantum mechanical models ) used in the current condensed matter physics completely contradics the Einstein's original relativistic spin-orbit effect. ← The current mainstream theory is self-contradictory, so false.
The present physics plays only with meaningless fictional concepts with respect to particles, masses, spins, and pseudo-relativistic effect, so useless.
(Fig.9) ↓ Unreal spin has No relation to energy levels
When excited atomic electron energy levels are split into more energy levels under external magnetic field in larger atoms, quantum mechanics claimed the electron's spin or its unrealistic spin-orbit interaction may cause these further splitting of energy levels. ← This is wrong.
These more splitting energy levels under magnetic field is called anomalous Zeeman effect.
This anomalous Zeeman effect is known to happen especially in large atoms (= with many electrons ) such as sodium, while smaller atoms (= with fewer electrons ) such as hydrogen and lithium show normal Zeeman effect pattern.
This fact means anomalous Zeeman effect is caused by complicated interaction between inner electrons and excited valence electron instead of unphysical spin.
Or, in the magnetic field, the electron's orbital motion can orient to various directions by the precession, which can cause more energy splitting patterns than the simplest normal Zeeman effect even without using the unreal electron's spin.
We can easily disprove the electron spin's involvement in anomalous Zeeman effect.
Textbooks often use sodium D line doublet as a typical example of anomalous Zeeman effect, which allegedly represents energy transition from two excited 3p3/2 and 3p1/2 (= split by spin ? ) energy levels to lower 3s1/2 energy levels.
But in fact, this sodium D line has nothing to do with electon spin from the beginning, which means anomalous Zeeman effect has nothing to do with spin, either.
Because an electron spin-orbit interaction, which allegedly causes sodium D line energy splitting, is too weak to separate two energy levels between 3p3/2 and 3p1/2 as widely as experimental energy separation.
Furthermore, if anomalous Zeeman effect is due to spin, its energy splitting must obey Lande-g-factor (= gj ) spin theory which should split the original line symmetrically (= just equal interval ) with respect to the direction of external magnetic field.
But actual anomalous Zeeman effect disobeys Lande-spin-g-factor theory, and energy line splits into more complicated unsymmetrical lines ( this p.3 lower, this p.38-39 ) relative to the direction of external magnetic field in anomalous Zeeman effect which should be theoretically symmetrical relative to external magnetic field .
Actually, in alkali atoms such as potassium (= K ) and rubidium, there are No experimental data of Lande g factor (= gj, this p.9 Table.10, this p.28 lower ). ← This is an excuse, because their experimental results of anomalous Zeeman effect were significantly different from prediction of quantum mechanical spin-based Lande g factor theory.
It is said the excited energy splitting of the anomalous Zeeman effect under external magnetic field should obey the artificial Lande-g-factor and L(=orbit )-S(= spin ) coupling rule ( this p.11 ).
But most of atoms show more complicated energy splitting (= disobeying quantum mechanical Lande g factor ) or anomalous Zeeman effect than the ad-hoc quantum mechanical rule or formula ( this p.4-last, this p.4-last, this p.8-upper ).
And there are very few reliable anomalous Zeeman effect data especially in light elements ( this p.2-left ), as if physicists tried to hide the wide discrepancy between quantum mechanical bad prediction and actual data.
First of all, quantum mechanics has No power to predict any anomalous Zeeman effect's energy levels. ← Because quantum mechanical Schrödinger equations cannot predict or give exact energy solutions in any multi-electron atoms regardless of the ground-state or excited states.
To fix the discrepancy between the theory and experimental values of complicated anomalous Zeeman effect, quantum mechanics tries to create many other artificial concepts such as J-J coupling, J-K coupling ( this p.3-4 ) in addition to the original L-S coupling Lande g factor rule.
↑ But in most atoms, energy levels in anomalous Zeeman effect show more complicated intermediate states among thouse artificially-created rule or LS, JJ, JK coupling, which No longer obey the original Lande g factor formulra ( this p.22, this p.19 ).
As a result, "anomalous Zeeman effect" might have been "predicted" by quantum mechanics ( or its impractical Schrödinger equations ) is untrue, they just artificially created many new ad-hoc rules to forcibly fit experimental values.
(Fig.10) Spin is too weak to cause Big Na splitting. ↓
Hydrogen 2p energy level is split into two 2p3/2 and 2p1/2 states, which small energy splitting (= called fine structure ) is said to be caused by relativistic effect = spin-orbit interaction. ← But this is untrue.
2p orbital has angular momentum ( l = 1 ), so the 2p electron moves around the nucleus. ← From the viewpoint of 2p electron (= rest frame of an electron ), the hydrogen nucleus unrealistically appears to be moving around the fake stationary electron (= though, such an unphysical thing never happens ) according to irrational Einstein relativity.
And this fictitious nucleus orbiting around the stationary electron should generate pseudo-magnetic field at the position of the electron, which could split electron's 2p state into two energy levels based on the electron's spin direction (= up or down, by electron's spin-nuclear-orbit magnetic interaction ) relative to the direction of this pseudo-magnetic field allegedly produced by orbiting nucleus.
But Einstein relativity suffers from fatal paradoxes, and the electron spin needs faster-than-light spinning, hence, this spin-orbit interaction contradicts Einstein relativity from the beginning, so it is unreal.
Sodium (= Na ) also has one valence electron like hydrogen (= H ), so sodium D-line, where 3p Na energy level splits into two 3p1/2 and 3p3/2 states, is said to be due to the same (fictional) spin-orbit interaction as hydrogen's fine structure splitting.
The problem is electron spin is too weak to cause very wide energy splitting as seen in sodium D-lines, hense, spin has nothing to do with fine structure energy splitting or anomalous Zeeman effect.
The magnitude of energy intervals between two energy levels (= between 2p3/2 and 2p1/2 in hydrogen, and between 3p3/2 and 3p1/2 in sodium ) in fine structure is known to be proportional to Z4 (= Z denotes the average entire central charge putting a positive nucleus and all inner negative electrons together, except for one valence electron ) and inversely proportional to n3 (= n is valence electron's quantum number, this p.2-right~p.3-left ).
So the magnitude of fine structure energy splitting is proportional to Z4/n3 ( this p.7, this p.14. Other angular quantum number such as j and l are common to hydrogen and sodium fine structure energy states, so we can ignore them.
( Both hydrogen-2p1/2-2p3/2 and sodium-3p1/2-3p3/2 have the same angular quantum number l = 1, j=1/2 or 3/2 )
Hydrogen fine structure energy splitting is very small = energy difference between 2p3/2 and 2p1/2 is only 0.000045 eV ( this p.4-5 ).
On the other hand, sodium fine structure energy splitting is very big = energy difference between 3p3/2 and 3p1/2 is as big as 0.0021 eV ( this p.8, this Table.1 ).
↑ This huge discrepancy between hydrogen's and sodium's fine structure energy splitting shows the spin-orbit interaction, which allegedly causes both hydrogen's and sodium's fine structure, does Not occur in actual atoms.
Using these two energy splitting values, quantum number (= hydrogen 2p is n = 2, sodium 3p is n = 3 ) and hydrogen central charge (= Z = 1 ) in upper spin-orbit formula, we can get sodium average central charge is as big as Z = 3.54 ( this p.3 ).
As I said, this average central charge Z is the sum of charges of a positive nucleus and all other inner negative electrons than one outer electron, so Z should be close to "1".
( total charge of Na 11e+ nucleus and all inner -10e electrons are - +11e -10e = +e = Z = 1 ).
The value of Z = +3.54e ( instead of 1 ) needed for generating very wide sodium fine structure energy splitting is unrealistic, so electron spin has nothing to do with fine structure energy splitting or anomalous Zeeman effect in sodium.
It is more natural to think this very wide energy splitting in sodium fine structure is caused by "Coulomb electric interaction" between inner electrons and an outer electron, Not by fictional relativistic spin-orbit magnetic interaction.
If quantum mechanical spin-orbit formula is true, sodium's energy splitting between 3p3/2 and 3p1/2 states has to be smaller than hydrogen's energy small splitting between 2p3/2 and 2p1/2 ( this p.9 lower ) which quantum mechanical spin theory disagrees with experimental results. ( this p.5-left )
(Fig.11) Na+ ion average charge is Z = 1.84 disagreeing with spin.
An outer electron, which causes the very wide fine structire energy splitting in sodium, can be considered to be orbiting around the effective central charge Z (= close to +1 ) that combines a positive sodium nucleus and all other inner electrons except one outer electron.
So a sodium's outer (= valence ) electron is moving around an singly-ionized sodium (= Na+ = effective central charge Z = 1 ).
Electrons are avoiding each other by Coulomb repulsion, so this effective central charge Z ( felt by an outer electron ) tends to be bigger than +1.
We can know true effective central charge of this Na+ ion (= Na nucleus + all inner electrons except one outer electron ) using experimental ionization energy values.
Both hydrogen and sodium atoms have the similar structure with only one valence (= outer ) electron, so we can use the common ionization energy formula where the total energy is proportional to Z2/n2.
In hydrogen atom, the nucleus is +e, so Z = 1, and ionization energy is 13.6 eV ( enegy level quantum number n= 1 ).
In sodium atom, the ionization energy of outer electron ( n = 3 ) is 5.14 eV.
Putting all these experimental values and quantum numbers into the energy formula, we can get the true effective central charge of sodium equal to +1.84 (= based on experimental ionization energy, this p.5 upper ), which is far smaller than Z = +3.54 (= obtained by assuming fictitious spin-orbit interaction causes very wide Na fine structure energy splitting ).
This huge discrepancy in effective central charges Z between experimental value and quantum mechanical spin theoretical value clearly proves that sodium D-lines = fine structure energy splitting is Not caused by fantasy electron spin, but by stronger Coulomb interaction between inner and outer electrons.
All other alkali and alkaline-earth atoms also show remarkable discrepancy between experimental values and prediction by quantum spin's theory (= spin-orbit or spin-spin magnetic interaction is too weak to cause wide energy splitting of alkali and alkaline-earth atoms ).
Hence, all quantum mechanics, spin and relativistic spin-orbit interaction turned out to be false, disagreeing with experiments.
(Fig.12) Spin-spin magnetic energy (= 0.0001 eV ) is too small !
Quantum mechanics claims the 3rd electron of lithium cannot enter inner 1s orbital, instead, the 3rd electron is kicked out to outer 2s orbital against strong Coulomb attraction of the nucleus, due to mysterious repulsive force called Pauli exclusion principle allegedly acting between two electron spins.
Pauli principle says two electrons with the same spin cannot enter the same orbital. ← But No more detailed physical mechanism is given by quantum mechanics, because serious contradiction will be exposed if you try to delve into Pauli principle. ← Science stops progressing now.
This repulsive force by Pauli exclusion principle must be strong enough to cancel out Coulomb attraction. Electron spin was introduced as a tiny magnet. But the magnetic ( dipole ) interaction between two electron spins is too weak to explain powerful Pauli exclusion force. ← So the electron spin disagrees with facts.
This (p.6) says "The magnetic dipole interaction" energy of two (spin magnetic) moments m.. If we evaluate this using uB (= electron's spin magnetic moment called Bohr magneton ) for the momnet and 3 Å as the separation, the (electron-spin-spin magnetic dipole ) interaction strength is 3 × 10-25 J or 0.02 Kelvin (= only 0.0000017 eV = far smaller than Pauli repulsive energy = about 20 eV ). This interaction is evidently far too weak to account for the fact that permanant magnet exists at room temperatre.. "
".. Instead, we have to turn back to Pauli exclusion principle, this is known as the exchange interaction .. Unlike (spin magnetic) dipolar interaction, the energy of the exchange intearction can be large, many times the thermal energy at room temperature. "
This (p.5) says "Magnetism comes from the interaction among the electrons: the classical magnetic dipole-dipole interaction (= electron spin-spin magnetic interaction ) is too weak to explain it ( this p.7 )."
So the magnetic force of electron's spin is completely useless for explaining strong Pauli repulsive force.
The paradoxical quantum mechanics introduced the (unrealistic) electron spin as the tiny magnetic moment, but later, this spin turned out to be unable to explain strong Pauli exclusion repulsion and room-temperature ferromagnetism ( this p.8 or p.7 ), they were forced to artificially create the unrealistic energy called "exchange interaction (= Not even a real force, this p.6 )", which ghost exchange energy is said to be three orders of magnitude larger than the original spin magnetic interaction ( this 4th-paragraph, this p.11 ).
If there was not Pauli repulsive force, the 3rd electron can enter inner 1s orbital together with other two electrons (= generating fictitious lithium with 3 × 1s electrons ), getting total energy lower than the experimental ground (= lowest ) state energy of lithium by Coulomb attractive energy caused by fictitious lithium atom getting all three electrons into 1s orbital closest to a positive nucleus.
Pauli exclusion repulsive energy between lithium 3rd electron of 2s outer orbital and the remaining two inner electrons of 1s orbital is more than 25 eV ( this 2nd-3rd paragraphs, this 5th-paragraph ) which Pauli energy is far larger than electron spin-spin magnetic energy (= less than 0.0001 eV, this p.4 ).
↑ Electron spin has nothing to do with Pauli exlusion principle ! Even singlet-triplet energy splitting is too large to explain by the weak electron's spin magnet (= instead, unphysical ad-hoc exchange interaction was introduced, this p.10 )
The total energy of this fictitious lithium of three 1s electrons (= by choosing three fictitious hydrogen atomic orbits as fake approximate solutions for unsolvable lithium Schrödinger equation ) becomes much lower = -230 eV (= -8.4609 Eh, this p.2 ) than the actual lithium total ground state energy (= -203 eV )
The actual total energy of lithium is -203 eV (= sum of 1st-3rd ionization energies of lithium ).
Therefore, Pauli repulsive energy is as big as 27 eV (= 230 - 203 eV ).
On the other hand, the magnetic energy between two electron spins is just 0.0001 eV, which is far smaller than Pauli exclusion force ( this p.10-left, this p.17, this p.3, this p.2 ).
Quantum mechanics discarded the original definition of spin introduced as a tiny magnet, which turned out to be too weak to cause strong Pauli repulsive energy, and made up another new unphysical concept called "exchange interaction."
This "exchange interaction (= which has nothing to do with actual electric or magnetic forces )" is an unrealistic ghost-like concept, which cannot even be a force, and it lacks force carrier.
Quantum mechanics can Not explain the mechanism of this mysterious Pauli repulsive force using real objects ( this p.6, this p.10 ).
↑ The fact that quantum mechanics tries to explain strong Pauli repulsion by nonphysical "exchange energy" lacking real (exchange) force means the original electron spin introduced as a tiny magnet has nothing to do with this Pauli principle. ← If electron spin-spin magnetic interaction caused strong Pauli repulsion, they have insisted Pauli principle is a real (magnet) force, which didn't happen.
It tries to ascribe uncanny Pauli exclusion energy to the dubious exchange interaction which uses nonphysical abstract math wavefunction (which tells us nothing about detailed physical mechanism of Pauli repulsion), and the nonphysical exchange interaction unrealistically requires each electron to exist in multiple different places at once, violating energy conservation law ( this abstract ), so false.
We prove the quantum mechanical antisymmetric wavefunctions obeying Pauli principle nonphysical exchange rule can never conserve total energy, hence, quantum mechanics is intrinsically false.
This unphysical quantum mechanical Pauli exclusion principle based on unrealistic exchange energy is said to be explained by unphysical relativistic quantum field theory or Dirac equation.
But this relativistic quantum field theory or Dirac equation just shows nonphysical abstract meaningless math relation called anticommutation where each electron is described just as a nonphysical math symbol ( this p.5-lower, this p.17 ), which thoery and unphysical description are useless and tell us nothing about the detailed mechanism of how to cause Pauli exclusion repulsion at all.
(Fig.13) Spin magnet is too weak to explain ferromagnet.
Ferromagnetism is said to be caused by electron spins aligned parallel to each other.
But in fact, ferromagnetism (or antiferromagnet, paramagnet .. ) has nothing to do with electron spin, because the magnetic interaction between electron spins is too weak to keep ferromagnetism stable even at room temperature.
This 3rd paragraph says "Such an interaction (= spin magnetic dipole interaction ) is, in general, much too small to produce ferromagnetism. Instead, the predominant interaction is known as the (unphysical) exchange interaction ( this p.7-8, this p.11(or p.3 )-lower )."
Ferromagnetism of iron (= Fe ) is known to keep stable even at high temperature = the critical temperature 1043 K.
But if electron spin-spin magnetic interaction is the origin of keeping ferromagnetism, the iron easily loses its ferromagnetic property even at extremely low temperature.
↑ Electron spin-spin magnetic (dipole-dipole) interaction energy = 0.3 K is far smaller than actual strong interaction energy required to make ferromagnetic atoms (= direction ) stable = 1043 K ( this p.7, dipole-dipole interaction ).
So the electron spin (= magnetic moment ) is Not the origin of keeping ferromagnetism stable, which fact contradicts the original definition of electron spins which was introduced as ones causing tiny magnetic field ( this p.10, this p.1-upper ). ← The existence of electron spin (= magnet ) has No evidence due to experimental disagreement between weak spin magnetic moment and strong Pauli principle, ferromagnetism which were Not caused by (fictional) electron spin.
Electron orbital motion (= realistically causing magnetic field of ferromagnet ) interacting and meshing (= synchronizing ) with other neighboring electron's orbital motions through Coulomb electric force can keep ferromagnetism stable even at high temperature.
↑ The electron's orbital motion covers larger space than the point-like electron's spin, so the electron's orbit-orbit interaction covering larger space naturally involves strong Coulomb electric interaction between electrons to let two neighboring electron's orbits interact and synchronize with each other stably.
In the realistic electron's orbital motion-induced magnetism, each atomic specific orbital shape and arrangement pattern determine the stable Coulomb electric interaction between neighboring atomic electrons' orbits, and resultantly determine the magnetic property of whether a material has ferromagnetism or anti-ferromagnetism, which explanation is perfectly compatible with actual observed stable ferromagnetism even at room temperature, which can Not be explained by the too-weak electron spin magnetic interaction.
Unrealistic quantum mechanical electron spin is just a point particle (= so a point particle has No shape difference ), which featureless point-particle can Not determine whether other electrons' spin directions become parallel (= ferromagnetism ) or anti-parallel (= anti-ferromagnetism ), which are different in different materials.
So quantum mechanical spin model intrinsically has No power to determine or predict whether each material or atom becomes ferromagnet or anti-ferromagnet.
All such a useless quantum mechanics can do is invent various roughly-approximate nonphysical pseudo-models such as Heisenberg and Hubbard spin models ( this p.6-9 ) with freely-chosen parameters to seemingly explain (anti-)ferromagnetism without showing any realistic physical mechanism of how ferromagnetism is generated ( this p.3-first-paragraph, ) by the point-like electron spin. ← impossible.
Quantum mechanics can only describe each electron ( spin) as a nonphysical math symbols (= each electron is just a nonphysical simbol = a†, b†, c†.. ) with No concrete figures, which abstract model tells us nothing about the detailed picture of how each electron actually behaves in ferromagnetism ( this p.7, this p.3 ).
Physicists just artificially manipulate those freely-adjustable chosen parameters (= J, U, t, this p.3-lower, this p.2-lower ) to fit the observed magnetic properties of ferromagnet (= J > 0 ) or antiferromagnet (= J < 0 ) with No ability to predict whether each material becomes ferromagnet or anti-ferromagneti from the original quantum mechanical theory ( this p.8-9, this p.2-right-upper, this p.3 ).
Furthermore, quantum mechanical ferromagnetic model is full of fictional concepts such as quasiparticles, effective (= fake ) masses, quasi-momentum ( this p.12 ).
Under the useless quantum mechanical model, all physicists can do is rely on one-pseudo-electron DFT approximation which just artificially chooses fake potential energies (= exchange-correlation functionals ) and free parameters ( this p.4 ) with No power to predict any physical values.
(Fig.14) ↓ Lucky coincidence or quantum mechanics cheated ?
Textbooks often say small energy splitting of hydrogen atomic energy levels ( 2p orbital splits into closely spaced 2p3/2 and 2p1/2 energy levels ) called fine structure is an evidence of quantum mechanical spin. ← This is Not true, as I said.
Miraculously, Bohr-Sommerfeld model without spin could successfully obtain the same fine structure energy formula (= agreed with experimental results ) before quantum mechanics was born ( this p.2 lower ).
Later, quantum mechanics and Einstein special relavtivity were united into a new unphysical theory called Dirac equation with spin, and it could get exactly the same fine structure formula as old Bohr-Sommerfeld model by chance.
Though these two atomic models use completely different mechanisms. ← One model (= relativistic quantum mechanical Dirac equation ) has spin, another model (= Bohr-Sommerfeld mode ) doesn't have spin, but both happened to give the same energy results ! ← Impossible.
This unbelievably "lucky coincidence" indicates quantum mechanical Dirac theory "cheated" and copied old Bohr-Sommerfeld's successful fine structure model which gave excellent results.
Quantum mechanical fine structure artificially stealing the old right model is illegitimate and false.
This (p.2) says "Sommerfeld’s 1916 derivation of the fine structure energy levels of hydrogen. Not only were his predictions good, he derived exactly the same formula that would later drop out of Dirac’s 1928 treatment."
This last part also says "When Dirac developed relativistic quantum mechanics, the relativistic Coulomb problem proved to be exactly solvable ...But the resulting formula for the energy levels was truly a surprise: The new answer was precisely the old Sommerfeld formula !"
Compare Bohr-Sommerfeld fine structure formula ( this p.12 ) and quantum mechanical Dirac fine structure formula ( this p.1 ). You will find these two formulas are exactly the same, accidentally !
See detailed methods of calculating fine structure energy levels using Bohr-Sommerfeld model and quantum Dirac equation.
Bohr-Sommerfeld model is often said to use so-called "relativistic effect". But this relativistic effect has nothing to do with Einstein relativity or quantum Dirac equation.
Dirac equation = relativistic version of quantum mechanics uses unphysical "spin" whose spinning speed must far exceed light speed c to generate the observed magnetic field, hence its relativistic spin contradicts Einstein relativity which forbids any faster-than-light motion.
Bohr-Sommerfeld model without unreal spin used the effect where an electron moving faster becomes harder to move as if an electron's mass appears to increace, which seems compatible with Einstein relativistic mass increase.
But of course, it's impossible to increase the electron's mass without adding any other masses or things to the original electron, because it violates mass conservation law (= additional mass pops out of nothing, when an electron moves faster according to Einstein !? )
In this crazy Einstein relativistic world, an object's mass appears to be heavier and lighter depending on "observers", which is clealy a paradox disproving Einstein relativity.
The important point is Einstein's energy-mass relation (= mc2 = As an electron's energy increases, its mass increases ? ) was originally derived by classical Maxwell theory based on electromagnetic wave propagating in the medium, and Einstein stealed and "copied" the original Maxwell mc2 in the wrong way.
Famous atomic nuclear energy, which allegedly proved Einstein mass relation, is a kind of potential energy, which means "mass-increasing energy" is stored in the medium surrounding particles (= potential energy exerting forces at a distance is usually stored in the space between particles )."
Einstein relativity obstinately refusing to accept real medium needs unreal virtual particles with imaginary mass violating Einstein relativistic mass energy relation as fictitious force carriers, and fantasy parallel worlds for explaining a single electron interference.
To push a single electron out of the destructive interference area in two-slit experiment, the single electron needs to be pushed by some external things, because a single electron itself cannot move itself due to law of action and reaction (= even if a single electron tries to push itself out of the destructive interference area, it would be pushed back by itself, canceling forces to be zero, and resultantly, a single electron alone cannot move itself or cause the observed interference fringes without external medium ).
Due to the inviolable fundamental physical principle of mass conservation law, it is impossible to magically increase the object's masses just by the motion of the observer (= as Einstein ridiculous relativity claims ), who does Not even touch it, without adding any external things to the target object.
Therefore, the mass increase effect seen in a faster electron is caused by more resistance a faster electron feels from some "external things" such as the surrounding medium, which is compatible with original Maxwell electromagnetic wave theory based on light medium, and the fact that the mc2 energy is stored as nuclear "potential energy between particles."
The fact that all matter such as electrons and light wave obeys the interference based on the experimentally-verified de Broglie wave theory means the electrons also obey Maxwell's mc2 energy relation through the common external medium.
↑ An electron's increased kinetic energy is naturally stored in the surrounding medium as de Broglie wave energy which can seemingly increase the original electron's mass by Δm = (electron's kinetic energy)/c2, which is compatible with Bohr-Sommerfeld fine structure theory where the ( pseudo-)relativistic mass energy can be divided into rest mass (= mc2 which is Not used in Bohr-Sommerfeld fine structure ) and kinetic energy (= 1/2mv2 which energy contributes to the seemingly-added mass ) in the electron with low velocity.
Electron's velocity ↑ → medium surrounding the electron's resistance ↑ = the medium's ocillating frequency (= as the electron's de Broglie wave ) or stored energy increases as the electron's kinetic energy increases = the faster electron is harder to move as if it's "heavier" due to increased resistance from the surrounding medium with increased stored oscillating energy (= increased kinetic energy ).
(Fig.15) ↓ This was really a lucky coincidence ?
In fact, quantum mechanical Dirac equation for hydrogen fine structure includes too many lucky dubious conincidences.
In Bohr-Sommerfeld model, fine structure energy splitting is caused by an electron's velocity difference (← a faster electron feeling more resistance from the surroundings is harder to move ) without spin.
On the other hand, quantum mechanical Dirac equation claims fine structure energy splitting is caused by unphysical "spin."
Historical magic = coincidentally, both these Bohr-Sommerfeld model and quantum Dirac hydrogen gave exactly the same energy formula for fine structure energy splitting, like Bohr model and Schrödinger equation gave exactly the same hydrogen energy solution ?
But originally, Dirac hydrogen with electron spin should give a larger number of splitting energy levels than experimentally observed energy levels which were precisely predicted by Bohr-Sommerfeld model.
Quantum Dirac hydrogen depends on too many "lucky coincidences" which cancel out too many originally-existing splitting energy levels to artificially match experimental results. ← Too good to be true, and showing quantum Dirac equation is illegitimate.
For example, 2s1/2 and 2p1/2 orbitals with different angular momentums (= 2s1/2 has no angular momentum, only 2p1/2 has angular momentum ) must coincidentally have the same total energy in Dirac hydrogen to artificially agree with experimental results or Bohr-Sommerfeld model, though an electron's motion is completely different in these two energy levels.
So the unnatural Dirac's hydrogen model with spin requires that originally-different energy levels should have the same energy, coincidentally, many, many times !
Quantum Dirac hydrogen needs too many lucky coincidences of energies of different orbitals like 2s1/2 = 2p1/2, 3s1/2 = 3p1/2, 3p3/2 = 3d3/2, 4s1/2 = 4p1/2 ... ← This too many coincidence is too unnatural to believe ( this p.19-last-p.20, this p.27, this p.6-Table1, this p.44-45 ).
Also in nist hydrogen energy leveles (= considering quantum Dirac spin model ), too many different electron's orbitals are supposed to unnaturally give the same energy levels ( 2p1/2 = 2s1/2, 3p1/2 a= 3s1/2, 4p1/2 = 4s1/2 .. )
On the other hand, Bohr-Sommerfeld fine structure does Not need to rely on too many unnatural coincidences, hence, we can safely say quantum mechanical fine structure model is illogical and incorrect.
In quantum mechanical Dirac hydrogen, if two different orbitals have the same total angular momentum j (= the sum of orbital angular momentum l and spin s expressed as j = l + s, this p.11 ), these two different orbitals are supposed to have exactly the same energy level (= lucky coincidence ) without showing detailed physical mechanism except nonphysical math.
For example, 2s1/2 (= without orbital angular momentum, l=0 ) and 2p1/2 (= with orbital angular momentum, l=1) have the same energy level, because these two different orbitals have the same total angular momentum j ( j = 1/2 = 0 + 1/2 in 2s1/2, j = 1/2 = 1 - 1/2 in 2p1/2, ← This is just an artificial math trick with No relation to our real world ).
This quantum mechanical spin angular momentum 1/2 is meaningless. Dirac hydrogen's energy levels always use only an integer angular quantum number (= Dirac's energy includes only the form of "j+1/2 = integer" in angular momentum part, because j is half-integer ), which is why Dirac equation gives exactly the same energies as Bohr-Sommerfeld model.
In much smaller energy splitting such as Lamb shift, quantum mechanics uses unrealistic math trick called QED renormalization where infinity caused by unreal virtual particles minus infinity gives some finite value (= very tiny Lamb shift energy caused by unreal unobservable virtual photons ? ← nonsense, this p.1-left )↑ Two kinds of "infinite values" can be artificially manipulated to give convenient finite values, so this dirty method discrediting quantum mechanics was criticized even by QED founders as "hocus-pocus".
Though negligibly-tiny energy splitting = Lamb shift is said to be explained by relativistic QED ad-hoc renormalization artificially cancelling infinite unreal virtual particles, these virtual particles with unreal imaginary masses clearly contradict Einstein relativistic mc2 mass-energy relation ( this p.5 ).
So the present Lamb shift by artificial QED virtual particles is an illegitimate and false theory.
In fact , even after artificially removing infinity ( by sweeping infinites under rug ) caused by unreal virtual particles, QED can neither eliminate other infinities nor get meaningful finite physical values.
First of all, the purely-relativistic QED methods can Not obtain exact analytical solutions of Lamb shift ( this p.6-7, this p.8, this p.4 ), so "QED is successful, predicting some physical values" is a big lie.
Even in the so-called "relativistic QED Lamb shift calculation", most of the calculated Lamb shift values were obtained from non-relativistic Bethe methods which rely on the freely-adjustable numerical (= Not analytical, see this p.3-left ) calculations artificially choosing convenient different virtual (average) excited energy values in different energy levels 2s1/2, 2p1/2.. called Bethe logarithm ( this p.4, this p.23, this p.5-3th,4th paragraphs, this p.3 )
In this unphysical relativistic QED calculation of the negligibly tiny energy splitting of Lamb shift, physicists can Not obtain or predict the precise analytical values of Lamb shift (= so QED is useless ), instead, they rely on the artificially-created virtual photons' average excited energies called Bethe logarithm ( this p.3 ) to estimate (virtual) 2s1/2 and 2p1/2 energy levels' splitting or Lamb shift ( this p.21, this p.4 ).
↑ These (unmeasurable) illusory probability equations of exciting the electron to virtual higher energy levels (= Bethe's average excitation energies ) by unreal virtual photons to allegedly cause tiny Lamb shift splitting are artificially-chosen parameters ( this p.3-right ) using fictitious quasi-principlal numbers ( this p.1-2 ← These R or ad-hoc average virtual excitation energies have nothing to do with the hydrogen's wavefunctions, quantum mechanics or QED, hence, completely irrelevant fabricated parameters and fake concepts are used to get convenient Lamb shift values illegitimately ). ← QED itself cannot predict Lamb shift values.
↑ So basically QED has No ability to predict analytical values of Lamb shift using relativistic quantum field theory based on unreal virtual particles.
We must replace this unrealistic useless Lamb shift theory by other realistic explanation without ghost-like virtual particles.
We can think of other more realistic possibilities such as an electron and nuclear tiny fluctuation or something than unreal virtual particle QED to explain such a small negligible energy splitting Lamb shift (= which is too weak to need, useless for our daily life )
Even at the extremely-cold = almost absolute zero temperature (= 1 kelvin ), the thermal fluctuation energy is as much as 8.6 × 10-5 eV which is larger than the negligibly-tiny tiny Lamb shift energy splitting = only 4.3 × 10-6 eV, which energy is too small to measure by the normal spectrum observations. ← The ordinary thermal energy fluctuation is the more realistic explanation of the tiny-tiny energy splitting than unreal infinite virtual photons of QED.
Also in very small hyperfine structure (= tiny enegy splitting by nuclear spin ), quantum mechanical model is unrealistic and just artificially manipulating freely-adjustable parameters such as nuclear spin g-factor (= this value cannot be predicted by quantum mechanics, it must be determined by experiment and measurement. this p.4-right ).
Because relativistic QED and QCD just artificially adjusting free parameters obtained from experiments are unable to predict any nuclear values such as nuclear masses, spins and hyperfine structure ( this p.3, this p.10-1st-paragraph ).
The extremely tiny hyperfine structure energy splitting (= ~ 10-6 eV ) involving spins of nuclei and protons can neither be calculated nor predicted by the original quantum mechanics, quantum field theoy or QED due to the imaginary unknown virtual (sea) quarks allegedly popping up inside nuclei ( this 8th-paragraph, this p.12, this 1.Hadron physics ).
Physicists have given up calculating nuclear masses or spins analytically ( this 2-9th paragraphs ), and created other nonphysical lattice QCD model which just chooses many arbitrary free parameters and cannot predict any nuclear values such as spins and hyperfine structure.
So there is No evidence indicating that quantum mechanical unphysical model is right in regard to atomic energy levels.
Useless quantum mechanics cannot predict any physical values.
(Fig.16) Double-slit experiments proved electron's wave interference obeying de Broglie wavelength.
Many experiments confirmed that an electron has wave nature where an electron can interfere with itself obeying de Broglie relation wavelength in the same way as ordinary light wave.
Quantum mechanics claims even a single electron can interfere with itself, but if there is only a single electron in "completely empty space", it's impossible to cause interference fringe pattern, because an electron cannot voluntarily push or pull itself to change its own moving direction to cause interference fringe patterns on the screen.
So there must be some "external things or medium" exerting force on an electron by pushing or pulling an electron to cause fringes responding to destructive or constructive interference of de Broglie wave occurring around an electron.
Actually, Bohr model could successfully obtain atomic energy levels which just agreed with experimental results using de Broglie wave theory.
Later, quantum mechanics also used de Broglie wave theory and got exactly the same results as Bohr model.
(Fig.17) A single electron splits into parallel worlds !?
A single electron is obviously the smallest elementary particle with unbreakable mass and charge, which can Not be divided into multiple smaller charges also in two-slit experiments.
Each single electron is known to interfere with itself in two-slit experiment. ← Each single electron cannot be divided, then, how can the unphysical quantum mechanics explain this two-slit interference of a single electron ?
According to the ridiculous quantum mechanical logic, even a single indivisible electron particle ( or an imaginary photon ) must pass through two different slits or paths simultaneously. ← Impossible !
Of course, it's impossible for a single indivisible particle such as an electron to pass through two different slits at once to interfere with itself even in the ridiculous quantum mechanics.
Actually, each single electron is detected as a single electron at only one location one by one after passing through two slits and interfering.
So physicists have been unable to give realistic explanation of how a single particle can go through two slits without actually splitting, as an unsolvable mystery (= forever ), giving up realistic mechanisms ( this last-paragraph ).
Finally, the illogical quantum mechanics came to make an unrealistic claim that even a single unbreakable particle such as an electron must exist everywhere in different places simultaneously (= called superposition ) as if the single particle split into different fantasy parallel worlds or multiverse, creating its body-doubles.
So according to such an unscientific quantum mechanics, each indivisible electron particle could unrealistically split into fantasy different parallel universes or multiverse, pass through two slits at once, interfere with itself, and be detected as the original single electron in double-slit interference experiments.
Any other interpretation of quantum mechanics are Not different from the current mainstream (fantasy) many- or parallel-world theory where physicists basically avoid delving into the unrealistic quantum mechanical mechanism, instead, just reluctantly saying "Nobody understands (weird) quantum mechanics, so just shut up and calculate !" ← It's Not science !
For each single electron to cause the observed interference fringe, the single electron must be pushed out of destructive interference area by some external things, because a single electron itself cannot push or pull itself to dislocate itself according to the law of action and reaction (= two opposite forces of pushing and pulling cancel each other inside a single electron ).
So the only realistic explanation is that a single electron (or a photon = just classical light wave ) causes the real de Broglie wave (= which interference was experimentally confirmed as real ) in the external medium, and this de Broglie wave interference affects and dislocates the electron's position, resultantly showing the constructive and destructive interference fringes.
↑ This realistic picture of separating a particle and wave can naturally explain the actually-observed two-slit interference of a single electron without relying on fantasy quantum mechanical parallel worlds.
The problem is another mainstream theory = Einstein relativity rejected real medium (= which real medium existence was Not denied by Michelson-Morley experiments, though ).
Hence, Einstein relativity and quantum mechanics have to rely only on fantasy superposition or parallel-world theory where even an indivisible single electron must magically split into two different parallel universes to interfere with itself.
The trouble is that the paradoxical Einstein relativity needs another fictitious medium consisting of unreal virtual particles or virtual photons with imaginary masses ( this p.3 ) contradicting Einstein mass mc2 relation to explain fundamental forces between particles, though Einstein unreasonably rejected the real medium in space.
All experiments such as light wave interference, refraction, and diffraction of an electron clearly show the existence of real medium in space.
Quantum mechanical Schrödinger equations also use the experimentally-confirmed de Broglie wave as wavefunctions which can interfere constructively and destructively ( this p.9 ).
The use of the same electron's de Broglie wave theory is the reason why the fantasy quantum mechanics accidentally gave the same results as the successful Bohr's realistic atomic model.
But the quantum mechanics relying on de Broglie wave theory contradicts de Broglie wave interference itself, hence, quantum mechanics is self-contradictory and wrong.
Quantum mechanical unphysical atomic wavefunctions always have to include the unrealistic s-orbitals with zero orbital angular momentum where electrons crash into nuclei.
↑ In this unrealistic zero orbital angular momentum of quantum mechanical s-orbitals, each electron interferes with itself destructively in its linear orbit with zero orbital angular momentum, hence, unstable (= quantum mechanical electrons are also supposed to be actually moving, because quantum mechanical electron wavefunctions also have kinetic energies ).
As a result, the only realistic explanation for experimentally-verified electron's de Broglie wave destructive interference without self-contradictions is possible based on the realistic atomic model with non-zero orbital angular momentum separating a real electron particle and its de Broglie wave traveling through medium, which real moving electron is necessary to generate real Coulomb electric forces in actual molecular bonds.
(Fig.18) Schrodinger's orbital is n × de Broglie wavelength.
Bohr atomic model succeeded in explaining energy levels of all hydrogen-like atoms, and Schrödinger equation of quantum mechanics also agreed with results of Bohr model ( this p.13-lower, this p.7-lower ). Why ?
Bohr model uses the assumption that electron' orbital length is just an integral multiple of de Broglie wavelength to avoid destructive interferene, which was experimentally confirmed.
Schrödinger equation also uses de Broglie wave theory for obtaining electron's momentum and kinetic energy.
Furthermore, in fact, the electron's orbital of Schrödinger wave function is also an integer multiple of de Broglie wavelength ( this last ), which is the reason why both Bohr model and Schrödinger equation give exactly the same results and use the same Bohr radius concept in hydrogen.
We can visualize any Schrödinger's orbitals just equal to an integer times de Broglie wavelength like Bohr's atomic model.
Fig.18 is hydrogen's 1s, 2s and 3s wave functions.
If we use the solution χ = rR ( R is radial wavefunction, r is the distance between an electron and nucleus ), Schrödinger equation just becomes the simple second derivative form where Schrödinger's "radial wavefunction" exactly means "de Broglie wave" like Bohr model ( this p.3 ).
In this radial wave function (= rR ), 1s, 2s and 3s orbital are just integers = 1, 2, and 3 times de Broglie wavelength.
This is a hidden trick of the only solvable Schrödinger's solution = hydrogen atom, which results just agree with Bohr's hydrogen.
But only Schrödinger wave functions include unphysical orbitals, so false.
Because Schrödinger equation always has to include unrealistic zero orbital angular momentum, where an electron crashes into a nucleus, moving in a linear orbit.
In the linear orbit where an electron is moving back and forth on the same one-dimensional path, the electron's de Broglie wave interferes with itself destructively, hence, Schrödinger's electron's motion becomes unstable and chaotic, while Bohr's atomic electron's motion is stable.
(Fig.19) Quantum mechanical wavefunction is unreal.
Quantum mechanics is false in hydrogen's wave function.
Because the square of momentum p of Schrödinger's electron is Not equal to p2, so, the equation of p2 = p2 is Not satisfied in quantum mechanics ? ← Why does such an irrational thing happen ?
Schrodinger equation adopted de Broglie relation as "derivative" form.
The first derivative of momentum operator acting on wavefunction gets the momentum p, and the second derivative of wavefunction gets the square p2.
Of course, when momentum p is zero, its square p2 must be zero, too.
But only when a wavefunction has basic " cos" or "sin" form, it holds true.
The point is quantum mechanical wave functions distort original de Broglie relation. Figure above is hydrogen 2p radial wavefunction ( this, this last ).
"2p" wavefunction has unreal negative kinetic energy on both sides.
On these boundaries (= two positions where electron's kinetic energy is zero ), the second derivative is zero ( p2 = 0 ), but first derivative (= p ) is not zero (= the slope of wave function is not zero, which means the momentum p is not zero ) ! This is ridiculous.
It's quite natural that when p is zero, its square p2 is zero, too !
So quantum mechanics distorts original de Broglie relation with wrong math.
(Fig.20) No solution → just "choose" fake solution ! = useless
In Schrödinger equation of quantum mechanics, the sum of an electron's kinetic energy and Coulomb potential energy equals total energy E which total energy must be conserved and constant.
Under this total energy conservation (= E is a constant value ) law, Schrödinger equation can be solved only in one-electron hydrogen atom which results happened to equal Bohr model.
In any other multi-electron atoms or molecules, Schrödinger equation can never be solved. = There are No exact solutions or wavefunctions of any multi-electron atoms in quantum mechanics.
So quantum mechanics gave up solving Schrödinger equation, and it just chooses and guesses fake solutions (= wavefunction ) called trial function or basis set, and integrates chosen fake solution (= fake chosen wavefunction ) with Schrödinger equation to obtain fake total energy.
There is 100% freedom in selecting the form of trial wavefunction or basis sets (= fake solution ). ← Even these fake chosen wavefunction solutions as the approximate methods for unsolvable Schrödinger equation are too complicated. time-consuming and impractical ( this p.14, this p.11 ), which make quantum mechanics useless in all applied science.
There is No limit to the number of parameters of trial wavefunction.
↑ You can freely choose any arbitrary fake solution and freely-adjustable parameters giving any arbitrary fake energies, which quantum mechanical methods cannot predict any true energies (= called variational methods, which are mainly used in almost-all quantum mechanical approximations with unsolvable multi-electron Schrödinger equations ), hence it's a kind of "art", Not science ( this p.17, this p.7 ).
When textbooks (often misleadingly) say contradictory things such as "solve approximate (unsolvable) Schrödinger equations or Hartree-Fock equations", physicists just artificially choose fake approximate wavefunctions (= called basis set solutions ) and manipulate their coefficients or parameters to get the lowest (fake) energies within chosen limited fake solutions called "variational methods ( this p.4, this p.8, this p.11 )" without actually solving them.
There is No way to know the exact atomic wavefunctions or solutions (= due to unsolvable multi-electron Schrödinger equations ) until physicists compare fake energies calculated from artificially-chosen fake solutions with the experimental energy values ( this p.4-5th-paragraph, this 2nd-last-paragraph, this p.1-last, this p.4-last-paragraph, this 15th-paragraph ).
↑ So it's far better to use the experimentally-obtained atomic energy values from the beginning without wasting time in artificially choosing and calculating fake energies using unsolvable multi-electron Schrödinger equations which can Not predict any atomic or molecular energies, hence quantum mechanical methods are meaningless ( this p.6-1st-paragraph ).
Textbooks often say impractical things; if you take infinite time to pick up some fake solution consisting of infinite freely-adjustable parameters and infinite terms, you may find true solution ( this 12th paragraph ). ← But this is Not true. No atomic true solutions can be found in quantum mechanics.
In larger atoms (such as Lithium ) and molecules with more than two electrons, the quantum mechanical Pauli antisymmetric wavefunctions become invalid and wrong.
We can prove it is impossible for any multi-electron Schrödinger equations to have their exact energy solutions, no matter what artificial trial wavefunctions or basis sets are chosen as their fake solutions, hence, quantum mechanics is wrong.
For an atom to have its exact wavefunction by solving its Schrödinger equation, its true atomic wavefunction or solution must always give the same constant total energy E, which means the total energy E = the sum of electron's kinetic energy and Coulomb potential energy must be always constant and conserved regardless of any electron's position ( this p.2-upper, this p.2-1st-paragraph ).
The total energy E must be always conserved and constant especially in the lowest ground-state energies of any atoms, unless atoms absorb some additional external light wave energies to be excited states.
The only solvable Schrödinger equation is a one-electron hydrogen atom whose energies are obtained under the condition of the conservation of the constant total energy E ( this-19.5, this ).
In any other multi-electron atoms and molecules, quantum mechanical Schrödinger equations are unsolvable and unable to conserve the constant total energy E, which means a single unsolvable quantum mechanical multi-electron atom or molecule could unrealistically contain many different total energy E values (= Not constant total energy E ) in different electron's positions.
So quantum mechanical atoms and molecules unscientifically violating the inviolable total energy conservation law are wrong, because no matter what artificial trial wavefunctions are chosen as atomic fake solutions, these chosen fake solutions can never conserve the total energy E in any electrons' positions, unlike the only solvable one-electron hydrogen atom.
Quantum mechanics says even a single electron must always exist everywhere as a vague electron cloud spreading all over space, which unrealistic property exposes a fatal flaw of Schrödinger wavefunction.
In helium atom, two electrons are supposed to be always everywhere (= because electron probability is Not zero in any positions of Schrödinger wavefunction ) regardless of the other electron's position.
Because in Schrödinger equation, the electron's kinetic energy is expressed as the derivative of the probability wavefunction where the electron's kinetic energy (= slope of wavefunction ) would become unrealistically infinite if the probability wavefunction becomes suddenly zero (= discontinuous wavefunction ) at some point. → the probability wavefunction must always extend to infinity continuously and smoothly.
↑ Any quantum mechanical atomic probability wavefunctions must spread all over the place to the points at infinity as shown in the hydrogen atomic wavefunction expressed using exponential functions (= extending to infinity in all space ).
So in this fictitious quantum mechanical helium atom where each electron's probability wavefunction always spreads everywhere all over the space, two helium electrons can magically approach and get far away from each other freely violating total energy conservation law.
↑ The effective central charge (= the sum of helium nucleus + the other freely-movable electron ) felt by each helium electron cannot be fixed. → It is impossible to obtain the true constant conserved total energy of quantum mechanical helium. → Conserving total energy in any two electrons' positions is impossible in quantum mechanical unrealistically-spreading helium probability wavefunction.
It means three Coulomb energy terms (= Coulomb energy term between each electron 1,2 and a nucleus, and between two electrons ) of Schrödinger equation can be randomly and independently changed in unrealistic quantum mechanical helium atom.
So for the helium to have exact solution (= total energy must be constant and conserved in any two electrons' positions ), three Coulomb energy terms of helium (= independently-changing ) must be independently canceled out by three independent kinetic energy terms.
It means a helium true solution (= if it existed ) must split into three independent fictitious hydrogen atomic wavefunctions (= two electron-nucleus hydrogens and one unreal electron-electron hydrogen ), which is impossible.
↑ It is intrinsically impossible to find the exact solution of a fictitious quantum mechanical helium whose non-existent true wavefunction must be the sum of three unreal independent hydrogen-like atoms, one of which is the impossible electron-electron hydrogen-like atom which can be freely-movable and prevent us from obtaining the true stationary helium wavefunction.
Therefore, Schrödinger equation for multi-electron atoms can never find true solution, no matter what forms of fake solutions or trial wavefunctions you choose, and this fact proves quantum mechanics is intrinsically false.
Those artificially-chosen wavefunctions or basis set approximate solutions are just unphysical mathematical entities Not representing real atoms or molecules ( this last paragraph, this p.15 ).
Quantum mechanical Schrödinger equations can neither be solved nor give exact energy solutions for any multi-electron atoms and molecules except for the simplest one-electron hydrogen atom ( ths p.21, this p.2 ), so quantum mechanics has No power to predict any practical chemical bonds.
Quantum mechanical methods are just wasting time in choosing fake solutions called trial functions or basis sets and adjusting many free parameters or coefficients to fit experimental values in vain (= called variational approximate methods, this p.19 ).
↑ Quantum mechanical variational methods cannot predict or know any exact atomic or molecular energies, until physicists compare their results with actual experimental values. ←It's far better to just use experimental values from the beginning instead of wasting time in calculating (= Not solving ) the useless quantum mechanics which has No power to predict any values.
So physicists have relied on the so-called "empirical methods" such as Hückel model for chemical double π bonds (= because the quantum mechanical molecular orbital theory with fatal flaws cannot treat the ordinary single σ bond such as C-C and C-H ) where they just artificially choose the experimentally-obtained parameters ( this p.4, this p.6-lower, this p.2-3 ) and introduce many fictional ad-hoc approximation rules ( this p.7, this p.4-5, this p.3-4 ), instead of predicting energies (= this is impossible ) from the original quantum mechanics.
Because the quantum mechanical Pauli principle expressed as unphysical antisymmetric wavefunctions failed to explain any atoms and molecules consisting of more than two electrons.
↑ This failure of any quantum mechanical multi-electron atomic models such as ad-hoc molecular orbital (= MO ) theory and the MO's leading theory = empirical Huckel model forced physicists to reluctantly adopt only one-pseudo-electron approximate model called density functional theory (= DFT ). which also fails now.
The current most popular (fake) ab-initio quantum mechanical approximation for molecules and chemical bonds is this one-pseudo-electron model of density functional theory (= DFT ).
DFT outrageously replaces the whole many-electron molecule or material with only one pseudo-electron model (= originally many N electron variables are reduced to only one pseudo-electron variable, this p.4, this p.12-13 ) with unknown pseudo-potential energy ( this p.6-left-lower ) called exchange-correlation functionals ( this p.4 ).
Of course, it is intrinsically impossible to treat the actual many-electron atoms and molecules as one fictitious electron model, so DFT and the current computational chemistry miserably remains useless with many failures and No progress ( this p.2, this p.2-3 ).
So all the current basic and applied science have stopped progressing by unphysical quantum mechanics which is completely useless and unable to predict any meaningful physical values forever.
(Fig.21) ↓ One electron exists in both H-atoms a and b at once ?
According to unphysical quantum mechanics, all electrons lose their specific positions, and exist in every place simultaneously as if all different electrons are a indistinguishable ghost particle.
For example, when an electron-1 exists in H-atom-a ( hydrogen atom-a ) in the position-a, and an electron-2 exists in H-atom-b in the position-b, these two electrons are distinguishable based on their different positions in two different H atoms. ← This distinction between different electrons is a normal thing, but such a normal concept is Not allowed in quantum mechanics.
In quantum mechanical hydrogen molecule, an electron-1 must always exist in both two different H atoms in different positions simultaneously using fictional parallel worlds. An electron-2 also exists in both H atoms simultaneously, too.
So all electrons exist in all different atoms and different places simultaneously without any distinction, which unrealistic quantum mechanical atomic model makes it impossible to distingush and separate each atom or electron from other different atoms or electrons, hence this unrealistic quantum mechanical model cannot be used in any applied science.
Why does quantum mechanics make such a crazy demand ?
Quantum mechanical electron must always spread symmetrically around a nucleus like a cloud, so the electron cloud, which is Not a moving charged-particle, cannot approach the other nucleus or avoid the other electron to generate powerful Coulomb attraction enough to form molecular bond by lowering Coulomb potential energy between electrons and nuclei.
This is a serious problem, hence, quantum mechanics has to find some other dirty tricks to lower total energy for forming fictitious molecular bond without lowering Coulomb potential energy which is unavailable for quantum electron spreading cloud.
Quantum mechanics cannot use normal Coulomb force or lower Coulomb potential energy in molecular bonds, so it tries to lower only an electron's kinetic energy without changing Coulomb energy, which clearly violates total energy conservation law, and disproves quantum mechanical molecular bonds.
Even this dirty trick is Not enough to lower total (= kinetic ) energy for forming fictitious molecular bonds.
So quantum mechanics started to rely on unrealistic state where all electrons exist in all different atoms or places simultaneously in the name of "indistinguishable".
Because in this unrealistic indistinguishable state, integral of chosen (fake) wavefunction includes unphysical exchange integral, which uncanny integral or exchange fictitious force cannot be described by any real things or electric force ( this p.11 ).
This nonphysical exchange integral can further lower electron's kinetic energy in an illegitimate way violating total energy conservation law, so false.
(Fig.22) ↓ Each electron exists in both atoms. → Pauli principle ?
Pauli exclusion principle is known to generate mysterious powerful repulsive force enough to resist Coulomb force and exclude the 3rd electron of lithium to outer orbit, involving electron spin.
In fact, unphysical quantum mechanics cannot describe this Pauli exclusion principle or repulsive energy using any real things or forces.
So Pauli exclusion principle by quantum mechanics is based on wrong abstract nonphysical physics using fictitious concepts such as "exchange energy" and "antisymmetric wavefunction", which have nothing to do with real world.
Irrational quantum mechanical rule forces all electrons to be indistinguishable, existing in all different atoms simultaneously. Furthermore, quantum mechanical wavefunction must take an artificial, unphysical form called antisymmetric.
In antisymmetric wavefunction, when we exchange any two electrons, the sign of the entire wave function is supposed to change ( this p.3 ). ← No more detailed mechanism of Pauli principle is given by quantum mechanics !
As shown in Fig.22 middle, the wavefunction is divided into two parts; electron's space part (= Schrödinger equation ) and spin part.
In two-electron hydrogen (= H2 ) molecule or helium atom, the spin part is antisymmetric (= one electrons spin is up, the other spin is down ), so their Schrödinger equation part takes "symmetric" form where a illegitimately-lowered electron's kinetic energy is used as fake molecular bond energy in quantum mechanics ( this p.3-lower ).
In antisymmetric wavefunction (= Pauli principle ) between the same spin-up-up or spin-down-down, the sign of this illegitimately-lowered electron's kinetic energy is flipped, which means the electron's "kinetic energy is illegitimately increased" in unphysical quantum mechanical Pauli principle or antibond.
So the origin of quantum mechanical Pauli exclusion force is nonsense = illegitimately-increased kinetic energy (= without using normal Coulomb repulsion or other forces, instead, using only unphysical "exchange" ) violating energy conservation law, so this unphysical Pauli repulsion can neither be admitted as real force nor given any realistic physical interpretation ( this p.6 ).
And this ad-hoc unphysical quantum mechanical exchange energy cannot give real force or force carrier to Pauli exclusion repulsion, while realistic atomic model with electrons and de Broglie waves can treat Pauli repulsive force as real force generated by real force carrier.
If this quantum mechanical illogical rule describing Pauli exclusion principle rule as nonphysical antisymmetric wavefunction is true, an unreal H3 molecule consisting of three hydrogen atoms is possible. ← Quantum mechanics is wrong.
↑ According to this quantum mechanical stupid rule, when three hydrogen atoms (= H1, H2, H3 atoms ) align as H1 (= spin-up ) + H2 (= spin-down ) + H3 (= spin-up), these three hydrogen atoms can attract the neighboring atoms with the opposite spins and form the unrealistic H3 molecule, because the neighboring hydrogen atoms form symmetric wavefunctions (= spin part is antisymmetric with one up-spin and the other's down-spin between neighboring atoms in unreal H3 molecule ).
↑ This quantum mechanical Pauli principle rule as nonphysical antisymmetric wavefunction between two neighboring atoms does Not consider the cases where three atoms approach and contact each other. ← This is one of fatal flaws of quantum mechanics.
(Fig.23) Unreal indistinguishable electron → One pseudo-electron DFT approximation in quantum mechanics.
Every electron spreads and exists in all atomic different places simultaneously in fantasy parallel worlds according to quantum mechanical illogical rule where Pauli principle should be expressed by nonphysical antisymmetric wavefunctions without showing any concrete physical mechanism.
According to this stupid quantum mechanical Pauli principle rule, in two atomic molecules, each electron must always exist in two different atoms (= two different orbitals ) simultaneously and unrealistically ( this p.11, this p.7-lower, this p.2 ).
So in three-electron atoms or molecules, each electron must always exist in three different orbitals expressed as nonphysical Pauli antisymmetric wavefunctions.
Though the quantum mechanical Pauli principle with more than two electrons suffers serious paradoxes by which physicists have No choice but to adopt the unreal one-pseudo-electron density functional theory (= DFT ), which is the most widely-used quantum mechanical approximation.
As a result, quantum mechanics unrealistically insists in any multi-electron atoms or molecules, each electron must always exist in all different atoms or orbitals simultaneously ( this p.20-21 ) where each electron cannot move or be isolated from other atoms due to all electrons always being trapped by all different atoms by stupid Pauli antisymmetric wavefunctions !
If all electrons are unrealistically existing everywhere (= indistinguishable electrons, this 4th-paragraph ), physicists need to pick only one electron from among many indistinguishable parallel-world electrons in quantum mechanics.
So quantum mechanics outrageously treats the whole many-electron material as unreal one single pseudo-electron model ( this p.2 upper ) called band theory where "successful" quantum mechanics in applied science is completely false and fake news.
Quantum mechanical band theory expresses the whole many-atomic material as unphysical linear bands which represent fictitious electron called quasiparticle with fake (= effective ) mass (= even unreal negative electron mass is possible ) and pseudo-momentum.
In this nonphysical quantum mechanical band model, each particle's position, shape and size are unknown and meaningless, because all electrons are changed into fake electrons or quasiparticles with fake masses, and they must always exist everywhere using parallel worlds.
So unsolvable Schrödinger equation for multi-electron atoms and molecules are useless and meaningless ( this p.3, this p.11, this p.6 ).
To seemingly calculate this fictitious indistinguishable electron spreading over all places, an unrealistic quantum mechanical approximate method called density functional theory (= DFT, or Kohn-Sham theory ) was artificially invented, and the most-widely used as the quantum mechanical approximation.
This DFT approximate quantum mechanical methods outrageously replace useless many-electron Schrödinger equation by "one pseudo-electron model" ( this p.3 ) with fictional effective pseudo-potential ( this p.12-13 ).
The current most popular physical calculation method DFT very roughly replaces the useless multi-electron Schrödinger equation by one-pseudo-electron DFT approximate model ( this p.2, = this pseudo-one-electron DFT has No physical reality, this last, this p.15 ) with effective pseudo-potential energy ( this p.15, this p.1-lower, this p.3-middle-lower ) and unreal pseudo-kinetic energy ( this p.8-last-paragraph ).
↑ All pseudo-energies and one-pseudo-electron wavefunctions are fake with No physical reality in this DFT quantum mechanical approximation ( this p.27 ), hence No practical application ( this p.1-right-last paragraph ).
This DFT's pseudo-potential energy is called "exchange-correlation energy functionals (= irrelevant to real atomic physical energies )" whose exact universal form is still unknown ( this p.8, this p.2 ).
Physicists have to artificially choose arbitrary pseudo-potential or exchange correlation energy functionals (= with artificially-adjustable parameters ) out of infinite choices ( this p.1-left, ).
↑ So quantum mechanics or its most-widely used DFT approximation is Not a successful theory but just an ad-hoc pseudo-model which cannot predict any physical values just by choosing pseudo-potential energies and adjusting artificial parameters ( this p.2, this p.23-last, this 3rd-paragraph ).
No matter what pseudo-potential energies or exchange-correlation functionals physicists choose, there are always cases where those chosen pseudo-potential energies miserably fail or disagree with facts ( this p.17, this p.1-left-last-paragraph, )
This unphysical quantum mechanical approximation called density functional theory (= DFT ) which pseudo-model outrageously replacing all many-electron material by one-electron pseudo-density model is the most widely used in all the latest applied science. ← This is why all the current basic and applied science stops progressing due to quantum mechanical pseudo-model
Sadly, the unphysical pseudo-one-electron approximate quantum mechanical method = Density functional theory or DFT is the only calculation method used in all the current basic and applied science such as physics, solid-condensed matter, quantum chemistry, protein, semiconductor-computer industry, drug development, cancer research (= quantum mechanical biology or medicine is just an impractical pseudoscience, Not a real biology ).
It's impossible for one-pseudo-electron model (= hence, one-pseudo-atom model ) DFT approximate method to describe actual chemical and molecular reactions where multiple different atoms, molecules and electrons are always moving in different directions from one atom to another atom (= for which we should use realistic atomic models dealing with different atoms or electrons differently and separately ), so quantum mechanical methods are useless forever.
The present physicists stop scientific advancement by wasting their time in trying to find (nonexistent) illusory universal pseudo-potentiel energy or dreamlike exact exchange correlation functional using only one pseudo-electron (= allegedly usable in any situations of any arbitrary numbers of electrons and atoms ) in DFT, in vain ( this p.1, this p.1, this p.2 ).
Because DFT contains only one independent variable representing only one pseudo-electron's position, which is inherently unable to represent actual many-electron materials represented by many independently-changeable electrons' variables (= finding dreamlike universal exact exchange-correlation functional of DFT is impossible forever ).
Actually, this most-popular quantum mechanical approximation = DFT is known to miserably fail in many cases and predictions.
DFT's pseudo-kinetic energy fails to generate the sufficient antisymmetric Pauli repulsion or molecular attraction, because DFT tries to divide its fictitious one pseudo-electron into multiple non-interacting sub-electrons to give each kinetic energy or exchange energy between different atoms, its DFT fictitiously-divided sub-electron (= needed to cause the exchange energies such as molecular attractive bonds and Pauli repulsion ) is unrealistically weaker and more diluted, as the number of atoms they handle increases.
↑ In spite of this useless and defective quantum mechanical methods, physicists never try to escape from this meaningless unphysical quantum mechanical quagmire in order only to protect their academic old vested interests surrounding fantasy mainstream quantum mechanical theory..
↑ This is why all the current applied science miserably stops progressing stuck in the harmful quantum mechanical pseudo-model.
(Fig.24) Exchange, correlation functionals can be "freely" chosen.
Quantum mechanical rough and false approximation called DFT uses only one fictitious electron, so it needs to replace ordinary Schrödinger equation's kinetic and potential energies among many electrons by fictional non-interacting pseudo-electron's kinetic energy and pseudo-potential ( one pseudo-electron in DFT causes unphysical self-interaction ) called exchange-correlation functional.
The problem is there is No universal pseudo-potential or legitimate rule to choose this pseudo-potential = exchange-correlation functional ( this p.4-5 ). It means we can choose any forms of fake potential energy, which cannot predict any real values.
In DFT, we need to artificially choose
No matter what fake potential and solution you choose, you always encounter many cases where DFT calculation is unable to explain experimental values ( this p.17, this p.1, this p.2 ).
Each time DFT calculation fails to predict physical values, physicists have to invent and choose other pseudo-potentials = new exchange-correlation functionals, artificially adjusting free parameters by comparing them with experimental results ( this p.3 ).
So DFT is useless with No ability to predict any physical values ( this p.21 ), though almost all the current condensed matter researches rely on this unphysical DFT as the only quantum mechanical calculation tool and meaninglessly try to find illusory universal pseudo-potential. → Science stops progressing now.
(Fig.25) ↓ A single photon is bigger than 1000 meter !? ← unreal
A photon is often said to be an elementary particle of light or electromagnetic wave.
But No one can answer even basic questions "What size and shape is each photon particle ?"
Textbooks always show the picture of electromagnetic wave, and call the light wave "photon", perfunctorily.
If there was a rigid particle called "photon", the photon particle could be as Big as 1000 meter in a radio wave (= one of electromagnetic wave, so a photon ? ) with extremely long wavelength ?
We could easily touch and see such an uncanny photon (= if it existed ) as Big as 1000 meter = wavelength of long radio light wave ! ← It's impossible.
So an imaginary photon, which has the wave-like wavelength, is Not a particle but just a light wave traveling through medium like other sound and water waves.
All observed phenomena such as light interference, diffraction, refraction, light speed change based on medium prove light is wave, a photon particle cannot explain any of these phenomena including light polarization (= an illusory photon has a sharp shape, and points in various directions mimicking observed polarized light wave ? ← Impossible ! )
In fact, a photon was introduced as a kind of fictitious quasiparticle interacting with other unreal quasiparticles in the current imaginary condensed matter physics or quantum mechanics.
So there is No such thing as a photon. A photon is just light wave.
Actually, the present mainstream (unphysical) quantum field theory only shows an abstract unphysical math operator (= a†, b† .. = unobservable math objects ) as a (fictitious) particle = photon without showing any detailed shape. ← There is No such thing as a photon.
Furthermore, the present quantum field theory or quantum electrodynamics claim an electron can emit or absorb only unreal virtual photons with unreal imaginary mass. ← The present quantum mechanical photon is a contradictory and unreal particle.
If the light wave is really an "indivisible photon particle" as quantum mechanics claims, it is impossible to explain a single photon interference in double-slit experiments in a realistic way.
According to the confusing quantum mechanical photon's theory, a single unbreakable photon particle must paradoxically split into two fictional parallel universes or multiverse to pass through two slits simultaneously (= called superposition ) and interfere with itself ( this p.2 ).
Basically, a fictitious photon lacks reality.
It is said that a (fictitious) photon particle has conveniently the same property such as polarization, wavelength (= if a photon is really a rigid particle, it cannot have an artificial arrow-like polarization or wavelength, though ), frequency and interference as an ordinary electromagnetic light wave.
↑ So such an uncanny photon is unnecessary, there is only the realistic electromagnetic light wave which can naturally have the wave property such as polarization, wavelength and interference, as Lamb said "there is No such thing as a photon (this p.18 )".
Actually, all textbooks show only the classical polarized light wave (= Not a particle ) pictures as a (fictitious) photon ( even in the illustration of photoelectric effect, they use the ordinary light "wave" picture instead of an illusory photon "particle" ). ← these photons are clearly "wave", Not particles at all.
Quantum mechanics is unable to give a concrete shape and size to each illuosory photon, instead, it just shows the abstract nonphysical math symbols as a fictitious photon ( this p.5, this p.6, this p.78 ).
The point is that the so-called single photon detector can Not detect an illusory photon itself.
A single photon detector can measure only electrons' current excited by light wave (= Not a fictitious photon ) by the photoelectric effect, which means the photoelectric effect is Not a proof of a ghost-like photon particle itself.
Even if a fictitious photon (= which is just very weak light wave ) hits a single photon detector, it has No power to generate electrons' current enough to tell us a photon is detected (= the present quantum field theoy says each electron can interact only with unreal virtual photons. this p.13 ← A photon lacks reality ).
They need to apply some amount of ( bias ) voltage to the photodetector in order to generate electrons' current enough to be a detectable signal, excited by the incident light.
We can freely adjust and change this applied bias voltage which needs to exceed the threshold (breakdown) voltage. ← This is a trick of how an unrealistic ghost photon seems to appear.
It means the existence of a fictitious photon is just an artifact created artificially by the photodetectors freely adjusting the so-called photon detection efficiency or probability ( this p.2 ) with changeable excess bias voltage, so that the light or photon whose intensity is weaker than the adjusted threshold cannot be detected and ignored ( this p.5, this figure.3, this p.2-left-lower ).
When the (excess) overvoltage (= difference between the applied bias and the threshold-breakdown voltages ) is bigger, it can increase the photon (= just weak light ) detection efficiency = increase the chance of detecting a photon ( this p.5 ).
The problem is that this photon detection efficiency is very low, usually less than 50 % (= in most cases, a detector cannot detect a single photon, even when a photon or weak light enters the detector, this p.3, this p.4 ).
Furthermore, even when No target photon enters the detector, the photodetector often mistakingly detects an irrelevant dark photon, light or thermal fluctuation as dark counts.
To avoid detecting irrelevant light as dark counts, they need to increase the incident photon or light intensity, because if they increase the bias voltage to make it easier to detect weaker photons, the false dark count rate (= DCR ) also becomes higher ( this p.2 ). ← The precise detection of a single (illusory) photon itself is impossible.
When a very weak light or a fictitious photon splits into two weaker lights at two slits or a beam splitter, these split weaker lights with lower intensity is less likely to be detected by the photodetector (= Hence, it is very hard to detect those two split weaker lights or photons at the same time. = each "photon" or weaker light is seemingly detected as one click or a ghost photon signal with extremely lower detection efficiency ).
Due to the artificially-adjusted detection threshold, the very weak light or fictitious photon with weaker light intensity is harder to detect in the single-photon detector ( this p.4-6, this p.11 ), even when a weak light ( or a fictitious photon ) is actually split into two weaker light for interferencce, which lower detection efficiency gives a false impression that a single ghost photon is indivisible in double-slit interference.
And when those weaker split lights meet and interfere with each other constructively again, the light intensity becomes stronger enough for a photodetector to detect as a (fictitious) photon signal in the form of electrons' current.
↑ This is the true mechanism of the paradoxical interference of a fictitious single photon, which is just an ordinary weak classical light wave interference combined with the photodetector whose detection threshold voltage can be freely adjusted.
We don't need the fantasy concepts such as quantum mechanical pararell worlds and "rewiting or changing the past" for the photon or light to interfere with itself, because a photon itself is just a splittable ordinary light wave, Not a fictitious indivisible particle.
As shown in the fact that quantum mechanics started to say contradictory things "An originally-indivisible single photon particle can "split" into several photon particles." ← nonsense.
(Fig.26) Electron is ejected at some light "wave" frequency.
Textbooks often insist Einstein photoelectric effect proved light is a (fictitious) photon particle. But this claim is completely baseless and unscientific.
In photoelectric effect, when light with energy proportional to "light wave frequency" shines on a metal, the high-energy light is absorbed into a metallic electron which is resultantly ejected from the surface of a metal.
All they can detect is this "electron (= Not a fictional photon ! )" ejected by light wave. A photon particle itself can never be observed or detected.
Photoelectric effect has a close relationship with light wave frequency which equals light speed divided by light wavelength. ← All these concepts such as light wave frequency and wavelength show photoelectric effect proved "light is wave", Not an imaginary photon particle.
In fact, according to quantum field theory, each electron cannot interact with a real photon. A electron absorbs or emits only an unreal virtual photon with imaginary mass also in official interpretation of photoelectric effect, hence a real photon has nothing to do with photoelectric effect ( this p.15 ).
Because the ratio of an incident photon's (= light ) momentum to energy is completely different from the ratio of a target electron's momentum to energy. ← Conserving both total energy and momentum is impossible when an electron absorbs a real photon or a fictitious light particle ( this p.10 ). → Unreal virtual photon must be absorbed by an electron in photoelectric effect !
Compton light scattering or effect is also said to prove the existence of an imaginary photon particle. ← This is untrue Compton effect has No connection to a photon particle, either.
In Compton scattering, when incident light hits and reflects off an electron, the light wavelength becomes longer, losing energy, but keeping the constant light speed c.
↑ If a photon is a rigid particle, a photon losing its energy by hitting and bouncing off an electron has to decelerate, decreasing its light speed instead of elongating its wavelength (= a rigid photon particle cannot shrink or be elongated just by bouncing off something ! ).
As a result, both photoelectric and Compton effect proved light is "electromagnetic wave", Not a photon particle which completely contradicts actually-observed phenomena.
To understand both these important phenomena correctly, we need to consider light as a kind of "oscillating wave" in the medium both in the transverse and longitudinal (= moving ) directions.
The light oscillating energy stored in the transverse (= polarized ) direction which is perpendicular to the light moving direction tends to be absorbed in an electron (= an electron also stores its kinetic energy as a form of de Broglie oscillating wave in the common medium ) in photoelectric effect.
Light oscillating in the transverse direction (= perpendicular to the light moving direction ) has almost zero average momentum (= due to moving back and forth in transverse direction = total average momentum of light in the transverse direction is almost zero, because two momentums in the opposite directions = back and forth cancel out each other to be zero ).
But the light oscillation in the transverse directon has high energy enough to excite an electron through interaction between light and de Broglie wave, which is compatible with conservation of total energy and momentum without relying on unreal virtual photons.
The average momentum of an electron orbiting around a nucleus inside an atom is also zero, because an electron is moving back and forth around a nucleus (= two momentums in the opposite directions = back and forth, cancel out each other, giving zero average electron's momentum like light oscillating in the transverse direction ).
As a result, using classical light wave and electron's de Broglie wave, a real electron can naturally absorb and emit real light wave in photoelectric effect conserving energy and momentum, without relying on unreal virtual photons of quantum mechanics.
And light propagating in the longitudinal direction hits and reflects off a target particle in Compton effect which does not absorb the whole light (= so light reflects off an electron without being absorbed ).
In the process of this Compton scattering between the light wave and electron, the light hitting an electron slightly loses its energy ( by pushing the target electron a little ) and elongates light wavelength (= light oscillating medium slightly loses its oscillating energy and frequency by pushing a target electron, hence, elongating its light wavelength ).
This is a realistic interpretation of photoelectric and Compton effects by light wave interacting with an electron with No contradictions or virtual particles.
Quantum mechanics avoids detailed mechanism of how exactly a fictitious photon interacts with an electron due to contradictory quantum mechanical picture.
(Fig.27) electric current illuminated by light = a photon ?
In fact, the so-called single photon detector can Not detect a photon particle itself.
A photon detector uses photoelectric effect, which means it just detects electrons ejected by light wave (= imaginary photon ? ) as electric current ( this p.7 ).
So the claim that a photon particle could be detected using photodetector is a total lie. All they can detect is just "electrons" illuminated by light wave.
As a result, there is No evidence of a photon particle.
Light is just electromagnetic wave.
The photodetector can detect the very weak light as a photon, when this weak light's intensity exceeds the "detection threshold" of the photodetector (= some amount of light energy or intensity is necessary for the photodetector to respond to the incident light ).
↑ If a photon is just a weak classical light wave, it can naturally explain why even a single photon can interfere with itself in the two-slit experiment, while a "photon particle" cannot interfere with itself.
Instead of a unbreakable photon particle splitting into fantasy two different quantum parallel worlds, the weak light wave can naturally split into two weaker waves at two slits and interfere with each other. →The intensity of the constructively interfered light can exceed the threshold needed to trigger the photodetector. → the light wave after interfering is detected as a photon ( by seeing electrons ejected by classical light ).
If the total amount or light intensity of the weak classical light in the system is very small, it looks like we can detect only "one photon (= a photon is just "weak classical light" with some light intensity which exceeds the detection threshold of the photodetector )" at the photodetector at the same time.
But actually the seeming photon (= just weak classical light "wave", Not a unbreakbale photon particle ) can split into multiple weaker lights ( most of these split weaker lights are too weak to detect at the photodetector, only one of split weaker lights can be detected as a seeming photon at the photodetector by exceeding the light intensity detection threshold ) and interfere with earh other.
This is a "photon" trick. There is No such thing as a photon particle. A photon is just a very weak classical light wave which can split into multiple weaker lights (= one of which weaker lights may exceed the light intensity detection threshold and be detected as a photon ) and interfere with each other without fantasy quantum parallel worlds.
The existence of such an imaginary photon particle completely depends on "what threshold detection voltage" scientists choose in a single photon detector which just detects classical light with some intensity exceeding some freely-adjustable detection threshold voltage applied in the photon detector ( this p.9 upper )
Classical light entering the photon detector is more likely to be "counted" as a (imaginary) photon particle, when the difference (= excess ) between detection bias voltage and breakdown voltage, both of which voltages are freely adjustable, increases ( this p.4, this 7-8th paragraphs, ).
Scientists have to artificially discriminate unnecessary photons (= false or dark count ) caused by other weak lights or irrelevant heat, while increasing photon detection efficiency, which they "desire", by manipulating detection threshold voltage ( this p.10, this p.3-right-lower, this p.2-lower ).
This 4th paragraph about the detection threshold of a single photon detector says,
"The single photon generates charge carriers in the optical detector, which is the most important component in the single photon sensor. The photocurrent caused by these charge carriers is amplified by a broadband low-noise amplifier. The output of the amplifier is a voltage pulse that can typically have an irregular shape. Once a portion of this pulse exceeds a threshold voltage, it is usually assumed a single photon has been detected."
Depending on the different incident light intensity (of weak classical light wave or a fictitious photon ), the detection threshold voltage (= which can be adjusted artificially ) of a single photondetector changes ( this p.5-6 ) to detect weak light as a ( fictitious ) photon.
(Fig.28) An orbiting electron does Not lose energy.
Bohr's realistic atomic model could successfuly explain all experimental energy levels of hydrogen-like atoms and ions perfectly ( this last ).
You may often see the boring cliche "all accelerating electrons radiate and lose energy in classical orbits", so Bohr's hydrogen could be unstable.
This logic is completely unscientific and wrong. So Bohr's orbit is stable, Not radiating energy, as long as an electron is orbiting around a nucleus in a normal orderly way.
To be more specific, "a single accelerated electron ( like in Bohr's hydrogen ) does Not radiate or lose energy."
Only when many electrons are accelerated and colliding with each other in a disorderly way, as seen in alternating currents, they radiate and lose energy.
So the misconception that "accelerating" electron losing energy does Not apply to the Bohr model, as long as its electron is moving in an orderly and stable way conserving total energy between a nucleus and an electron, avoiding destructive interference of electron's de Broglie wave.
Actually, Bohr model won the most prestigious Nobel prize, after its scientific legitimacy was admitted as correct by the then academia. ← The misconception that Bohr's atom losing eneregy was just an excuse made up later to justify unrealistic quantum mechanics.
If the textbook's explanation that every accelerating electron becomes unstable losing energy is right, even quantum mechanical electron which also has kinetic energy (= so quantum mechanical electron is also moving around accelerated by a nucleus ! ) becomes unstable radiating energy. ← self-contradiction.
(Fig.29) Bohr model electron is Not falling into nucleus.
In fact, if a single accelerating electron loses energy, the single electron must consist of many smaller fictitious charges as seen in a spherical conductor in the upper figure.
So Bohr's atomic electron which is an indivisible negative charge does Not radiate or lose energy just by moving around the nucleus in an orderly and periodic way.
The theory of an accelerated charge radiating energy uses "electric energy density field" (= energy = 1/2εE2 ) stored in vacuum around spherical conductor packing many smaller repulsive charges ( this p.4, this p.2 ).
This energy density in electric field equals the amount of energy required to pack many repulsive smaller charges into the same spherical conductor.
So if a single accelerated electron really radiates and loses energy while it orbits around a nucleus, this single electron must be like a fictitious spherical conductor which collects and packs many smaller negative charges into a single electron's tiny body (= whose electric energy density around a fictitious electron consisting of many smaller charges becomes 1/2εE2 ). ← It's imossible and inconsistent with the fact that a single electron is very stable and unbreakable.
A single electron is an indivisible charged particle, which is Not like a spherical conductor packing many smaller illusory negative charges inside a single electron.
As a result, the idea that Bohr's atomic accelerated electron radiating energy is untrue, based on the false assumption.
(Fig.30) ↓ A electron radiates a virtual photon with imaginary mass !?
In the current mainstream quantum field theory, all interactions between elementary particles are expressed using unphysical abstract lines called Feynman diagrams which tell us nothing about detailed mechanisms of how particles actually touch or interact with each other.
Quantum mechanics says an electron can interact only with unreal unobservable virtual photons (= Not real photons ! ) with unphysical imaginary mass, when electrons emit, absorb (virtual) photons, or apply electromagnetic forces to other charged particles ( this p.16 ).
Why cannot each electron interact with a real photon (= light ) for explaining light absorption or force interaction according to unrealistic quantum mechanics ( this p.7,8 ) ?
Because the ratios of energy (= E ) to momentum (= p ) are different between an electron and light (= a photon ? ) due to different masses of an electron and a photon (= an electron is much heavier than a photon ).
So if Einstein relativity is right (= if there is no space "medium" mediating forces ), the physics needs unreal virtual particles or virtual photons interacting with real electrons with unreal imaginary masses (= if total energy and momentum are conserved between a electron and an emitted photon ) which violate Einstein's mc2 mass-energy relation ( this p.6, this p.5, this p.3 ) or violating energy conservation law ( this p.10, this p.3 ) against the fact that all real particles must always conserve total energies and momentums ( this 5th-paragraph, this 5th-paragraph ) !
↑ The current mainstream quantum field theory includes self-contradiction, so false ( this 6-8th paragraphs ).
Quantum field theory or quantum electrodynamics (= QED ) are just unphysical theory whose unreal virtual particles with impossible imaginary masses ( this p.18 ) or negative kinetic energies are also nonphysical math symbols with No concrete physical shapes which pseudo-quantum theory tells us nothing about the detailed physical mechanism, so completely useless and No relation to our real world ( this p.6-lower, this p.13 ).
Actually, No scientists are using this useless quantum field theory for our daily-life application.
↑ The present relativistic quantum field theory and QED requiring unreal virtual particles for explaining physical forces are self-contradicotry (= virtual particles contradict Einstein famous relativistic mc2 mass-energy relation, this p.10-11, this p.4-2nd-last-paragraph, this p.4 ), hence wrong theories.
Maxwell first discovered classical light also has pressure or momentum (= p ) equal to E/c (= E is light energy, c is light speed ), so the famous photon's momentum and energy relation p = E/c was first introduced by Maxwell (= Not Einstein ) using classical electromagnetic wave in 1880s ( this 3rd paragraph ).
Using the original momentum relation ( p = mc, m is mass, c is the light velocity ) and classical Maxwell equation's p = E/c ( momentum p=mc=E/c → energy E = mc2 ), we can conclude light or "field energies" also has mass expressed by E = mc2 (← this is Maxwell's version of authentic mc2, Not Einstein's phony mc2. It's a famous story that Einstein relativity was created by looking at classical Maxwell electromagnetic wave theory. this 2nd-last paragraph ).
Einstein's relativistic mass energy includes fatal paradoxes, so wrong.
In the Einstein's unscientific relativistic world, there are No absolute space or No absolute usable physical values, hence all things such as particle's masses, velocities and energies are just "illusory relative values" changing paradoxically seen by different observers moving at different speeds.
So if this paradoxical Einstein relativity (= with No absolute space, things are all relatively changing ) was right, atomic energies (= which actually do Not need Einstein mc2 theory, this 5th-last sentence ) could be magically decreased or increased depending on different observers' motions, which is impossible ( this p.48-49 ).
Einstein's idea that the relativistic masses of moving objects (= seen by some stationary observers ) magically appear to increase by the occult time dilation contradicts the inviolable fundamental physical laws of mass conservation where particle's mass must Not be created out of nothing or vanish spontaneously.
Actually, even Einstein and his relativistic theory try to avoid the impossible notion that a moving particle's mass could magically increase without some external things added to them ( this Or Does it ? ).
Einstein relativistic mass also contradicts relativistic QED which needs unreal virtual particles as force carriers. ← These nonphysical virtual particles' imaginary masses indicate virtual particles could move unrealistically faster than light like non-existent tachyons ( this 3rd-last paragraph ), which contradicts Einstein relativity forbidding any particles from moving faster than light.
In order to explain why it is harder to accelerate particles moving faster as if their masses increase (= actually Not ), we need some "external things" or surrounding medium filling space (= needed to cause a single electron's interference and Coulomb electric forces between two distant charges ) which tend to resist the particles moving faster and colliding with it (= it's impossible to explain the magical mass increase without supposing external things or medium or violating mass conservation law ).
Even a single electron particle was observed to interfere with itself in two-slit experiments, which is the obvious fact. ← It's impossible that a single unbreakable electron particle alone causes the experimentally-verified interference in two-slit experiment.
↑ Without external medium, a single inseparable electron must unrealistically split into multiple fantasy parallel worlds to pass through two slits at once and interfere with itself, which unscientific quantum mechanical and Einstein relativistic crazy world is unaccetable.
Atomic energies (= often mentioned in energy mc2 ) are a kind of potential energies (= Not kinetic energies, so observers' motions or relativity are irrelevant to atomic energies ) like Coulomb forces.
↑ Atomic potential energies must have definite absolute values regardless of different observers (= if atomic energies magically decrease or increase seen by different observers, we cannot utilize atomic energies as useful energy source in our daily life ) which definite potential energies must need the existence of some medium (= instead of unreal virtual particles ) surrounding particles interacting with distant particles.
The original Maxwell's authentic mc2 obtained by classical electromagnetic wave theory, which needs medium (= actually Not denied by Michelson-Morley experiment ), can apply to all particles and matter waves moving through or interacting with the space field or space medium by Coulomb or nuclear potential energies.
This mass of light wave is stored in the medium as oscillating energy which can perfectly explain atomic potential energy (= potential energy is stored in the medium surrounding particles ) and apparent (relativistic) mass increase (= as an electron moves faster, its kinetic energy is increasingly stored in the medium as de Broglie oscillating wave energy, increasing resistance and apparent electron's mass ) of a faster electron related to Bohr-Sommerfeld' fine structure energy splitting.
Einstein unreasonably copied and modified Maxwell's original light wave energy equation of E = mc2 in the wrong way, started to say contradictory things; "Light has zero mass, but has momentum !" ← Nonsense.
↑ This Einstein crazy idea that even light with zero mass has momentum is self-contradictory, hence, wrong, because the momentum is expressed as a particle's mass times velocity (= when the mass is zero, the momentum must be zero according to the original definition of momentum ).
Even if we insert light's zero rest mass ( m =0 ) and constant light speed v = c into Einstein relativistic energy and momentum relation, contradictory things happen = any light waves with any different wavelengths (= which should have different light energies and momentums ) turn out to have the same common constant light energy and momentum regardless of light wavelengths or frequencies.
↑ So if Einstein relativistic mass relation is true, various different lights with different wavelengths cannot have different energies or momentums. ← All lights have the common same energy ! ← Impossible.
When two electrons are interacting with electric force or light (= both of which are unreal virtual photons ), the total energy and momentum must be conserved.
But an electron cannot emit or absorb a photon with different ratios of momentum to energy by conserving both momentum and energy, so a virtual photon interacting with a real electron has to have unreal imaginary mass to conserve both total momentum and energy.
To avoid unreal virtual photons interacting with electrons, we have to accept the existence of real medium in space as real force and light wave carriers, and accept the idea that electromagnetic wave's oscillating energy in the transverse (= polarization ) direction is absorbed ( or emitted ) by an electron moving around a nucleus via de Broglie wave, which is also storing electron's kinetic energy as oscillating energy.
An atomic electron is moving back and forth around a nucleus by Coulomb attractive force between the orbiting electron and nucleus, so total average momentum of an electron orbiting around a nucleus is almost zero (= two momentums in the opposite directions = back and forth cancel out each other to be zero average momentum of an orbiting electron ), which is close to the ratio of light's (almost zero ) momentum to (large) energy.
On the other hand, in the present relativistic quantum field theory without allowing the existence of the surrounding medium, an electron must directly emit an unreal virtual photon with imaginary mass from the inside of the electron's body to conserve the total energy and momentum between an electron and an emitted photon. ← This is impossible.
Hence, using real light wave model whose energy is stored in the medium, an electron can naturally absorb real light wave where both of an orbiting electron and light wave have the almost same ratio of momentum to eneregy inside an atom, without relying on virtual photons.
(Fig.31) ↓Coulomb, Higgs depend on fictional virtual particles.
In fact, according to today's mainstream quantum field theory and particle physics, all interactions and forces between all particles are said to happen through unreal virtual particles with imaginary masses which disagree with Einstein relativistic mass energy relation ( this p.5 ).
All these forces and interactions between particles are described by unphysical Feynman diagrams which are too abstract to clarify detailed underlying mechanism. ← So the basic science stops progressing, stuck in unrealistic model.
So in the current unphysical quantum field theory and quantum electrodynamics based on useless abstract Feynman diagrams which are just unphysical math theories with No relation to our real world ( this p.21 ), all unstable doubtful particles such as unseen fractional-charge quarks ( this p.3 ), weak force of W bosons ( this p.4 ), Higgs ( this p.7 ), virtual particles mediating them are unreal useless particles described by nonphysical abstract math symbols with No concrete shapes.
When a neutron decays into a proton and an electron in beta decay, fictitious weak force and virtual weak (= W ) boson are said to be generated in this neutron beta decay.
Quantum mechanical explanation of this beta decay is so unrealstic that they claim a neutron can decay into a almost-same-mass proton and far bigger W boson which is said to be 80 times heavier than the original neutron !
↑ This is impossible, because a ligher particle (= neutron ) cannot emit a heavier particle (= W boson ) due to violating mass conservation.
But the current insane particle physics claims much heavier W boson can be produced from much ligher neutron ( or proton ), flagrantly.
So this dubious extremely heavier W boson allegedly involved in neutron beta decay must be an unreal virtual particles (= violating Einstein mass relation, this p.8, so self-contradictory ) which can never be detected like a ghost, so weak force or W boson are scientifically meaningless, and Not proved yet.
Imaginary fracional-charge quarks which can never be isolated or identified are also said to rely on unreal virtual gluons and sea quarks for generating nuclear strong force (= this true detailed mechanism remains unknown due to undetectable fractional-charge quarks, unreal virtual gluons and the unphysical mathematical quantum field theory, this p.223 ).
Also inside wasteful gigantic particle colliders, collisions of protons (= composed of unseen quarks ) are said to produce unreal virtual particles before they quickly change into other particles such as Higgs which is also undetectable, too.
Furthermore, also in condensed matter physics, fictitious virtual quasiparticles are said to mediate other electrons and nuclear interactions inside superconductors and semiconductors. ← nonsense.
As shown here, the current mainstream quantum mechanics relies so heavily on fictional virtual particles in all interactions that clarifying underlying true physical mechanism is an impossible dream forever, as long as we accept contradictory, useless quantum mechanical virtual concepts.
(Fig.32) Quantum mechanics cannot handle multi-electron material.
Due to the current unrealistic impractical basic atomic theory called quantum mechanics, all applied science miserably stops progressing which important facts are hidden from ordinary people by the media and academia for protecting their old vested interests around the "(deadend) mainstream science".
Physicists are obsessed only with unscientifically explaining all observed phenomena by unreal pseudo-particles called quasiparticle model ( this 2nd paragraph ).
Quantum mechanical quasiparticle's pseudo-models, which physicists have heavily relied on for as long as 100 years, are Not even real particles ( this 1st-paragraph, this 3rd-paragraph ), hence, these unrealistic quasiparticles can never be isolated or utilized as real particles. = so quasiparticles are useless forever.
Ridiculously, these unrealistic quasiparticles are still being used as one of the most popular quantum mechanical pseudo-models even in the latest physical researches such as semiconductor computer industry, nanotechnology, superconductor, molecular machine learning, solar energy technology, quantum biology, even imaginary fake-antiparticles and dark matter field,
You can understand these quasiparticles contradict reality by seeing quantum mechanics illogically claim these quasiparticles could have the impossible negative mass and fractional-charges (= e/3, e/5 called 'anyon' or Majorana quasiparticle, against the fact that the elementary smallest charge "e" is unbreakable, this p.8 ), and even the elementary smallest particle = electron could be magically split into multiple (illusory) quasiparticles according to these pseudo-quantum mechanical model.
According to quantum mechanical ridiculous logic, even unrealistic magnetic monopole (= only north or south magnetic pole ) could exist as fictitious quasiparticles to falsely explain some complex magnetic field and atomic orientations inside some materials called spin ice ( this 5th-last paragraph ).
↑ Those fake mangetic monopole quasiparticles are Not real fundamental particles ( this p.1-middle ), so meaningless and useless pseudo-models.
This quantum mechanical pseudo-quasiparticle model makes another paradoxical claim that massless quasiparticles could be slower than light speed contradicting another mainstream theory = Einstein relativity.
Of course, these unrealistic and contradictory quasiparticles themselves can Neither be directly observed nor isolated, hence quasiparticles are useless and meaningless concepts unusable for any applied science such as medicine.
But physicists have had No choice but to try to "imagine" these illusory particles as an ad-hoc means to model and explain observed macroscopic phenomena in vain within the current impractical quantum mechanical atomic model which clarifies No reality.
↑ This is why our scientific progress has stopped for more than 100 years, as long as quantum mechanical pseudo-model is used as (fictitious) underlying atomic model, and physicists never try to replace these pseudo-quasiparticle model by real particles such as electrons, because the contradictory quantum mechanics is unable to deal with any multi-electron atomic phenomena.
Most ordinary people may Not have heard about the terrible fact that even the latest physics actually makes No progress, stuck in unrealistic quantum mechanical quasiparticle pseudo-model, because the media is flooded with a lot of misleading science news desperately trying to hide this important fact.
If you see some original scientific papers, you can easily find most of the present researches rely on these fictitious quasiparticle model with fake effective mass (= these fictitious masses are freely adjustable parameters, hence No ability to predict any physical values ) where each particles are just expressed as nonphysical math symbols which abstract meaningless expressions tell us nothing about detailed underlying physical mechanisms ( this p.2, this p.6, this p.7 ).
All these quantum mechanical calculations rely on unscientific one-pseudo-electron approximation called density functional theory (= DFT ) which methods just artificially choose fake pseudo-potential energies or functionals ( this p.2 right, this p.4 method ), hence all these quantum mechanical calculation methods are useless with No ability to predict any physical values.
Recently, physicists fruitlessly try to apply these illusory quasiparticles to another illusory field = parallel-world quantum computers which can never be realized, as seen in the recent retracted Microsoft fictional Majorana quasiparticles.
All these unrealistic and impractical pseudo-models rampant even in the latest researches originate in the fact that the quantum mechanical Schrödinger equations and its wavefunction = electron clouds cannot describe real particles and wave.
Schrödinger equation of quantum mechanics has fatal flaws, it cannot handle any multi-electron materials, because it cannot generate even the most important Coulomb electric force enough to form molecular bonds.
So quantum mechanics has to rely on "cheating" even by violating energy conservation law and outrageously assigning each single electron to all different atoms inside a material simultaneously using fantasy parallel worlds to generate fake molecular bond and Pauli repulsive energies through artifically-introduced unphysical concept called "exchange interactioon."
This fictitious exchange energy which cannot be described by any real objects or forces such as electromagnetic forces, demands that all electrons should unrealistically exist in any different places (= called superposition ) at once as uncanny indistinguishable particles.
So quantum mechanics started to use very rough and inaccurate arpproximation called "band model and DFT calculation", where all different electrons inside material are treated like one single illusory particle floating in all atoms at once.
This unrealistic quantum linear band model allegedly contains only one pseudo-electron with fake (= called "effective" ) mass designated by pseudo-energy and quasi-momentum, which means the band model cannot specify each particle's position (= because there is only one fake electron spreading over all atoms inside material ), hence impractical quantum mechanical model.
To explain various physical phenomena of material under various electromagnetic fields and temperatures, useless quantum mechanics, which is unable to handle more than one real electrons, has to artificially fabricate unreal quasiparticle model with fake mass and charge ( this p.2 ).
So the current mainstream quantum mechanics has had No ability to describe physical phenomena using real electrons with real mass for a long time, which pseudo-science dominating the current academia and journals stops our real science technology from advancing forever.
(Fig.33) Observe phenomena → Fake quasi-particles model ?
The current condensed matter physcs based on quantum mechanics is filled with fictional concepts such as quasiparticles with negative mass, fractional-charge, magnetic monopole, massless fermion, charge-orbit separation ..
Quasiparticle is a fictitious ghost-like particle which can neither exist nor be isolated from material.
How could physicists conclude that such illusory quasiparticles were found ? ← impossible !
In fact, all physicists can measure is just realistic phenomena such as classical electromagnetic fields and light absorption. ← When they try to explain underlying physical mechanicm behind it, the current only atomic theory = quantum mechanics deliberately misinterprets such real macroscopically-observed phenomena as ones caused by unreal quasiparticles or fictitious negative ( effective ) mass.
For example, they just misinterpreted some measured "electric conductance" as a result of fictitious "fractional-charge quasiparticles."
And by illuminating various materials with classical laser lights and measuring the optical response, physicists jumped to the wrong conclusion that they might have found (unreal) negative mass, charge-orbit separation ( this 4th paragraph ), massless pseudo-particle ( this 8th paragraph ), and solar cells driven by illusory quasiparticles..
So all quantum mechanical researchers are doing now is just measure classical electromagnetic properties such as electric conductance, resistance and absorption of light, and intentionally try to associate those actually-observed physical phenomena with fictitious quantum mechanical model such as quasiparticles with unreal mass or charge. ← nonsense.
Because quantum mechanics has No ability to describe microscopic underlying mechanism using real electrons with real fixed mass and charge from the beginning. → Quantum mechanics had No choice but to rely on "illegitimate cheating", as seen in unphysical exchange energy or virtual particles.
(Fig.34) Quantum mechanical particles (= a†, b†, c† .. ) are just nonphysical symbols with No shape or size.
Quantum mechanics needs fictitious quasiparticle model to explain various observed phenomena.
How does quantum mechanics describe each quasiparticle ?
What shape and size is such a ghost-like quasiparticle ? Is it called science ?
Quantum mechanics can only describe each many-electron material as nonphysical band model which allegedly contains only one single pseudo-electron with fake (= effective ) mass, quasi-momentum and energy. ← Hence, quantum mechanical particle has No position.
Such a quantum mechanical band model with energy-momentum space has No concept of each particle's position (= where each electron exists is uncertain forever ).
So it's meaningless to think about each particle's position, shape, size or how a particle concretely interacts with other particles in a realistic way in quantum mechanics ! ← Such an impractical quantum mechanical model cannot be utilized in any applied science.
In such an unphysical quantum mechanical world, all physicists can to is express each particle such as an electron and a photon (= light ) only as a nonphysical math symbol without giving any physical shape, size or position to each particle.
This means all other fictitious quasiparticles such as phonon ( this p.4 ), Cooper pair, Bogoliubov quasiparticle ( this p.9 ) and exciton ( this p.3 ) are also expressed as nonphysical math symbols with No physical figure.
Such unreal quasiparticles are supposed to have their illusory (= effective ) mass. Even a photon (= a particle of electromagnetic wave ? ) is also known as one of fictitious quasiparticles with unreal effective mass, which were artificially introduced by irrational quantum mechanics.
So there is No realistic picture in any particles or materials depicted by quantum mechanics.
Even now, academia and journals continue to invent new illusory quasiparticles in vain to explain various physical phenomena which useless quantum mechanics cannot explain using real particles.
(Fig.35) Multiple computations using parallel worlds ?
Quantum mechanics is so unscientific as to claim a thing can be in multiple different places simultaneously splitting into fantasy multiple parallel worlds.
This crazy basic physics created a fictional future target called quantum computer which is said to carry out multiple calculations simultaneously using the power of imaginary parallel worlds.
As a result, these illusory quantum computers based on fictional quantum parallel worlds for their illusory speed-up will never be realized or faster than ordinary classical computers we use now.
An ordinary computer bit can takes only one state = 0 or 1 at the same time.
But a quantum bit called qubit is said to be in two different states (= 0 and 1 ) at the same time using splitting parallel worlds, like an illusory dead and alive cat.
But of course, it is impossible to see a single object being in two places or a grotesque dead-alive cat at once. Quantum mechanics makes an excuse that the instant we try to observe such an unrealistic quantum state, it suddenly changes into a single realistic state (= a cat is dead or alive ) from the original imaginary multiple states (or places ). ← Too good to be true.
As a result, all we can observe is a single realistic state or world. ← There is No direct evidence of quantum mechanical parallel worlds or superposition where a thing can be in two different places at once.
Things used as quantum bits (= qubit ) include a photon (= just classical light wave, for example, horizontally polarized light is denoted as "0", vertically polarized light is denoted as "1" ), atomic (= or ion's ) two energy states (= ground state is "0", excited state is "1" ), superconducting two-directional currents (= for example, clockwise current = 0, counterclockwise current = 1 )..
(Fig.36) ↓ No evidence of faster quantum computer
Quantum computer is still useless, Not faster than ordinary classical computers despite an enormous amount of world's taxpayers' money wasted in this fictional quantum computer research for a long time.
The point is the current so-called quantum computer is Not a calculator or computer at all. They are doing completely different things irrelevant to computation.
D-Wave quantum computer turned out to be useless and slower than ordinary computers, contrary to the media-hype.
D-Wave machine is Not a real quantum computer, it's called "adiabatic computer" where physicists just set the system's lowest energy state as solution in advance, and then, gradually let the machine settle down to the lowest-energy state, which primitive process they call "finding solution".
↑ They did Nothing of computation in this D-Wave machine, except they got the machine's state into the most stable (= lowest energy ) state gradually and slowly without any computing.
Google quantum computer allegedly achieving "supremacy" is also useless, not faster, because all they did was just "output random disorderly numbers" (= Not computing any meaningful numbers, hence Not a calculator or computer at all ).
The 3rd last paragraph of this news says "Quantum computers are not ‘supreme’ against classical computers because of a laboratory experiment designed to essentially … implement one very specific quantum sampling procedure with no practical applications."
So they just "output random meaningless numbers" without calculation. ← No quantum computer supremacy in these recent researches.
Just "outputting random numbers" is easy like in these researches.
But calculating and predicting precise "probabilities" of getting those random numbers are extremely difficult and take a great deal of time.
Because there are many factors and different patterns leading to those random numbers. And they claim if ordinary computers try to calculate all probabilites and all patterns resulting in the output random meaningless numbers, it would take an enormous amount of time ( this 4-5th paragraphs ).
↑ This is an unfair comparison, hence they did Not prove quantum computer supremacy at all, because they try to make quantum and ordinary computers do completely different things.
They made the so-called quantum computer do much easier task (= just output meaningless random numbers, which is Not calculation at all ), and made ordinary computers do far more difficult calculation of all probabilities of outputting random meaningless numbers.
So one is just output random numbers, another is calculating the probabilities of outputting random numbers. ← These are completely different tasks which would take different amounts of times.
It's a very unfair comparison. The recent Chinese quantum computer research treating classical light as fictitious photons to claim supremacy is also just outputting random meaningless numbers without calculation. ← these so-called quantum computers are useless and Not faster than ordinary computers at all.
If we make quantum computer do the same calculation (= though still quantum computer cannot do such a practical calculation ) as ordinary computers, and compare their speeds, ordinary computers would surely do calculation much faster and more accurately than fictional quantum computer.
The original goal in quantum computer was to factorize some numbers by calculating mutiple equations simultaneously using imaginary parallel worlds and Shor's algorithm.
But so far, the largest number factored by the so-called quantum computer is just 15 = 3 × 5 or 21 at most (= too small numbers, and No quantum speed-up, this p.2 ).
Furthermore, even this simplest factoring did Not use the original idea of parallel-worlds speeding up quantum computing. So Not faster at all.
Instead, they just classically "recycled" and reset each qubit, doing only one calculation at a time, giving up the original high goal = carrying out many calculations simultaneously using quantum mechanical parallel worlds. ← Hence, it cannot be called "quantum computer".
Other factoring of seemingly large numbers did not calculate Shor's algorithm at all, instead, like D-Wave adiabatic machine (= not faster ), they just set the system's lowest-energy state as fictitious ( already-known ) solutions of factoring in advance ( this p.2 ), and gradually changed the system into the afore-set lowest-energy state ( which destination they call "solution" ) without any computation ( this 6th paragraph ).
In conclusion, the current so-called quantum computer is useless, Not a calculator or computer at all, their research is deadend, making No progress except for the media's fake news misleading people into believing (fictional) quantum computer may be realized in near future, like quantum internet or communication.
(Fig.37) ↓ Electron, photon are just meaningless math symbols.
Quantum mechanics failed to describe actual physical phenomena using real particles or objects.
So quantum mechanics insanely forbids all particles such as an electron, a photon (= light ) and even fictitious quasiparticles from having concrete physical shape. ← Faceless meaningless particles.
Each electron and a photon is described just as a nonphysical meaningless math symbol with No physical figure ( an electron or photon is expressed just as a†, b†, c† .. with fake effective mass, this p.3 ), which too abstract quantum mechanical model tells us nothing about detailed mechanims of atomic behavior.
Quantum mechanics, which obstinately refuses to give concrete shape or size to each electron or a photon (= concrete mechaism of how particles are touching and interacting with each other is unknown forever ! ), is the largest obstacle to development of our science technology now, Not a "successful" theory at all.
The impractical quantum mechanics can only express each particles such as electrons as nonphysical math symbols (= each particle = a†, b†, c†,.. with No detailed shapes or sizes ) with No concrete physical shapes in all physics ( this p.2 ) and condensed matter fields such as semiconductors ( this p.2 ), superconductors ( this p.3 ), band theories ( this p.2 ) with unreal effective mass ( this p.9-right ).
Unscientific quantum mechanics can also only describe fictitious photon particles as nonphysical meaningless math symbols (= each photon = a†, b†,.. = giving No detailed figures of photons, this p.16, this p.8, this p.2-right )
In these nonphysical quantum mechanical particle description, Pauli exclusion principle is also described as nonphysical math description called anticommutation of nonphysical electron particles. which abstract forms give No detailed physical mechanism of Pauli principle, so completely useless ( this p.6-upper (or p.8 ), this p.7 ).
(Fig.38) ↓ Anticommutation = Pauli exclusion principle ?
Relativistic quantum mechanics or quantum field theory allegedly combining quantum mechanics and Einstein special relativity becomes more unrealistic and unphysical.
Quantum mechanics refuses to give concrete physical mechanism of Pauli explusion principle, except for just saying Pauli principle was expressed just as nonphysical antisymmetric wavefunction.
In quantum field theory using relativistic Dirac equation which expresses each electron as a mere abstract math symbol, the mechanism of Pauli exclusion principle is also expressed just as meaningless abstract math relation called anticommutation ( this p.2, this p.7, this p.2 upper, this p.5-lower, this p.16-(54), this p.4, this p.45-47-(3.53), this-(8.2.14),(8.2.22), this 3-5th-paragraphs, this p.2 )
In anticommutation relation allegedly denoting Pauli principle, when two electrons (= c1 ↔ c2 ) are exchanged, the sign is changed. ← That's all. No more detailed explanation of Pauli exclusion repulsion is given by quantum mechanics.
↑ So in this abstract quantum field theory's Pauli principle description, if two electron particles (= expressed as nonphysical math symbols c1 and c2 ) are the same ( c1 = c2 ), those electron particles vanish ( c1c2 = - c2c1, → when c1=c2, → c1c1= - c1c1 → 2(c1)2 = 0 → c1 (and c2 ) = 0, = Pauli exclusion principle !? this p.6 or p.8-upper, this p.6 ) ← Nonsense.
What causes Pauli principle is unknown forever, as long as unphysical quantum mechanics continues to be the mainstream theory.
As you see, unscientific quantum mechanics has given up pursuing deeper physical mechanism for a long time, fearing many self-contradictions and unrealistic aspect inherent in quantum mechanics will be exposed, when we start to look into true underlying mechanism.
(Fig.39) Quantum field theory or electrodynamics (= QED )
In 1920s~, quantum mechanics and Einstein special relativity were united into ( relativistic ) quantum field theory or quantum electrodynamics (= QED ).
In this quantum field theory, all interactions and forces are expressed using abstract Feynman diagrams where unreal virtual particles with imaginary mass are supposed to mediate fictitious forces, which unphysical quantum model can give No more detailed physical mechanism ( this p.7 ), so completely useless.
Particle physics and quantum field theory depend on nonphysical Dirac equation to describe all fermions such as electrons, unseen quarks, antimatters and neutrino.., ← Each particle is given No concrete physical picture by Dirac equation.
The present quantum field theory based on relativistic Dirac equation, Feynman diagram, virtual particles are Not a real physics but just a nonphysical abstract math theory ( this p.2-8, this p.15- ) with No relation to our real world phenomena.
The point is the current mainstream quantum theory has No ability to describe each particle as a real particle with concrete physical shape or size, so true underlying mechanism of relativistic quantum particles remains unknown.
Quantum field theoy exresses each electron ( this p.6 ) and a photon ( this p.21 ) just as nonphysical math symbols (= a†, b†, c† .. = electron or photon ? ) with No physical shape or size.
Using this nonphysical meaningless description of electrons, Pauli principle is also expressed just as nonphysical relation called anticommutation, which abstract mathematical relation tells us nothing about detailed mechaism of how Pauli repulstive force acts on electrons, except for saying exchanging two electrons flips the sign = Pauli repulsion ? ( this p.5-6 ).
This unrealistic quantum field theory leads to the current fantasy extra-dimensional unified theory, a.k.a. "theory of everything" and fictional cosmology, which is useless forever, obstructing our science development, hence preventing curing disease.
"QED is the most successful (← ? ) theory predicting the tiny anomalous magnetic momnet with great precision !" is a total lie. QED is just an illegitimate math trick artificially manipulating infinite free parameters.
(Fig.40) ↓ Unrealistic picture of quantum field theory
The current unphysical quantum field theory describes particles such as electrons and photons just as nonphycial simple math symbols with No physical figures except abstract Feynman diagram ( this p.7, this p.5-8 ), so useless.
Interaction between electrons and photons (= when an electron emits or absorbs light = virtul photon, this p.3 ) is also described by nonphysical representation where an electron symbol and a photon symbol are just put side by side with No more explanation of true physical mechanism ( this p.13, this p.4 ).
Therefore, the current quantum field theory or QED can never clarify concrete physical mechanism of how electrons emit ( virtual ) photons for causing Coulomb force or photoelectric effect. → Quantum field theory and QED are harmful, just stopping our science from progressing forever.
(Fig.41) Fractional-charge quark, Higgs field cannot be detected !
Current standard physics claims there are an unnaturally large number of elementary particles. Most of them are unnecessary illusory particles which do Not even exist, except in particle physicists' heads or the media.
Real elementary particles necessary for our daily life are only electrons and protons ( neutron = proton + electron ). Just these two particles are enough to explain almost all physical phenomena in the universe.
Light wave and neutrino, which always travel at light speed c without slowing down, different from a particle ( as long as traveling in the same medium ), can be considered as "waves" like de Broglie wave produced in the medium around a moving electron, these are Not particles but waves.
All other doubtful particles such as Higgs, quarks, weak bosons, supersymmetric particles, antimatter, muons .. are just illusion. ← Actually, Nobody use these dubious particles in our daily life. ← Unnecessary particles means unreal particles.
Physicists can never isolate those doubtful particles from particle colliders on the pretext that these particles are too unstable, short-lived to isolate. ← nonsense.
Fractional-charge quarks can neither be isolated nor observed.
Physicists falsely and baselessly claim just by colliding electrons or protons with nuclei, they could "conjecture" the existence of illusory fractional-charge quarks.
Particle collision experiment is generally too chaotic, changeable and unstable to jump to a hasty conclusion that new dubious unstable particle might have been found.
↑ Physicists' dubious claim that some unstable short-lived elusive particles might have been found tends to be completely false and baseless, because it's impossible to directly observe such a very short-lived ghost-like particles as Higgs ( this 3rd-paragraph ) and W,Z bosons which are directly unobservable.
To hide uselessness of the present particle physics using these unnecessary unstable ghost-like particles inside colliders, the media and academia often repeat the misleading deceptive claim "particle physics is successful, able to explain various precise physical values !" ← This is untrue.
Because experiments of particle physics based on many randomly-flying irrelevant particles colliding with each other inside colliders are the most chaotic, disorderly and unreliable kinds of experiments, unable to conduct rigorous tests or produce precise values.
↑ Almost all particle collision data were meaningless, then, mercilessly discarded regardless of whether the data are irrelevant or not (= because the present collider's instruments have No power to detect or analyze all particle collision reactions ), and particle physicists just conveniently pick up only a small part of the infinite amount of the chaotic collision data to explain some meaningless illusory concepts based on these unreliable chaotic data, which methods can never predict any meaningful precise phyiscal values.
Today's physics artificially fabricated many unreal particles such as virtual sea quarks to explain complicated observed results of nuclear collision experiments ( this p.15, this p.62 ).
New heavy top quark is said to appear only once in several trillion collisions ( this 6th-paragraph ), and soon decay (= lifetime is too short = 10-24 s to confirm directly ). ← too unstable, short-lived to believe, hence it is unreasonable and unscientific to claim new particle was found only from these unrealiable and chaotic particle collision experiments including many irrelevant particles.
When a neutron decays into a proton and an electron in beta decay, very heavier weak (= W ) boson is said to pop out for an extremely short time (= W boson is unseen ).
This weak boson clearly violated mass conservation law, because it is impossible for a lighter neutron to emit far heavier weak boson (= 80 times heavier than a neutron or proton ! ).
So contradictory weak boson, which allegedly appears in neutron beta decay, is just an unreal virtual particle which is irrelevant to very massive weak boson which is said to be indirectly detected inside particle colliders. ← so particle collider experiment irrelevant to actual beta decay is meaningless.
God particle Higgs boson allegedly discovered in LHC is said to give "mass" to other particles. But correctly, Higgs boson has nothing to do with mass, so LHC research is meaningless, again.
The 3rd paragraph of this news says "The Higgs boson does not technically give other particles mass. More precisely, the particle is a quantized manifestation of a field (the Higgs field) that generates mass ( this 5-6th paragraphs )."
↑ So Higgs boson, which was too short-lived to detect directly without giving mass, is meaningless. "Higgs field" around us is supposed to be invisible and undetectable whatever instruments are used. ← Higgs field is also meaningless.
Therefore, all experiments in the present and future gigantic particle colliders are useless and just a waste of huge taxpayers' money, pursuing illusory particles.
Physicists started to pursue new fictional things such as dark photon and fifth force just by looking at irrelevant nuclear reaction in vain.
The important point is that the present particle physics described by standard model (= just nonphysical abstract meaningless math theory ) has No ability to describe real particles with real physical figures
Unnecessary elementary particles such as muons are said to be very unstable, short-lived, easily decaying into other real particles (or wave ) such as electrons and neutrinos.
The only difference between an electron and a very unstable muon is said to be their masses. But knowing the accurate mass of a fictional rare muon is impossible.
To know the exact mass of each new particle such as (illusory) muon, pion.., physicists should have isolated each new particle from other irrelevant particles and measured the momentum and velocity of each alleged new particle, which precise measurement is impossible except for the most abundant electrons and protons (or nuclei ) due to many kinds of irrelevant Coulomb scattering among many irrelevant particles.
↑ Hence, an elusive and highly-unstable muon is Not an elementary particle but just a transient composite particle (= of other particles ).
Or other abundant particles such as high-energy electrons or protons were mistaken for rare, unstable particles such as (illusory) muons, pions and antiparticles, because high-energy experiments such as muons usually generate many high-energy electrons protons, lights which are easily scattered (or collide with electrons of the wall of instrument and excite those other electrons in multiple directions ) by other particles and give false masses in measurement due to the multi-particle Coulomb scattering effect like fake effective masses.
It is impossible to isolate such a very short-lived elusive (fake) elementary particle such as a muon, which is said to appear extremely rarely for just a very short time, from other irrelevant more abundant and stable particles such as electrons, protons, ions.
A doubtful muon was allegedly discovered inside a photo of high-energy cosmic rays in the cloud chamber under magnetic field where many other irrelevant high-energy electrons and protons (= more abundant than rare, short-lived muons ) are flying and mixed. ← A muon can Neither be separated from other irrelevant particles nor confirmed as an independent particle in such a chaotic environment of cloud chambers.
This means each particle is always scattered by other ions, electrons and protons by Coulomb electric force inside a cloud chamber which cannot separate or identify a rare muon only by magnetic field.
Furthermore, even if a muon could be isolated from other irrelevant abundant particles (= though, it's impossible ), the motion (= bending curve of particle's trail ) of the muon under magnetic field gives only information about the particle's momentum (= Neither particle's energy nor mass is known only from cloud chambers. this p.3-upper ).
↑ Cloud chambers can Not give us crucial information about each particle's mass, energy or velocity, hence, we cannot identify a muon as a new elementary particle with a mass different from an electron or proton only from the particle's motion or trail under the magnetic field left inside cloud chambers.
Physicists tried to uncertainly "guess" each particle's mass (= or kinetic energy ) just by seeing vague length of each particle's path or trail left in cloud chamber's photo.
Because they (falsely and baselessly) believed the particle's path length (= left in cloud chamber's photos ) might indicate the particle's kinetic energy (loss), though this relation between particle's energy and its path (or trail ) length is just an ungrounded theory ( this p.20-21, this p.15-lower, this p.3 ).
↑ So their measurement of new (illusory) particles such as muons, pions, antiparticles .. using primitive cloud chamber instruments can Not determine each particle's mass (or energy, velocity ), and the existence of muons, pions, antiparticles.. is Not proved at all.
When producing such a doubtful muon, physicists just collide high-energy protons with target nuclei (= such as graphite and beryllium ), try to isolate muons only under some magnetic field, and claim they might find muons, though they actually do nothing about separating muons from other irrelevant abundant particles ( this p.4, 5 ).
↑ As I said, many irrelevant high-energy abundant particles such as electrons, protons, lights (= always flying at high speeds in different directions ) can easily collide with other particles (= including electrons of the walls of devices ), change their directions by Coulomb scattering and give false masses of (illusory) muons under magnetic fields.
As a result, there is No conclusive evidence that such unnecessary, very short-lived particles as muons were isolated or confirmed ( except inside particle physicists' heads ).
If we really want to confirm the accurate mass of a (fictional) muon, we need to conduct different experiments such as Millikan's oil drop, which experiments are possible only in the most abundant stable electrons, and impossible in very unstable and "rarely-appearing" muons.
So it's safe to say only stable particles and wave such as electrons, protons, light and neutrino are real, all other doubtful unstable elementary particles such as quarks, Higgs, antiparticles, muons, supersymmetric particles .. are unreal and unnecessary for our daily life (= there will be No trouble even if we forget those unneeded particles ).
Quantum chromodynamics (= QCD ) is also an useless, meaningless science just manipulating artificial mass parameters of fictitious quarks, pions, mesons, baryons and nuclei in vain.
(Fig.42) "Symmetry" has NO physical meaning, Higgs is unreal.
Quantum field theory is unrealistic and its Dirac equation is so abstract as to describe all particles such as electron, Higgs, weak boson as nonphysical math symbols with No physical shape.
In order to develop theory in this too unphysical and abstract quantum field equation, physicists had no choice but to increase many illusory elementary particles like quasi-particles in condensed matter.
Another way to develop theory is to artificially set fake targets.
This fake target for useless particle physics is the so-called "symmetry."
According to this artificial rule = symmetry which has nothing to do with real world's phenomena, if under some transformation such as nonphysical phase or gauge transformation, the equation is unchanged, they call it "symmetry. ( this p.11 )" ← Just playing with meaningless concepts "symmetry".
The current useless particle physics or standard model depends on unrealistic unobservable concepts such as "phase", "gauge" and symmetry which have No physical meaning ( this p.2, this p.6, this p.20-23 ), hence, completely meaningless concepts.
In the present ad-hoc unphysical particle theory, there are three kinds of artificial unphysical "phase transformation symmetry" based on different forms of matrix; U1 symmetry (= representing photon, electric force ), SU2 symmetry (= 2×2 matrix representing weak force, this p.12 ), and SU3 symmetry (= 3 × 3 matrix representing quark strong force, this p.9 ).
And if this symmetry is broken by adding unphysical mass term, it is called Higgs boson ( this p.4 ). ← This is just artificially-introduced nonphysical rule, with No connection with our real world phenomena.
One of artificially-introduced transformations to change particles into imaginary shadow particles called supersymmetric particles (= SUSY ) is supersymmetic transformation with many freely-adjustable parameters ( this p.10 ), which cannot predict any physical values.
Using this artificial supersymmetry or shadow particles, the current only unified theory = 26-dimensional string theory was changed into 10-dimensional superstring, though it still lacks reality.
↑ In this way, the current particle physics just increases fictional particles just by setting "fake targets" called "symmetry" with No relation to actual physical phenomena.
(Fig.43) QED infinite virtual particles and bare (= real ? ) charge.
"QED (= quantum electrodynamics ) is the most successful theory to predict unbelievably accurate physical values such as anomalous magnetic moment." is a big lie.
All calculations of QED always diverge to meaningless infinity by infinite number of unreal virtual particles with infinite energy or momentum surrounding electrons ( this p.5 ).
To remove the unrealistic infinite calculation results, QED started to say unrealistic things; "unmeasurable bare (= real ? ) charge and mass of an electron may be also infinite ( this p.4 ), and these infinite bare charge and mass can artificially cancel out another infinite values caused by virtual particles (= self-evergy ) to get observed finite values ( this last, this p.2 upper )."
This artificial trick of cancellation of infinity from another infinity to get desirable finite values (= anomalous magnetic moment or Lamb shift .. ) is called "renormalization", which illegitimate trick like "sweeping infinity under rug" is criticized even by QED founders.
↑ This means QED just artificially chooses some infinite values as fictitious (directly-unmeasurable) bare charge and mass of an electron and subtracts this chosen infinity from the QED calculated infinite values to get desirable finite values ( ∞ - ∞ = finite values, this p.2 ).
But in normal math, infinity minus infinity should be zero ( ∞ = ∞ = 0, because there is No upper limit in any infinite values ) or infinity (= when one of infinite values increases much faster than the other infinite value ).
Subtracting infinity from another infinity to get freely-adjustable finite values is an illegitimate wrong math.
There is No legitimate rule or math validity in this unreasonable choice of arbitrary infinite values of bare charge and mass of an electron ( this, this ), and this fatal flaw is still unresolved even now.
For example, in calculating anomalous magnetic moment or electron's g-factor, QED uses illegitimate "change of variables (= changing infinite upper limit of virtual particle's energy into another infinite upper limit by an artificial finite value → affecting the finite results after cancellation )."
This dirty trick is what QED relies on, hence, QED is just a wrong math, Not successful theory at all.
In the two-loop virtual particle's infinite correction, QED artificially chooses another different kind of infinity or sets new illegitimate rule to cancel out original infinite values (= caused by infinite virtual particles of two-loop Feynman diagram ) for getting desirable electron's g-factor values ( this p.4-9, this p.26-A.28 = artificial change of variable trick to separate arbitrary finite values from remaining meaningless infinite values used for Feynman diagram in this Fig.1-IIe, p.4-5, p.9-10 MIIe ). ← nonsense.
In higher order virtual particle's loop correction, QED method cannot give analytical solution ( this p.9 ), hence, again, differently-chosen calculation (= numerical ) methods give different results ( this p.14-16 ) whose prediction ability is unreliable and illegitimate.
Extremely tiny energy splitting called Lamb shift value calculated by QED is said to be influenced by proton's radius, because quantum mechanics unrealistically insists s-orbital electron can penetrate a proton or nucleus.
But this QED calculation of Lamb shift turned out to be wrong ( this 4th last paragraph ).
Latest experiments showed a new actual proton's radius (= 0.84 fm ) is significantly smaller than the previous value (= QED value = 0.88 fm ).
In fact, even mathematically, relativistic QED calculation of Lamb shift was known to be invalid and false ( this p.5 upper, this p.4 ).
Lamb shift values were obtained only through non-relativistic ad-hoc numerical calculations (= QED just manipulated the freely-adjustable artificial parameters even in the later relativistic calculation or Lamb shift, this p.3-left = Also in the relativistic version renormalizing virtual particles, the non-relativistic part artificially manipulating the excited energies is needed ) = the precise analytical solutions or purely relativistic methods do Not exist in Lamb shift ( this p.4, ), hence Lamb shift contradicts Einstein relativistic quantum field theory.
As a result, QED based on artificial illegitimate trick of subtracting infinity (= Not finite definite calculation value of unobservable bare charge and mass of an electron ) from infinity (= again, unobservable infinite virtual photon's energy around an electron ) to obtain "desirable finite values (= anomalous magnetic moment or Lamb shift )" showed the current quantum field theory is undoubtedly false and useless (= No one is using this unrealistic QED for our daily-life application ), cannot be trusted.
(Fig.44) ↓ Positron (= antiparticle ) emission is impossible.
Antimatter or antiparticle is also a ghost-like particle which can be neither isolated from virtual circumstances of particle colliders nor confirmed directly.
Positron (= antiparticle of an electron ) was said to be discovered inside cloud chamber where positron was strangely moving upward (= the opposite direction of cosmic rays that contain high-energy particles ).
There were many other irrelevant particles or ions (= excited by cosmic rays ) than a very rare antiparticle inside cloud chamber, so one of more abundant electrons (= going down ) could be deflected by other ions' electric field and misunderstood as a (illusory) positron which was said to be strangely going upward.
Antiparticles such as positrons and anti-protons are said to be generated rarely by colliding many accelerated protons or electrons with target heavy atoms under magnetic field.
These kinds of particle collision and cloud chamber experiments are very dirty and chaotic where isolating and confirming only a very rare, unstable particle such as an antiparticle is physically impossible.
Under this condition, it's impossible to isolate or confirm a single rare antiparticle directly, because in order to confirm the existence of the elusive antiparticle from the particle trajectory left in the particle detector or cloud chamber, physicists have to remove any irrelevant external disturbance or influence from other more abundant charged particles such as electrons and nuclei, which removal is impossible.
Other more abundant stable particles such as electrons and protons are more likely to be detected and easily mistaken for one of illusory rare antiparticles.
An electron could be scattered by many other atoms and ions (or high-energy electrons or lights easily excite and kick out other electrons of instruments' walls in various directions ), "mimicking" an illusory rare positron's trajectory.
Anyway, as long as we cannot isolate such rare elementary particles as antiparticles from other more abundant electrons or protons, thinking about such dubious antiparticles is meaningless.
The only practical application of antiparticle is said to be positron-emission tomography (= PET ).
In fact, the illusory antiparticle = positron emission (= β+ decay ) can be safely replaced by another realistic particle reaction called "electron capture" which produces exactly the same neutron from the same initial particles = a proton and an electron.
On the other hand, positron emission needs an unrealistic reaction where a ligher proton has to emit a heavier neutron and a positron. ← This is impossible.
So there are No evidences of the existence of antiparticles such as positrons which illusory particles are completely unnecessary even for their alleged only-application = positron emission tomography (= PET ) where the realistic electron capture can perfectly explain the light released by PET, replacing the illusory positron emission.
For example, Na-22 nuclei are said to decay into the same resultant Ne-22 nuclei through conveniently choosing either of two different paths of (illusory) positron emission (= β+ decay ) or (realistic) electron capture, which path is chosen is indistinguishable, because all physicists can detect is the emitted light (= γ rays ) energy or other stable electrons absorbing the high energy in the detectors instead of directly observing the very short-lived dubious antiparticles ( this p.99, this p.2-lower ).
There are many cases which cannot be explained by (fantasy) positron emissions, but can be explained only by the realistic electron capture.
The positron emission reaction needs to emit the light's high energies greater than 2mc2 (= electron + positron mass energies ?).
But in many nuclear decays mimicking positron emission, emitted energies are often less than 2mc2, which can be explained only by realistic electron capture, Not by positron or antiparticle emission ( this p.6-7 ).
And in any reactions involving antiparticle production and decay, the total energy and momentum conservation law is broken between antiparticle and light (or photon ), which unphysical violation of total momentum conservation law clearly shows that antiparticles are unreal.
In the pair production of antiparticles, the incident light ( or photon ) with energy E more than 2mc2 and the momentum (= p = E/c ) allegedly changes into a pair of a particle (= electron ) and an antiparticle (= positron ) acquiring the rest mass from the incident light's energy. ← The electromagnetic wave, light or photon cannot stop, so the light's momentum must Not be zero.
When this light with the total energy = 2mc2 changes into a stationary electron with rest mass energy (= mc2 ) and a stationary positron or antiparticle with the rest mass energy (= mc2 ) in pair production, only the total energy is conserved, and the total momentum is Not conserved.
Because the momentums of the resultant stationary electron and positron are zero, hence, the initial light's momentum (= 2mc ) must disappear somewhere else to conserve the total momentum.
The present unrealistic mainstream particle physics claims that this magically-vanishing light's momentum may be absorbed into the irrelevant nucleus near the place of the pair production ( this 8th-paragraph ).
↑ But in this ridiculous logic, the nucleus must absorb the light's momentum without the energy. ← Absorbing only the momentum (= hence, the kinetic energy of a nucleus must be generated by absorbing the energy, not only momentum ! ) without absorbing the energy is physically impossible, so the antiparticle pair production is unrealistic and illusion.
Fictional antiparticles need unreal virtual particles with unreal masses for their reactions described by abstract nonphysical Feynman diagrams ( this p.4, this p.3, this p.16-last, this p.56 (or p.57 ) ) invalidating real antiparticles.
And the present unphysical particle physics cannot describe each particle or antiparticle in the realistic way, except as nonphysical math symbols.
Anyway, for a pair of a positively-charged positron and a negatively-charged electron to be produced and separated from neutral light (= unreal virtual photon ) as pair production, it needs unrealistically infinite energy (= infinite energy is needed to separate an electron and a positron from the initial neutral light = allegedly a negative electron and a positive positron are bound to each other by "infinite Coulomb attraction between zero distance of particle and antiparticle", stabely fused into one neutral light, where the distance between these two attractive charged particles is zero and the Coulomb attraction between the initial electron and positron is infinite inside initial fused light of photon ), so antiparticle generation from light is impossible.
Because inside an initial neutral light (= photon ), the distance between a positron and an electron is almost zero, which means Coulomb attraction between positron and electron is infinite inside the initial light, which Coulomb attraction is too strong to separate a particle from an antiparticle.
Neutral anti-neutrino cannot be distinguished from ordinary neutrino.
So we can conclude all these doubtful particles, which are too short-lived to isolate from colliders, are unreal and unnecessary for us, forever.
If the initial light transiently changes into an electron and a positron for an extremely short time, and quickly returns to the initial light by merging with each other again, the existence of positron or antiparticle is unnecessary (= positron emission of PET can be explained and replaced by realistic electron capture ) and unreal.
(Fig.45) Light medium moving "with" the earth can perfectly explain the constant light speed c detected by Michelson-Morley experiment.
Michelson-Morley experiment showed light speed c is always constant on the earth regardless of directions, which is compatible with already-known phenomena such as sound wave traveling at a constant speed through the air medium and the classical Maxwell's electromagnetic wave theory in the medium ( this p.10-16 ).
The speed of sound wave is always constant regardless of the sound wavelength or frequency.
The sound wave "speeds" are affected only by the "medium" through which the sound travels at the same constant speed in all directions.
↑ This actually-observed sound wave traveling at the constant speed through the medium which corresponds to the "air" moving with the earth (= as a result, we cannot feel as unrealistically-strong wind as the earth's fast rotational speed ) is just like the light traveling at the constant speed in the same medium, which was observed by Michelson-Morley experiment.
The point is the famous Michelson-Morley experiment denied only the hypothetical ether which is Not moving or rotating with the earth. ← So if such an unrealistic ether (= moving independently of the earth's motion ) existed, people could have easily felt such a unrealistically-strong "ether wind" long before Michelson-Morley experiment was conducted.
So Michelson-Morley experiment did Not deny the realistic ether or "medium moving with the earth" like the actually-observed "air" moving with the earth ( this 2nd-last paragraph ). ← This realistic light medium is perfectly reasonable with No contradictions to actual obervations, as I explain later.
Actually, the "light speeds change" depending on the "medium", which fact contradicts Einstein relativity denying that the light medium affects the light speed c.
All observed phenomena such as light interference and refraction are compatible with the light wave theory traveling through some medium.
The fact that we usually do Not feel unrealistically-strong winds means the entire atmosphere or all air molecules are dragged by some large medium surrounding the earth, and moving with the earth also in the horizontal direction (= Einstein's gravity in the vertical direction alone is Not enough to explain the static air molecules relative to the earth rotation ).
Einstein falsely rejecting the real medium in space had to create fantasy relativistic theory with Lorentz transformation where the clock time could magically change and even the rigid body could illogically shrink as seen by differently-moving observers for forcibly explaining the constant light speed c seen by any differently-moving observers.
Einstein relativity, the current relativistic quantum field theory and QED need unreal virtual particles with imaginary masses as a new fictional ether which contradicts Einstein's original relativistic mass theory ( this p.3 ) in order to explain forces between particles ( this 7th-paragraph ) after they rejected the real medium. ← So the present manistream theory is self-contradictory and false ( this 6-8th paragraphs ).
Furthermore, Einstein unrealistic relativity caused fatal paradoxes in time, electromagnetic fields, de Broglie wave, the parallel-world two-slit interference of an imaginary photon, fantasy BigBang, and another new medium called dark matter, all of which can be perfectly fixed by the realistic medium in space.
You might have seen textbooks or websites falsely claiming the stellar aberration is the only reason which could deny the existence of the realistic medium moving with the earth (= or ether dragged by the earth ).
In the stellar aberration, when the earth is moving at the velocity of "v", you need to slightly tilt your telescope to catch the star light, just as you have to tilt your umbrella to keep off wind-driven rain, because the apparent light velocity seen by observers on the moving earth is slightly tilted at the angle of sin θ = v/c ( c is the original light speed ).
Einstein relativity falsely claims that the ether or medium moving with the earth could magically drag the star light with an unrealistic power and suddenly change its direction drastically ( this p.2 ), hence, no aberration may be observed in the ether drag theory ( this p.2, this p.7-lower ).
↑ All these ad-hoc explanations are based on wrong assumptions and non-existent physical mechanisms, hence, the realistic medium moving with the earth has Not been denied by star aberration at all.
When seen from the earth surrounded by the medium (= like "atmosphere" ) static relative to the earth moving at the velocity of "v", the velocity of the light emitted from a distant star appears to be slightly higher (= though, this is almost the same as the original light speed c. because the earth's speed is much slower than the light ), but after all, it is detected as the original light speed c when the star's light enters the "earth medium through which the light travels at the same uniform speed." ← stellar aberration can be observed in this medium moving with the earth with No contradiction.
When the stellar aberration is not observed by the ether dragged by the earth, the star's light velocity after the light enters the earth medium must be unrealistically zero, which is impossible.
According to the light wave refraction based on Huygens principle and Snell's law, the star light entering the earth medium at the angle of sin θ = v/c must keep this almost the same tilting angle (= hence, stellar aberration is observed also in this ether or medium dragged by the earth ), because there is almost No difference between the light speeds outside and inside the earth medium.
↑ Light tilting angles = sin θ almost remains the same in two mediums outside and inside the earth's medium (= the star-light remains tilting in the same direction as the aberration which is observed also in medium moving with the earth ).
Hence, the sudden light directional change or the unrealistic refraction does Not happen (= unless the light speed entering the earth medium suddenly becomes zero, which never happens ) accrording to Snell's law of light refraction, when the star light travels from the outside medium into the earth's medium (= stellar aberration is observed ), because the light velocity c1 in the medium outside the earth and the light velocity c2 in the earth's medium are almost the same.
Imagine, when the star light hits and enters the earth medium in the slanting direction (= the medium outside the earth appears to move at v in the opposite direction to the earth's motion or medium ), the horizontal direction of the light momentum or velocity is naturally generated as a ripple in the earth medium in the same direction as aberration by the light hitting the earth's medium, hence, the star aberration (= the star's light appears to be tilted ) can be naturally observed also in the medium moving with the earth.
↑ Physicists' unreasonable criticism, where they unrealistically treat the star-light as a fictitious ball, and conveniently replace the originally-soft earth light medium by a very rigid non-medium-like solid which cannot generate any observed light wave ripple (= though the medium can generate the light wave ripple ) even when the star-light hits it, turned out to be false.
The light traveling in the water medium (= its light speed decreses to c/n in the water medium, where n is water refractive index ) is known to be partially dragged (= the water light speed c/n slightly changes ) when the water container is moving at some speed v in Fizeau's experiment ( this p.3, this p.2-left ).
Relativists often misleadingly claim that if the ether drag theory is right, the light speed in water must be fully (= instead of partially ) dragged by the moving water (container). ← But the water (molecules) inside the small container and the entire (light) medium dragged by the bigger earth are completely different things in their scales, so this Fizeau's experiment where the light is partially dragged by moving water is compatible with the medium dragged by (= moving with ) the earth.
Einstein's relativity completely contradicts this Fizeau's experimental results where the light speed c is clearly decreased and affected by the water medium (= c/n, n is water refractive index, this p.25, this p.2 ) which should have been denied by Einstein. ← contradiction.
As a result, the realistic medium moving with the earth is perfectly consistent with all observed phenomena including Michelson-Morley experiment, stellar aberration, and Fizeau's experiment.
On the other hand, Einstein relativity proved to be wrong with fatal paradoxes.
(Fig.46) Different clock times in different positions.
Here we present a typical example of fatal paradox in Einstein relativity.
In Einstein relativity, a moving ovserver has an unrealistic power to bend even a rigid rod without touching it , no matter how hard the rod is, as seen in Lorentz contraction.
A rigid rod is moving upward at first and then turn to the left horizontally along the rigid square rail in the upper figure.
External forces are always applied to any positions of the long rod uniformly, in both leftward and upward directions (= at first, the rod cannot move to the left, blocked by the vertical rail on the right side. )
Surprisingly, as seen by a moving observer, this originally-straight rigid rod appears to be bent complexly, as seen in the upper figure right.
According to relativistic Lorentz transformation, events occurring in different positions (= x = 0, 1 ) at the same time (= t ) seen by stationary observer occur at the different times (= t' ) seen by a moving observer !
By inserting two positions x = 0 and 1 (= same time t by stationary observer ) into Lorentz tansformation, we find a moving observer sees the left end of rod turning to the left earlier than the right end of the rod.
Hence, a moving observer tends to see the future event of the left end of the rod and the past of the right end of the rod. which appears to bend the rod like in the upper figure right.
This occult world is Einstein special relativity.
(Fig.47) "Block" changes the rod "future" direction.
So in Einstein fantasy relativistic world, a rigid rod "can" foresee the future !
In Fig.47, the right end of the rod (= still existing in the past ) has Not arrived at the turning point, but the left end of the rod (= existing in the future ) has already turned to the left at the turning point.
If someone suddenly puts a new block onto the turning point, the whole rigid rod (= including left and right ends of the rod ) cannot move leftward (= the whole rigid rod cannot turn to the left ), meaning the left end of the rod already turning leftward suddenly changes its past event and its direction (= as if moving upward from the beginning without turning to the left at the turning point ) without touching the rod !
This is paradoxical and impossible, because the right end of the rod (= past ) has Neither arrived at the turning point nor known whether a block is there or not.
But the left end of the rod can automatically predict the future event (= can know whether a new block is put at the turning point without touching it ), and make a decision whether it will bend (= moving leftward ) or bend back (= moving upward without turning leftward ) !
This is one of fatal paradoxes of Einstein relativity which theory proved to be wrong just by this paradox.
Here we suppose external force is always applied to any points of the rod uniformly, so the moment the rod arrives at the tuning point without a block, the whole rod starts to turn to the left without delay simultaneously.
(Fig.48) Neutral current → "Positive" by observer's movement !
In fact, Einstein relativity includes serious paradoxes contradicting electromagnetic force, so, Einstein special relativity is wrong.
In Einstein's paradoxical relativistic world, when an observer sees a electrically-neutral wire through which electric current is flowing, this electrically-neutral wire must be electrically positive or negative seen by another moving observer (= different frames ) ! ← These unrealistic relativistic phenomena are impossible in this real world !
The neutral electric current is flowing in the leftward direction generating magnetic field around the current.
An external positive charge (= + ) stops outside of the electric wire. This external stationary positive charge experiences No Lorentz magnetic force, because it is not moving.
But from the viewpoint of an observer moving rightward ( upper figure right ), the external positive charge appears to be moving leftward, hence, experiences downward Lorentz magnetic force, and starts to move downward ?
This is a paradox, because as seen by a stationary observer, an external positive charge experiences No magnetic force, hence keeps stationary, but as seen by a moving observer, the same external charge experiences Lorentz magnetic force and moves downward !
To solve this paradox, Einstein relativity requires the originally-neutral wire to change into a positvely-charged wire which causes fictitious upward electric force to cancel out downward Lorentz magnetic force, therefore, an external positive charge does not move downward also as seen by a moving observer.
So to solve Lorentz magnetic force paradox, the neutral wire seen by a stationary observer appears to be positively-charged seen by a moving observer. ← This insane world is what Einstein relativity claims.
Electric field (= electrically-charged wire ) ↔ magnetic field (= neutral wire ) seen by differently-moving observsers !? ← Insane Einstein world ( this lower ).
(Fig.49) ↓ Einstein relativity exposes "fatal" paradox !
But in a case when there is an external negative charge (= - ) on the left side of electric wire through which electric current is flowing leftward like in Fig.49, this causes a serious paradox which cannot be fixed.
As seen by a stationary observer, this external negative charge also stops and experiences No magnetic (or electric ) forces from the neutral wire.
But as seen by a moving observer, the originally-neutral wire turns positively-charged, hence attracts the external negative charge by fictitious electric force.
This fictitious elecric force attracting an external negative charge toward the horizontal wire cannot be canceled out by Lorentz magnetic force, because the external charge moving leftward seen by a moving obsever does Not experience leftward Lorentz magnetic force.
This is clearly a fatal paradox of Einstein relativity, which is incompatible with Lorentz magnetic force.
To solve this paradox (= caused by generating fictitious electromagnetic forces seen by different observers ) in the realistic way, we need the "medium."
When an electric charge is moving, it causes magnetic field around the moving charge. But in weird Einstein relativistic world, whether an electric charge is moving or not depends on the motion of observers watching a charge. → paradox happens.
So if the space is filled with medium, whether an electric charge is "moving" or not (= whether magnetic field is generated or not around the moving charge ) depends on whether a charge is moving relative to medium or not. ← Observers' motion has nothing to do with an observed charge's motion or magnetic field generation. → No paradox.
So when an external positive charge is at rest with respect to medium, even if a moving observer sees the external charge seemingly moving in the opposite direction (= like Fig.48 right ), the external charge is Not actually moving with respect to medium. → No Lorentz magnetic force caused by observer's movement. → No paradox.
In 2012 Mansuripur pointed out that classical Lorentz electromagnetic force contradicts Einstein special relativity.
This Mansuripur's paper is one special case showing Einstein relativity's fatal irreparable paradoxes in the upper contradictions between special relativity and electromagnetic phenomena.
In the neutral loop wire where the electric current is flowing leftward in the upper wire and flowing rightward in the lower wire, the upper originally-neutral wire magically changes into electrically positive and the lower wire changes into negative seen by a moving observer according to the ridiculous Einstein relativity ( this p.6 ).
As a result, when we apply some external electric field on this wire loop, in the rest frame (= seen by an observer at rest relative to the neutral wire loop ), the neutral wire loop remains at rest, but as seen by another moving observer, the neutral wire magically appears to be electrically-charged and start to rotate (= caused by fictitious torques of the unrealistically emerging electric charges ) ! ← This is clearly paradox, so Einstein relativity is false.
↑ To resolve this clear paradox of relativity, physicists try to artificially fabricate another fictitious torque counterbalancing the first fictitious torque by using non-existent (= illusory ) concepts called "hidden momentum ( this p.2-upper )".
↑ This seeming solution using unreal hidden momentum is illegitimate and contradictory, so Einstein relativity still contradicts electromagnetic theory.
According to this unscientific "hidden momentum" ad-hoc theory, when electric charges (= supposing positive charges are moving instead of electrons here for simplicity ) are moving through the loop wire (= square-shaped ) under the external magnetic field E, the moving charged particles are "accelerated" in the external electric field, hence, only the charged particles' momentum of one side of the current loop may be bigger, and the total momentum of the entire loop wire also becomes bigger (= Not zero, which contradicts the original zero momentum of the entire wire ), they claim.
For example, under the external electric field E in the upper direction, charged particles may be accelerated upward (= as if they are freely-movable particles, this is wrong assumption, as I say later ) and resultantly, only the upper side wire (= horizontal direction ) contains bigger momentum (= by accelerated charges ) in the direction perpendicular to applied electric field E ( this p.2-right, this p.5 ).
↑ But if this fictitiously-emerging hidden momentum is true, the total momentum conservation of the entire wire is violated (= external electric field direction is different from hidden momentum direction ), and the entire wire has to magically move in the horizontal direction as seen only by a moving observer (= though this wire loop remains at rest as seen by a stationary observer ). ← paradox !
First of all, these accelerated charged particles only in one side of the loop current do Not happen, because some charged particles move to cancel the applied external electric field and as a result, all charged particles are moving at the same speed pushing each other ( the upper solution did Not consider the realistic electric field cancellation in the current, and they treat charged particles as fictitious freely-movable particles which are untrue ).
Furthermore, these (wrong) solutions need another fictitious concepts called "hidden angular momentum ( this p.1-right, this p.3-left )" based on fictitious center of rotation or toque allegedly caused by an observer's linear (= Not rotational ) motion (= so this fictitious torque or rotation allegedly caused by a moving observer for conveniently counterbalancing paradox is Not a actual toque or rotation ).
In conclusion, Einstein special relativity is inherently incompatible with the experimentally-confirmed electromagnetic theory, so Einstein relativity is wrong.
(Fig.50) ↓ Mass (= energy ) change is "relative", NOT absolute value.
Einstein relativity claims the mass of an object moving appears to be larger than its original mass at rest relative to a observer. ← this causes a serious paradox.
In Einstein relativistic world, there is No such thing as an absolute value, hence everything is relative and appears to be affected and changed by observer's motion ! ← Though the observer does Not even touch an object.
Think about the case when an object A is moving relative to another stationary object B. The rest (= original ) masses of these two objects are the same.
As seen by a observer at rest relative to B, this object A appears to be moving and heavier than the object B according to Einstein ( A > B ).
But as seen by another observer moving with the object A, the object A appears to be at rest, and instead, the object B appears to be moving and heavier than the object A ( B > A ).
So depending on observer's motion, one object appears heavier or lighter than another object. ← This is clearly a paradox ( this p.48-49 ), hence Einstein mc2 is false.
↑ If the object's energy is magically changed as seen by differently-moving observers, we cannot utilize such an unrealistically-changeable, indefinite energy value in actual useful energy source.
But such an unrealistically-changeable Einstein mass energy mc2 was said to be involved in massive nuclear energy as seen in atomic bombs.
This nuclear energy is a kind of "potential (= Not kinetic ) energy" like Coulomb potential energy which has nothing to do with an object's motion or velocity associated with Einstein relativistic (= kinetic ) energy affected by observer's motion.
Because whether two charged particles are moving or stationary, when the distance between those two charges is the same, Coulomb potential energy is the same, regardless of particles' motion or velocity. ← So all potential energies such as nuclear energy has No relation to Einstein relativity or Lorentz transformation.
It means this kind of potential energy such as nuclear or Coulomb energies is stored in the "medium" surrounding particles, regardless of particles' motions.
Originally, Maxwell derived the relation of energy equal to mc2 using classical light wave in 1880s when Einstein's ad-hoc relativistic theory did Not exist ( this 3rd paragraph, this p.6 ) through Maxwell's classical light wave having momentum p or pressure equal to energy/light-speed = E/c ( momentum p = mc = E/c → energy E = mc2 ). Later, Einstein copied Maxwell's mc2 (= or p = E/c ) in the wrong way.
It's a famous story that Einstein invented his ad-hoc relativistic theory based on classical Maxwell electromagnetic wave theory ( this 2nd-paragraph, this last paragraph, this middle, this p.2-upper ), though Einstein relativistic electromagnetic theory includes fatal paradoxes like twin time paradox.
Due to the inviolable fundamental principle of mass conservation law, it's intrinsically impossible to magically increase the object's ( occult relativistic ) mass just by the motions of observers, who do Not even touch it, without adding any external masses to the target mass.
Furthermore, Einstein relativistic quantum field theory or QED needs unreal virtual particles with unphysical imaginary masses, which contradict Einstein relativistic mass mc2 relation, in order to seemingly explain actual electromagnetic forces between particles ( this p.5, this p.4-lower ).
↑ Einstein relativistic mass theory is self-contradictory, so false.
The potential energy equal to mc2 is stored in the medium through which classical light wave travels with the same amount of energy as mc2 in the form of "medium-oscillating energy" which exerts force and pressure ( this middle-lower ) in interference.
Also when an particle such as an electron is moving, it generates de Broglie wave around an electron in the common medium of light and de Broglie waves with the energy equal to mc2 (= electron's kinetic energy is stored in the form of de Broglie wave oscillating energy which affects the electron's motion in two-slit interference experiments ).
So as an electron moves faster, it generates de Broglie wave whose energy is increasing with the electron's speed, hence, the electron's mass appears to increase as a result of increasing energy stored in the medium as de Broglie oscillating energy which was felt as resistance (= mass appears heavier ) when accelerating the electron.
Einstein without the medium needs fantasy parallel worlds for explaining a single electron's interference, and relies on unreal virtual particles with imaginary mass as fictitious force carriers which completely contradicts Einstein mass mc2 relation.
Einstein relativistic mc2 causes a serious paradox also in force transformation as seen by observers moving at different speeds, hence wrong.
(Fig.51) ↓ Electron's de Broglie wave vanishes !?
The important point is that Einstein relativity contradicts an electron's de Broglie wave theory.
An electron's de Broglie wavelength was confirmed in many experiments.
So if Einstein relativity is incompatible with de Broglie wave theory, Einsten relativity is surely wrong.
An electron moving at a speed of v generates de Broglie wave with the wavelength λ equal to h/mv ( v = electron's velocity, m is electron's mass, h is Planck constant ), which causes interference in two-slit experiments.
But as seen by an observer moving at the same speed as a moving electron, the originally-moving electron appears to stop, hence, generates neither de Broglie wave nor interference patterns.
This is also a paradox, because depending on an observer's motion, interference fringes of an electron's de Broglie wave appear or disappear on the screen !
This serious de Broglie wave paradox can be solved by accepting the existence of the medium.
If an electron is moving relative to the space medium, it generates de Broglie wave and the same interference pattern, regardless of any obsevers moving at different speeds.
(Fig.52) Which satellite clock ticks more slowly ? = paradox.
In fact, Einstein's relativity has never been useful for any modern technology such as GPS navigation system.
GPS clock time is said to be the only example utilizing ( useless ) Einstein relativistic time dilation. But in fact, GPS does Not rely on the prediction by Einstein relativity at all. Because even without fictional Einstein relativity, GPS navigation system is working.
The popular science websites often insist GPS satellites are moving faster than the earth's stationary observers, so the satellite's atomic clock ticks slower by special relativistic time dilation (= allegedly only -7 microseconds per day ), and GPS satellite is moving at higher position with lower gravity, hence its satellite clock ticks faster (= 45 microseconds per day ) by general relativistic gravitational time dilation which depends only on the distance between the earth's center and satellite.
As a result, GPS satellite clock would gain 38 microseconds per day (= 45-7 ) relative to the clocks on the ground, so the offset of this fixed relativistic time change is given to GPS satellite.
Fist of all, this GPS satellite's alleged relativistic clock time, which may be slightly faster than the earth's clock, is meaningless.
Because the receiver clock time on the earth is originally Not precise (= often different from the true earth's clock time ), and they usually use four satellites which can fix the arbitrary time difference between satellite and the receiver's clocks even without relying on the (suspicious) Einstein relativistic time prediction ( this p.6-7 ).
Furthermore, there are many other uncertain GPS time errors which cannot be predicted or fixed by Einstein relativity. GPS needs almost realtime correction of clock time errors by frequently comparing the ground stations' precise atomic clocks and the satellite's clock time which constantly causes unpredictable errors ( this p.5 ).
The actual GPS satellite clock time constantly causes various unpredictable errors related to clock bias, drift and clock age ( this p.2, this p.4 ) which clock time errors are different in different atomic clocks ( this p.3-left-lower ), and disagreeing with Einstein relativistic time change ( this p.2 ).
If Einstein relativity could perfectly "predict" GPS clock time, engineers would Not need to constantly correct GPS clock time errors by comparing them to the ground stations' clocks. ← Hence, Einstein relativity cannot predict GPS time errors at all.
↑ The actual GPS satellite clock time's error unpredictably changes in more complicated way (= engineers often use complicated polynomial equations of the time t containing artificially-changed and fit coefficients, this p.3 ) than Einstein's simple relativistic time prediction (= fixed time offset, this p.21-22 or p.33-34 ).
So Einstein relativity is not only useless but also disagreeing with the actual GPS clock's more complicated time change. ← "Einstein relativity is inherently an unsuccessful theory with No power to predict anything.
The media's tired cliche "without Einstein, GPS would not be usable !" turned out to be a big lie.
Einstein relativity, which unreasonably rejected realistic medium, had to introduce the nonphysical imaginary rule called Lorentz transformation where the moving clock's time (= K' ) magically ticks slower than the stationary clock (= K ). ← K > K'
But in this Einstein occult relativistic world, all things including time and masses are illusory relative things magically changed seen by differently-moving observers, these relative illusory time cannot be determined as definite absolute values, so we should Not be able to utilize these magically-changing time and energies seen by different observers as useful tools like GPS.
From the perspective of the moving clock (= K' ), the stationary clock (= K ) appears to be moving in the opposite direction, hence, the clock K must tick slower than the clock K' in the opposite way. ← K < K'
↑ Hence, both these clocks' times must tick slower than the other (= which clock K or K' runs slower is paradoxical ), this relativistic time dilation paradox called "twin paradox" is clearly one of true paradoxes (= which can Never be fixed ) disproving Einstein relativity.
Almost all textbooks and websites try to fix this inherently-irreparable twin time paradox using the same worn-out example where one twin A jumps on a high-quality rocket and flies away from the earth at high speed, and after a while, makes a U-turn (= decelerate + accelerate ) back to the earth, while the other twin B remains on the earth quietly.
↑ The twin A's clock in the fast-moving rocket could run slower than the stationary twin B's clock on the earth (= so the twin A may remain younger than the twin B on the earth ! ).
But from the perspective of the moving twin A, the opposite thing may happen = the twin B's clock on the earth appears to be moving in the opposite direction, hence, the twin B's clock may run slower. ← paradox !
This rocket-earth twin paradox case clearly exposes a true time paradox underlying Einstein unrealistic relativity, if we consider only the original simple special relativity.
Physicists tried to use another artificially-created ad-hoc general relativity to fix this twin time paradox in vain.
The twin A flying away on the rocket and turning around back to the earth experiences strong deceleration and acceleration when doing U-turn.
According to unphysical Einstein general relativity, this strong acceleration mimics (fictitious) gravitational-force-like acceleration which may cause time dilation, as a result, the twin A clock on the moving rocket may run slower than the earth's twin B clock ( this 4th-paragraph, this 3rd-last paragraph ).
But in fact, even if we use Einstein ad-hoc general relativity, we can Not fix this fatal twin time paradox like in the upper figure case where two satellites moving at constant speeds (= No sudden deceleration or acceleration ) in the same circular orbit.
The satellite A's clock appears to be moving at the constant speed "2v", hence, run slower than the satellite B's clock from the perspective of the satellite B.
But the satellite B's clock also appears to be moving at the constant speed "2v" in the opposite direction, hence, run slower than the satellite A's clock from the perspective the satellite A.
↑ The satellite A's clock is slower than the satellite B's clock. But at the same time, the satellite B's clock is slower than the satellite A's clock ? ← This is clearly irreparable paradox which could be witnessed, when satellites A and B compare and see each other's paradoxical clock times after going around the earth in the clockwise and counter-clockwise directions. ← This case cannot be fixed by general relativity.
So Einstein relativity contains the true inevitable twin paradox based on its unrealistic time dilation in moving objects, so false.
↑ Both these satellites moving at the same speeds in the same circular orbit (= the same distance r from the earth's center ) experience the same gravity and No acceleration, hence, this case cannot rely on general relativity to seemingly fix the twin time paradox, because the general relativistic time dilation depends only on the distance between satellites and the earth's center r both in the gravitational and centrifugal force potential, which is the same (= No general relativistic time difference ) in both satellites, as I explain later.
As a result, the case of two satellites moving in the same circular orbit around the earth causes the irreparable special relativistic time dilation or paradox where one satellite's clock runs slower seen by the other (= which satellite's clock A or B runs slower is paradoxical and undetermined ).
Actually, the (seeming) solutions of twin paradox which you may often see in textbooks or websites (= always use the same one special case of one twin flying away in the rocket, and the other twin remains on the earth at rest to artificially use general relativistic time dilation canceling special relativistic time paradox ) never try to use the much simpler cases where twins are just moving around the earth at some constant speeds to meet each other again (= both twins on the earth experience the same gravity and No acceleration, hence, general relativity cannot be used. → Special relativistic time paradox remains ).
Next we explain how general relativistic time dilation is used in these cases in detail, and why this ad-hoc general relativistic time dilation is unable to fix the fatal special relativistic time dilation paradox after all. → Einstein relativity is false and useless contrary to the media-hype.
Einstein general relativity makes an unrealistic claim that the acceleration and gravitational force are intrinsically indistinguishable (= called "equivalence principle" ), hence the acceleration can be treated as new fictitious gravitational force, which could also influence clock time like the original gravitational time dilation.
So according to Einstein general relativity, the stationary object experiencing the downward gravitational acceleration (= 9.8 m/s2) on the earth may be equivalent to the object on the rocket accelerating upward at 9.8 m/s2 (= hence, the object inside this rocket moving upward experiences the downward fictitious acceleration like gravity ).
When a person or clock is falling freely downward pulled by the earth's gravitational force (= like riding in a freely-falling elevator with broken cables ), they experience the fictitious upward acceleration and weightlessness as if it cancels gravitational force like in the falling elevator ( this p.7, this middle ).
So Einstein claims these freely-falling objects and clocks pulled by the natural gravity are like ones in the non-gravity state (= called inertial frame ), hence the simple special relativity (= forgetting general relativity ) can be applied in this free-falling frame, elevators and their clocks ( this p.2, this 3rd-last paragraph ).
As a result, from the viewpoints of two satellites (= rotational frame ) and their clocks moving around the earth pulled by gravity in the upper figure, they are experiencing this free-falling-elevator-like state with No gravity by centrifugal fictitious acceleration canceling gravity.
↑ Hence, from the viewpoints of these two satellites moving in the same orbit at the same speed in the opposite direction, we can consider only special relativity where the other satellite's clock always appears to be moving and run slower which causes irreparable twin time dilation paradox. ← Einstein relativity proves to be undeniably false.
Einstein general relativity claims the only effective potential (= energy ) such as gravitational potential and centrifugal (= rotational ) potential energies affect the clock time dilation ( this p.4-last-margin, this p.10-last, this p.3 ).
In the upper case of two satellites in the same circular orbit, these satellites are always moving at the "same constant speeds" as seen by the other satellite, meaning these two satellites always experience the same unchangeable effective potential energies, (= No gravity or centrifugal potential energies change = No speed change of satellites. If these effective potential energies change, satellites' speeds would change, too ) from the viewpoints of the other satellite. → Only special relativity can be considered, and twin time paradox immanent in special relativity or Lorentz transformation cannot be fixed.
From the viewpoint of the satellite moving in the circular orbit around the earth, we should consider the effective potential energies summing gravitational and centrifugal potential ( this 24th paragraph ).
↑ Both these gravitational and fictitious centrifugal potential energies (= distance r × centrifugal force in the radial direction ) depend only on the "distance r" between the earth's center and satellite ( this p.10, this p.19, this p.20, this (22)-(29) ), which radius r and effective potential are the same in both satellites.
↑ No general relativistic potential difference causing time dilation between these two satellites occurs. → Special relativistic twin time paradox remains. → Einstein is false.
After all, twin time dilation paradox caused by the moving objects in special relativity remains as a true paradox which can Not be fixed by general relativity, hence Einstein relativity turned out to be wrong.
According to the paradoxical Einstein relativity, the length of any moving rigid object appears to be magically contracted in the direction parallel to the object's moving direction, as seen by the stationary observer.
This infamous Lorentz length contraction of Einstein relativity causes serious unfixable paradox called "Ehrenfest paradox" in a rotating rigid disc.
When a rigid disc is rotating at a constant speed, the circumference of the disc must be magically contracted and shortened according to Einstein relativity where all moving objects must magically contract their lengths (= even if the objects are very rigid ) with respect to the stationary observers.
But the radius R (= radial direction ) of the rotating disc is Not contracted or shortened, because the rotating disc is Not moving in the radial (= outward or inward ) direction.
Hence, the circumference of the rotating disc must remain the same = 2π× R (= disc radius which remains the same without being contracted ! ), which contradicts Einstein relativistic prediction of the moving circumference is contracted and shortened.
↑ It is uncertain and paradoxical whether the circumference of the rotating disc will be shortened (= by Lorentz contraction ) or Not shortened (= circumference should be always equal to 2π × R where the disc radius R remains the same without contraction )
This Lorentz contraction paradox of rotating disc is an unsolvable true paradox like satellites' clocks rotating around the earth causing twin time paradox.
Many physicists have suggested many different incomplete and unrealistic solutions of this unsolvable Ehrenfest length-contraction paradox by refuting former solutions of other physicists in vain for the past 100 years ( this p.8-9 ). ← This means it's impossible to solve this true relativistic paradox.
One example of these incomplete solutions suggests the possibility that the materials in the circumference of the rigid rotating disc may be broken, separated and shortened by Lorentz contraction ( this middle ). ← But in this seeming solution, the length between separated broken materials becomes longer which disagrees with relativistic Lorentz contraction where any length in the moving frame must be shortened, whether it contains materials or vacuum. ← Paradox remains unsolved.
This Ehrenfest rotating disc paradox cannot rely on Einstein general relativity (= as seen in some wrong solutions ), because the stationary observer at the center hole of the rotating disc is Not accelerated (= Neither effective potential nor general relativistic time change is experienced by this center stationary observer = inertial frame, this p.45 ), hence, only special relativity can be used and this paradox caused by Lorentz contraction remains like the upper two GPS satellites' case.
As a result, Einstein relativity is intrinsically filled with many incurable paradoxes, hence wrong.
(Fig.53) Time stopping on black hole prevents its formation.
Despite extremely long time research, black hole is still useless, cannot be confirmed directly, because imaginary black holes are too far away from the earth to reach.
It is safe to say black hole does Not exist.
We have No trouble even if we forget about fictional black hole which is unneeded except for the fake academic research to get research funds, the media's advertisement or selling sci-fi books for authors to make money.
First, black hole cannot be formed. A clock time is said to magically slow down and stop by gravity at points close to black hole surface called event horizon, as seen by outside distant observers ( this p.21 ) on the earth.
Furthermore, Einstein general relativistic time dilation by gravity causes serious paradox where things can far exceed light speed c with no energy.
Black hole, which absorbs everything, cannot be seen directly. Though the current physics claims the existence of black hole can be proved by watching the motion of stars allegedly orbiting around unseen black holes, it is untrue.
Because even stars around black holes in the galactic center cannot be seen hidden by very thick and dense clouds of dusts and gases ( this 4th paragraph ).
So the recent ( dubious ) black hole picture is fake, because No visible light can be detected near black hole due to very thick dusts.
Invisible stars' doubtful motion (= allegedly orbiting around a black hole ) inferred from other longer-wavelength lights than visible light has too many contradictions, so cannot be believed.
To guess invisible black hole, we need to prove black hole is very small for its massive body. But there is No way to estimate black hole size except that they falsely claim "rapid X-rays brightness fluctuation" may indicate black hole is very small. ← Baseless and unscientific claim.
Einstein general relativity claims light is slightly bent by fantasy gravitational time dilation by massive stars or Sun. But this bent light is much more easily and naturally explained by light refraction by dusts and molecules around stars.
The perihelion for Mercury is said to move only 0.012 degrees for 100 years due to doubtful Einstein relativity which effect is too tiny to believe (= there are many other factors irrelevant to Einstein relativity such as many-body complicated forces working among various shaped planets to cause such a negligibly-tiny orbital change for 100 years ), and we don't need too small Einstein relativistic effect for our daily life at all.
GPS, which is said to be the only application of Einstein relativity, does Not need Einstein, which is just useless and wrong.
(Fig.54) Driving force to expand universe is dark energy ← NOT diluted ? Unreal negative pressure ?
Big Bang and expanding universe are just fantasy.
There is No evidence indicating our universe is expanding so rapidly, as seen in the fact that our solar system is Not expanding at all.
The current cosmology claims the entire universe is expanding by fictional dark energy with unreal negative pressure, which is said to be Not diluted even by the space expansion ( this 2nd-paragraph ). ← Dark energy is Not a real thing !
They baselessly conjecture that universe is expanding only from the fact that light emitted from more distant stars is redshifted (= longer wavelength ), which can be more naturally explained by lights from more distant stars tend to lose their energies, elongate their wavelength by being scattered by more dusts and or by oscillating other molecules while light is traveling an extremely long distance.
The most conclusive evidence of fantasy Big Bang is said to be an uniform cosmic microwave background (= CMB ) which is unrealistically misinterpreted as a remnant of the beginning of our universe.
But it's impossible for each microwave to keep an intact state of very ancient light wave from the early universe for as long time as 13.8 billion years !
So it is more natural to think that the uniform cosmic microwave filling all space is an evidence of uniform light "medium (= slightly oscillating at 3 K )" filling space.
The current astronomy focuses only on fictional science saying this cosmic microwave may indicate fantasy parallel universes. ← nonsense.
(Fig.54') ↓ Black hole, gravitational wave are illuson.
Gravitational wave is also unreal, too weak, so useless and meaningless forever.
Furthermore, gravitational wave itself contradicts Einstein relativity, so wrong.
Gravitational wave is too weak. They say too weak and dubious gravitational wave could slightly change 4-km arm only by 1000-times smaller than a proton = only one atom displacement in Sun-earth distance ( this last paragraph ) ! ← Too small change to detect correctly.
The wavelength of laser light to detect gravitational wave is far longer than arm's change. Longer light cannot detect smaller change ( this p.16, this p.3 ) !
Einstein general relativity has basic defects, it cannot conserve energy or carry wave ( this p.3-last ).
This is why physicists had to artificially introduce unphysical concepts called "pseudo-tensor (= Not real tensor of Einstein relativity, this 4-6th paragraphs, this p.1-right-middle )" as doubtful gravitational wave which contradicts Einstein theory ( this p.13-14, this p.1 ).
"Unsuccessful" Einstein general relativity has No ability to predict contradictory ad-hoc gravitational wave pseudo-tensors, because physicists can freely choose arbitrary forms of gravitational wave pseudo-tensors ( this p.8 ) among many candidates
The idea of predicting the existence of (doubtful) gravitational wave just by measuring light pulse (= there is No evidence these light pulses called pulsars are emitted from unseen distant neutron stars, these pulsars probably originate from simple vibrating dusts or debris reflecting light waves emitted from other stars somewhere else ) is baseless, because it's impossible to know the precise orbital motion (of imaginary neutron stars ) only from light pulses due to uncertain inclinations or precession of the (unseen) distant star's orbits.
As a result, there is No evidence of gravitational waves, and even if gravitational wave existed, it contradicts Einstein relativity which cannot carry real energy and momentum.
(Fig.55) ↓ Weak light is destroyed = eavesdropping is detected ?
The so-called quantum internet, information and communication are all useless and Not faster than ordinary internet.
The only practical use of fictional quantum internet is said to be "unhackable internet", which is also Not useful enough to replace ordinary internet.
The 2nd paragprah of this site says "The only commercial application of quantum information currently is quantum key distribution (QKD).. measurements can’t be made without disturbing the system being measured.. we can detect eavesdropping attempts using this simple principle of quantum physics ?"
Quantum information or internet uses a photon, which is just a very weak classical light, as means of transmission of information.
So if some eavesdroppers try to steal information from this very fragile, weak light (= photon ), this light information (= stored as classical light polarization ) is easily disturbed and destroyed, hence we can find the existence of eavesdroppers by detecting those broken lights ( this p.4, this 13th paragraph ).
This destroyed weak light (= information ? ) is Not a quantum mechanical phenomenon at all. And the use of very fragile weak light (= photon ) for transmitting messages means this quantum communication technology is very unstable and impractical, which cannot replace the current ordinary stable internet.
As a result, contrary to the media-hype, the so-called quantum internet and quantum information technology are useless forever.
(Fig.56) ↓ Entanglement is nonsense, Not science !
Quantum entanglement or spooky action is said to be faster than light.
But this is untrue, and quantum entanglement or spooky action can never have practical application.
Because quantum entanglement or teleportation can Not do any real work (= these illusory quantum mechanical concepts such as entanglement and teleportation cannot send any real informations, so useless, this 6th paragraph ).
Physically-meaningless quantum entanglement cannot send any real informations, much less send faster-than-light information.
Quantum teleportation is also a meaningless and useless concept which can neither send real objects nor transmit information faster-than-light.
For example, even when a classical light is just split by some crystal into two lights with two polarizations, they call it "two entangled lights (= or photons )", though there is No quantum mechanics here.
Suppose we split classical light into two lights with the same polarizations (= whether those two lights have vertical-vertical light polarization or horizontal-horizonal polarization is unknown ).
When we measure one of light and confirm this light is vertically-polarized, it instantly (= faster-than-light entanglement ? ) determines that another light is also vertically-polarized.
So quantum entanglement is just about "measurement" of two light states (= ex. light polarization ) whose states are manipulated and prepared artificially in advance, Not about sending any information faster-than-light.
Quantum entanglement or spooky action, which can neither send real information nor do any work, is a completely useless and meaningless concept.
Its research is just a waste of money, except for publishing them in politicially-motivated journals.
Quantum teleportation, Bell inequality violation, and delayed choice quantum eraser use the same meaningless trick intentionally misinterpreting classical light as a fictitious photon.
So all (pseudo-)science researches, which claim spooky quantum entanglement effect was exploited, are just useless and impractical forever.
(Fig.57) Two de Broglie waves cross perpendicularly = stable Helium orbits.
Bohr's atomic model successfully explained energy levels of all hydrogen-like atoms and ions, but it could not explain two-electron Helium atom. Why ?
Many experiments showed an electron causes de Broglie wave whose wavelength was determined by observing its interference (= pattern of constructive and destructive interference ).
↑ So we have to naturally consider the electron's de Broglie wave interference (= destructive and constructive interference ) in true atomic electron's orbits.
Realistic Bohr's atomic model could successfully explain the exact energy levels and spectral lines of all hydrogen-like atoms ( this p.2, this p.4 ) by using this de Broglie wave interference (= avoiding destructive interference of the electron's de Broglie wave in its quantized orbit ).
Quantum mechanical Schrödinger equations also use this de Broglie wavelength, and agree with Bohr's atomic energies. ← But the quantum mechanics must include unreal zero orbital angular momentum where the unrealistic electrons always crash into nuclei in linear orbits, and its unphysical wavefunctions (= representing quantum mechanical de Broglie waves ) are likely to cause destructive interference and become unstable.
↑ Quantum mechanical atomic model contradicts the experimental observations of de Broglie wave destructive and constructive interference, so depends on the wrong useless calculation method.
The contradictory quantum mechanics, which is also using de Broglie wave relation but ignoring de Broglie wave interference inside atoms, has to rely on nonphysical exchance energies (= lack physical forces ) as a fictional source of Pauli exclusion principle which Pauli repulsion can be naturally explained by electron's de Broglie wave destructive interference in realistic atomic model.
Hydrogen and Helium atoms are the smallest atoms which are known to have up to two 1 × de Broglie wavelength orbits ( which correspond to Schrödinger equation 1s orbital giving the same energies as Bohr model, this p.3-last ).
1 × de Broglie wavelength contains a pair of opposite phases of wave crest (= containing an electron particle ) and trough which part contains no electron (= to be correct, de Broglie wave is a kind of longitudinal wave through medium ).
If the opposite wave phases = the crest part and trough part of an electron's de Broglie wave overlap each other out of phase, it causes destructive interference and kicks out the electron from destrucive wave, and its electron orbit becomes unstable.
So, when two 1 × de Broglie wavelength electron orbits overlap in the same circular orbit on the same plane (= upper figure, old Helium model ), opposite phases of two electron's de Broglie waves cancel each other, hence, this unstable old circular Helium atomic model is broken and impossible.
This is the consequence of destructive interference between two electrons' de Broglie waves out of phase, which was confirmed in many experiments.
To avoid this cancellation, two electrons' orbits have to be perpendicular to each other, which forms a realistic and stable Helium atom.
This new Helium model with two orbits crossing perpendicularly gives surprisingly accurate experimental energy values, hence, it proves to be a right Helium atomic model.
Unlike the old circular orbit model, the calculation of two perpendicular Helium orbits is extremely complicated, so it needs modern computer (= Coulomb force and de Broglie wavelength are Not the same in any different electrons' positions ), which could Not be done in 1920s when they chose wrong theory = quantum mechanics.
We proved that quantum mechanical Schrödinger equations for multi-electron atoms such as helium can never have true solutions due to its obvious violation of total energy conservation in different electrons' positions, so quantum mechanics is wrong.
Only this realistic helium atom can give true electrons' behavior (= which exact electron's behavior remains uncertain and paradoxical in unrealistic quantum mechanical atoms forever ), perfectly conserving the total energy in any electrons' positions due to its realistic method of directly computing precise changeable Coulomb forces at each electron's position and moving electrons obeying the basic physical principle.
(Fig.58) Old Bohr's circular helium = electrons are expelled, so wrong.
In Old Bohr's circular helium, electrons are kicked out from orbits due to destructive interference between opposite de Broglie wave phases.
Actually, this old Helium model with a single circular orbit containing two electrons gives wrong ground state energy (= -83.33 eV, this table.3 ) which is lower than true Helium ground state energy = -79.005 eV = the sum of 1st (= -24.5873 eV ) and 2nd (= -54.4177 eV ) ionization energies of helium.
Two 1 × de Broglie wavelength electron orbits must cross each other perpendicularly to avoid cancellation by destructive interference.
No more electron orbit can enter this new Helium, so it can explain Pauli exclusion principle using de Broglie wave interference.
(Fig.59) Hydrogen and Helium atoms.
All these orbits are one de Broglie's wavelength.
In this new helium, the two symmetrical orbits crossing perpendicularly are wrapping the whole helium atom completely.
This new helium model is just consistent with the fact of the strong stability and the closed shell property of helium.
Quantum mechanics needs unrealistic electron spin (= faster-than-light spinning ), which electron spins failed to explain strong Pauli exclusion repulsive energies, hence quantum mechanics artificially created unreal "exchange energies" lacking physical exchange force or force carriers.
↑ True Pauli exclusion principle and its strong repulsion need some "real tangible physical objects" as the force's origin besides Coulomb forces, which is possible in this realistic Bohr's helium model perfectly compatible with actually-observed de Broglie wave destructive and constructive interference.
Helium atom is known to produce small magnetic field (= Helium has magnetic field called diamagnetic ).
Of course, helium's two orbits are constantly changing their directions, so unable to produce as stably-strong magnetic field as ferromagnet where two neighboring electron orbits in some materials with many orderly aligned atoms are meshing and synchronizing with each other by strong Coulomb force Not by unreal spin.
So Helium has magnetic moment (= spin up + spin down = no magnetic moment ? ) = diamagnetic means quantum mechanical Helium with No angular momentum disagrees with actual Helium producing magnetic moment, so quantum mechanical helium model with unreal spin is wrong and disagrees with experimental facts.
(Fig.60) Two same-shaped orbits are perpendicular to each other.
Next we calculate the new helium's orbits using simple computer program.
Fig.60 shows one quarter of the whole orbits.
We suppose electron 1 moves on the xy plane after starting at the position of ( r1, 0, 0 ) in x-axis until it reaches y-axis, while electron 2 moves on the xz plane after starting at ( -r1, 0, 0 ) in x-axis until it reaches z-axis.
Because as I said, two electrons' orbits of helium must be perpendicular to each other to avoid destructive interference of two de Broglie waves.
This computing of Helium atom with two perpendicular orbits is complicated three-body problem which cannot be calculated without modern computers in old 1920s. ← This is why physicists had to give up this realistic and reasonable Helium model, and instead, accepted unrealistic quantum mechanics 100 years ago.
In this computation, first, we input two arbitrary values: total energy of Helium and the starting x-coordinate of the electron-1 (= r1, this starting x-coordinate will be increasing gradually and automatically, until +100 ), which will output the total de Broglie wavelength and the last electron's velocities after the electron has moved one-quarter of the orbit, which results will tell us this helium model with two perpendicular electron orbits is right or not.
Two electrons keep moving until they move one quarter of an orbit (= until one electron reaches y-axis, and the other electron reaches z-axis ).
After each electron has moved one quarter of its orbit, we get the output information about what de Brolgie wavelength one-quarter of the electron's orbit becomes, and the last velocity of each electron at the last point (= when the electron-1 moves one quarter of its orbit and arrives at the y-axis, this electron's last velocity must be perpendicular to y-axis for its orbital shape to be symmetrical around the nucleus ).
When one quarter (= 1/4 ) of the electron's orbital length becomes just 1/4 times de Broglie wavelength, it means one orbit is just one (= an integer ) times de Broglie wavelength, avoiding destructive interference, we compare the input helium total energy and the experimental helium total energy (= -79.005 eV ), and can judge whether this new Helium model is right or not.
If you actually compute it using the program below, you will surely find this Helium model with two perpendicular orbits will perfectly and successfully agree with the experimental ground state energies of not only helium but also all two-electron ions and three-electron lithium-like atoms.
↑ If the Helium energy value we input first gives just one times de Broglie wavelength equal to circumference of one orbit (= as the output result ) and simultaneously agrees with experimental Helium ground state energy value, this Helium model with two perpendicular orbits proves to be right. ← This will happen in this computation.
(Fig.61) Right r1 → electron-1 crosses y-axis perpendicularly
For an electron to return to its original position, the electron-1 orbit ( or electron-2 orbit ) must be symmetrical on the left and right sides of the nucleus.
So the electron-1 needs to cross y-axis at a right angle, and the electron-2 needs to cross z-axis at a right angle (= which can be judged by seeing the output results of the last electron's velocities ), after each electron moves a quarter (= 1/4 ) of its orbit.
Depending on the initial x-coodinate (= r1 = input value ) of an electron-1, whether the electron-1 can cross y-axis perpendicularly or not is determined (= there will be only one right input initial x-coordinate value which can give the right electron's last velocities where a electron-1 should cross y-axis perpendicularly after moving one quarter of a orbit in each helium total energy, hence, all other input values must be discarded ).
So after inputting initial r1 value, and confirming the electron-1 moves one quarter of its orbit and crosses y-axis perpendicularly (= the electron-1's velocity is in the -x-direction, when the electron-1 passes y-axis perpendicularly ), we pick up this remaining only one r1 value giving symmetrical orbits with the right electron's last velocity (in each different input helium total energy ) as the legitimate initial x-coordinate of the electron-1.
↑ When the output result of de Broglie wavelength becomes just 0.250000 (= just one quarter of a 1 × de Broglie wavelength orbit ), we can compare the input Helium total energy and the experimental Helium total energy (= -79.005 eV ), and judge whether this new Helium model with two perpendicular orbits is right or not.
When the input Helium total energy giving just 0.250000 × de Broglie wavelength of a quarter of a orbit agrees with the experimental Helium ground state energy (= -79.005 eV ), this new Helium model' prediction of Helium energies proves to be correct, and this will happen below by using simple computer programs.
This input initial x-coordinate (= r1 ) of electron-1 is automatically increased by one per calculation of 1/4 orbit, until r1 becomes r1+100 for screening.
In any r1, this program computes values, and we can check all those values, so the first inputted r1 value needs not to be right one. As r1 automatically increases, you can find the only one right r1 (= when electron-1 crosses y-axis perpendicularly ) in each different input Helium total energy.
In this computer program, after we input two values; the initial x-coordinate (= r1 ) of electron-1 and total energy of helium, two electrons start to move, interacting with the other electron and a nucleus through Coulomb force, which Coulomb acceleration is computed at extremely short time intervals to gradually change electron's velocity and position until the electron moves one quarter of an orbit.
We prepared three types of computer programs to do the same caculation of Helium orbits; JAVA ( version 1.5.0 ), simple C languages and Python ( 2.7 ), as shown in the link below.
Sample JAVA program
C language program
As shown in Fig.60 and Fig.61, the helium nucleus is at the origin.
The electron 1 initially at ( r1, 0, 0 ) moves one quarter of its orbit and arrives at y-axis, while the electron 2 initially at ( -r1, 0, 0 ) moves until it arrives at z-axis.
As meter and second are rather large units for measurement of these electron's motion, so we use new convenient units
(Fig.62) New units of time and length.
From Fig.62, convert the old acceleration unit to new acceleration unit (= m/s2 → MM/SS2 ) like
If you copy and paste the above program source code into a text editor, you can easily compile and run this.
When you run this program ( for example, JAVA ) in command prompt, the following sentences are displayed on the screen.
First we input the initial x-coordinate r1 = r (in MM) of electron 1 (see Fig.64 ), and press "enter" key.
For example, in Fig.64, we input "3060", which means the initial x coordinate of electron 1 is 3060 MM = 3060 × 10-14 meter. The initial x coordinate of electron 2 becomes -3060 MM, automatically (= because, two electrons are symmetrical around the helium nucleus ).
Next we input the absolute value of the total energy |E| (in eV) of helium.
In Fig.64, when we input "79.0", and press enter key, it means total energy of this helium is -79.0 eV.
↑ This -79.0 eV is close to actual helium ground state energy = -79.005 eV (= this p.4, this p.9 ) where unphysical Schrödinger equations, which are unable to solve Helium atom, just artificially choose fake Helium wavefunctions which proved to be illegitimate because of Not conserving total energy of Helium.
↑ The Helium total energies by choosing fake solutions for unsolvable Schrödinger solutions are different in different electrons' positions (= unsolvable quantum mechanical helium is false ), while this new realistic Helium model can surely conserve the total energy, so legitimate, because the electron's velocity at each point is changed based on actually computing real Coulomb electric forces among two electrons and a nucleus. (= three body problem of Helium can finally be dealt with using computer's power which was impossible in 1920s when paradoxical quantum mechanics was born )
True helium ground state energy is obtained by putting minus to the sum of 1st (= 24.5873 eV ) and 2nd (= 54.4177 eV ) ionization energies of helium = -24.5873 - 54.4177 = -79.005 eV. ← this is experimental value of two-electron helium ground (= the lowest total ) energy.
(Fig.65) Initial states. "r" is initial x coordinate of electron 1.
From the inputted values of total energy of helium and initial x-coordinate of electrons (= initial Coulomb potential energy can be obtained ), we can know initial kinetic energy (= total energy - potential energy ) and initial velocity of the electron 1 in y direction and the electron-2's initial velocity in z direction.
For example, initial Coulomb potential energy (= V ) of the initial electrons' state of Fig.65 becomes
(Fig.66) Initial total Coulomb potential energy V.
The first term of right side in Fig.66 is Coulomb attractive potential energy between two electrons and 2e+ helium nucleus (= distance between each electron and nucleus is "r" ).
The second term is Coulomb repulsive potential energy between two electrons in the initial state (= distance between two electrons is "2r" ).
(Fig.67) ↓ Program calculates electron's initial velocity "v" from input values.
Total kinetic energy of two electrons is given by total energy (ex. -79.0 eV ) minus potential energy (= V ).
So from input values of Fig.64, we can get the initial kinetic energy and velocity of each electron.
The initial velocity of electron 1 ( 2 ) is in y ( z ) direction.
(Fig.68) Change unit of velocity.
Using the new unit of Fig.62, this program changes "m/s" into "MM/SS" in the initial velocity.
Because it is convenient when calculating each acceleration and de Broglie wave at intervals of very short 1 SS (= 10-23 seconds ) instead of very long 1 second.
(Fig.69) Positions of two electrons (= perpendicular and symmetric )
At intervals of 1 SS (= 10-23 seconds ), we compute the Coulomb force among the two electrons and the nucleus based on their positional relashionship.
When the electron 1 is at ( x, y, 0 ), the electron 2 is at ( -x, 0, y ) due to their symmetric positions ( see Fig.60 ).
So the x component of the acceleration ( m/sec2 ) of the electron 1 by Coulomb force between electrons and nucleus is,
(Fig.70) x component of electron-1's acceleration by Coulomb force.
where the first term is the Coulomb force between the nucleus and the electron 1, and the second term is the force between the two electrons.
(rm) is an electron's reduced mass.
(Fig.71) Distances among two electrons and nucleus.
Due to symmetric positions of two electrons, when electron 1 is at ( x, y, 0 ), the electrons 2 is at ( -x, 0, z ), in which z = y.
As a result, the distance between electron 1 and nucleus is given by the first relation of Fig.71.
The second relation is the distance between two electrons.
Considering the finite helium nuclear mass (= alpha particle), we use here the reduced mass (= rm ) except when the center of mass is at the origin.
( Of course, even if you use the ordinary electron's mass instead of slightly-modified reduced mass, you can get almost the same exact helium ground state energy. )
(Fig.72) Reduced mass (= rm ) of one electron.
where me is electron's original mass = 9.10938 × 10-31 kg
See also reduced mass of three-body helium.
In the same way, the y component of electron-1's acceleration (m/sec2) by Coulomb force between nucleus and electrons is,
(Fig.73) y component of the acceleration by Coulomb.
The 1st term of Fig.73 is Coulomb attraction between electron-1 and nucleus, the 2nd term is Coulomb repulsion between two electrons at each position.
Based on calculation of Coulomb force in each position, we slightly change the electron's velocity vector and position at intervals of 1 SS (= 10-23 seconds ) until the electron moves one quarter of its orbit.
We suppose electron-1 (or electron-2 ) moves only on the XY-plane (or XZ-plane ) (= two electrons' orbits must be perpendicular to each other for avoiding destructive interference of two electrons' de Broglie waves ), so the z component of the acceleration (= blocked by two de Broglie waves' destructive interference ) of the electron-1 is not considered.
(Fig.74) de Broglie waves in each short segment of an orbit.
We also calculate de Broglie wavelength (= λ = h/mv ) of the electron from electron's velocity (= v ), mass (= m ) and Planck constant (= h ).
An electron's velocity is gradually changing in its different positions, as the electron is moving in its orbit, so the electron's de Broglie wavelength is also changing in different positions. ← This gradually changing velocity and de Broglie wavelength could Not be calculated in 1920s without computers.
Therefore, we need to divide the electron's orbit into many smaller segments where each short segment equals the distance an electron moves for extremely a short time 1 SS (= 10-23 seconds ).
Then, we compute the acceleration by Coulomb force, change the electron's velocity, obtain de Broglie wavelength and what de Broglie wavelength equals each short segment at intervals of 1 SS.
The number (= wseg ) of electron's de Broglie waves contained in each short segment (= each short segment is wseg × de Broglie wavelength ) is,
(Fig.75) Number of de Broglie wavelength in the short segment.
where (VX, VY) are x and y components of electron-1's velocity ( unit 1 MM/SS = 109 meter/sec ), the numerator of the right side of above equation Fig.75 means the moving distance (in meter) for 1 SS. the denominator is electron's de Broglie's wavelength (= h/mv, in meter ).
In the numerator, we change length unit from MM into meter using the relation 1 MM = 10-14 meter.
Here, the estimated electron's orbit is divided into more than one million short segments (= each short segment is moving distance for 1SS ) for this calculation.
When the electron 1 has moved one quarter of its orbit and reached y-axis, this program displays electron-1's last velocity (= VX, VY ) at the last point
(Fig.76) Computing results, when we input 79.0 eV, r1 = 3060 MM.
After moving a quarter of the orbit, the program displays the above values on the screen. The initial r1 automatically increases per each calculation of 1/4 orbit.
VX and VY are x and y components of the last velocity of electron 1 ( unit: MM/SS ). ← The last electron-1's velocities (= VX,VY ) are x and y components of the electron-1's last velocities after electrons have moved one quarter of their orbits (= electron-1 should cross y-axis perpendicularly, so its last VY velocity should be close to zero ).
preVY is y component of the last velocity 1ss before VY ( so preVY is almost the same as VY ).
We pick up the values when this last VY is the closest to zero = meaning electron-1 crosses y-axis at right angles, which condition is necessary for the electron-1's orbit to be symmetrical on both sides of y axis around the nucleus. = Symmetrical orbit (= energetically equilibrium ) gives the lowest total energy, and the symmetrical orbit's total de Broglie wavelength simply becomes 4 × one quarter of de Broglie wavelength.
(mid)WN means the output result of the total number of de Broglie wavelength in one quarter of the orbit. So, one quarter (= 1/4 ) of this electron's orbit becomes WN × de Broglie wavelength.
When one orbit is an integer = 1 × de Broglie wavelength, the 1/4 of the orbit has to be 1/4 (= midWN is close to 0.25000 ) × de Broglie wavelength.
↑ When the output result of one quarter of de Broglie wavelength becomes just 0.250000 (= just 1/4 ), and its input Helium total energy just agrees with experimental Helium total energy (= -79.005 eV ), this new Helium atomic model proves to be right.
(Fig.77) When helium total energy is just -79.0 eV, 1/4 electron's orbit is 0.250006 × de Broglie wavelength. ← so close !
Each time an electron has moved 1/4 orbit and calculated the total de Broglie wavelength included in the 1/4 of the orbit and the electron's last velocities, this program returns the electron back to the starting x-axis, and increases r1 (= initial x-coordinate of electron-1 ) by 1, until r1 changes from input initial x-coordinate value (ex. 3060 MM ) to +100 (= 3160 ).
As shown in Fig.76, when r1 is 3074 MM, last VY velocity of electron 1 becomes the smallest ( VY = 0.000000 ), which means electron-1 passes y-axis perpendicularly = symmetrical stable orbit.
This means when r1 ( initial x coordinate ) = 3074 × 10-14 meter, these electron's orbits become just symmetric around the nucleus (= so, only this initial x-coordinate 3074 MM value of electron-1 remains as a legitimate one in this case ), and we can know one orbit is 4 × WN (= 0.250006, when energy is -79.0 eV ) = 1.000024 de Brolgie wavelength.
In this case where we input -79.0 eV as helium ground state energy, the number of de Broglie wavelength contained in a quarter of its orbit becomes 0.250006.
So, one orbit is 0.250006 × 4 = 1.000024 de Broglie wavenlength. ( ← so close ! but NOT just 1.000000 )
As shown in Table 1, when input energy is -79.0037 eV, de Broglie wave becomes just 1.000000.
So we can get the final value of -79.0037 eV as calculated ( predicted ) Helium ground state energy, when Helium has two perpendicular orbits of just 1.000000 × de Broglie wavelength.
The experimental value of Helium ground state energy is -79.005 eV (= sum of 1st and 2nd ionization energies of helium ), which just agrees with the computed ( predicted ) energy value of -79.0037 eV, proving this new Helium model is correct.
Table 1 shows the results in which the last VY (= y component of electron-1's last velocity ) is the closest to zero (= electron-1 crosses y-axis perpendicularly to be symmetrical orbit around the nucleus ) in different input total helium energies E.
This result shows when the total energy of new Bohr's helium is -79.0037 eV, each orbital length is just one de Broglie wavelength.
This excellent agreement between calculated results (= predicted by this model = -79.0037 eV ) and experimental helium ground state energy (= -79.005 eV ) proves this new Helium model with two perpendicular orbits correctly considering destructive interference of two electrons' de Brolgie waves is right with No contradiction unlike unrealistic quantum mechanics.
|Prediction (eV)||r1 (MM)||1/4 wavelength||one wavelength|
WN × 4 is the total number of de Broglie's wavelength contained in one round of the orbital. This computed helium ground state energy value (= predicted energy values by this new helium model ) is -79.0037 eV.
The experimental value of helium ground state energy is -79.005147 eV (= 1st + 2nd ionization energies, Nist, CRC ). ← almost perfect agreement between the prediction and experimental values !
So we can conclude this new Helium model with two electrons' perpendicular orbits giving just the same ground state energy as experimental values, proved to be right.
Surprisingly, all experimental ground state energies of all other two-electron atoms and ions just agree with computed results predicted by this Helium-like model with two perpendicular orbits, proving this new helium atomic model is real.
What is the very small difference between them ( -79.005147 - 79.0037 = -0.001447 eV ) ?
This tiny, tiny energy difference is said to be caused by "relativistic effect" of seemingly increasing electron's mass when the electron moves faster.
↑ But this name of "relativistic effect" is wrong.
Because the effect of electron's mass increase (= though it's impossible ) by increasing kinetic energy was first proposed by classical Maxwell theory ( energy = mc2 was first proposed by Maxwell, Not Einstein ). Einstein just copied this seeming mass increase effect in the wrong way called "relativistic".
↑ In Einstein relativistic world, all physical values are "illusory relative values" paradoxically changed, seen by differently-moving observers, so it's impossibe for such an unrealistic relativistic theory to determine or predict only one definite absolute physical energy value.
Instead of accepting Einstein ridiculous idea that electron's mass can increase without absorbing anything (= violate mass conservation, and Einstein relativity needs unreal virtual particles with imaginary mass as force mediators ), we can say, as an electron moves faster, it faces more resistance from surrounding medium, and becomes harder to move, which increasing resistance from surrounding medium is detected as a seeming increasing electron's pseudo-mass effect.
Thinking commonsensically, it's impossible to increase the electron's original mass without adding anything to it, as Einstein irrationally claimed.
So we call the tiny, tiny energy difference between experimental value and computed value ( -79.005147 - 79.0037 = -0.001447 eV ) "pseudo-relativistic effect" ( which is multi-electron effect, so neither Schrödinger equation nor Einstein relativity can get analytical value for it, so it has nothing to do with Einstein relativistic effect ) from here.
The theoretical ground state energy value of the helium ion (He+) can be obtained from usual Bohr model or Schrodinger equation ( Z = 2 ) using the reduced mass.
This value is -54.41531 eV.
And the experimental value of He+ ground state energy is -54.41776 eV (Nist).
So pseudo-relativistic correction to the energy in He+ ion is -54.41776-(-54.41531) = -0.00245 eV.
The theoretical ground state energy value of the hydrogen atom (H) can be obtained from usual Bohr model or Schrodinger equation using the reduced mass, too.
This value is -13.5983 eV.
And the experimental value of H ground state energy is -13.59843 eV (Nist).
So pseudo-relativistic correction to the energy in hydrogen atom is -13.59843-(-13.5983) = -0.00013 eV.
This new Bohr model Helium can explain and predict all two-electron atoms and ions perfectly.
Go back to tiny, tiny pseudo-relativistic effect.
The electron's velocity of the neutral helium atom is slower than helium ion, but faster than hydrogen atom.
So the pseudo-relativistic correction in neutral helium atom should be between -0.00245 eV and -0.00013 eV.
The above calculation value of -0.001447 eV is just between them ! ← The predicted helium total energy value -79.0037 eV by this new helium model proves to be perfectly right !
As a control program, we show the program of hydrogen-like atoms ( H and He+ ) using the same computing method as above. Try these, too.
JAVA program ( H or He+ )
C language ( H or He+ )
Here we use the new unit ( 1 SS = 1 × 10-23 second ) and compute each value at the intervals of 1 SS.
If we change this definition of 1 SS, the calculation results of the total energy (E) in which the orbital length is just one de Broglie's wavelength change as follows,
|1 SS = ? sec||Result of E(eV)|
|1 × 10-22||-79.00540|
|1 × 10-23||-79.00370|
|1 × 10-24||-79.00355|
|1 × 10-25||-79.00350|
This means that as the orbit becomes more smooth, the calculation values converge to -79.00350 eV.
The programs based on other 1 SS definition is as follows,
Sample JAVA program 1 SS = 1 × 10-25 sec, calculation takes much time.
Old sample JAVA program 1 SS = 1 × 10-22 sec--fast but the results are a little different
(Fig.78) Two-electron Atomic Model ( He, Li+, Be2+, B3+, C4+ ... )
Surprisingly, this new atomic structure of Bohr's helium is applicable to all other two and three electron atoms ( ions ).
JAVA program to compute two-electron atoms. ← After stating this program, we are asked to input atomic number Z.
If you pick Z = 2, this program starts to compute ordinary Helium atom in the same way as above
If you pick Z = 3, this program computes Lithium ion (= Li+ = 3e+ nucleus and two electrons )
If you pick Z = 4, this program computes Beryllium ion (= Be2+ = 4e+ nucleus and two electrons ).
So this program method computing all two-electron atoms and ions is almost the same as upper Helium program, except you should input another information = atomic number (= Z ) after running this program.
Computing ( predicted ) results of all two electron atoms and ions agree with experimental ground state energies !
See detailed computing method.
|Atoms||r1 (MM)||one wavelength||Predicted results (eV)||Experimental values (eV)||Error (eV)|
↑ The experimental ground state energy of each two-electron atom or ion can be obtained from this this or this ionization energies (= the sum of the first and second ionization energies from the right = two most inner 1s electrons' energies ).
For example, the experimental ground state energy of Li+ ion with two electrons is the sum of the 2nd (= 75.64 eV ) and 3rd (= 122.454 eV ) ionization energies from this or table, hence -(75.64+122.454) = -198.094 eV.
Table 4 shows three-electron atoms and ions such as lithium, Be+, B2+, C3+, N4+ ..
See detailed computing method.
|Atoms||r1 (MM)||one wavelength||Predicted result (eV)||Experimental values (eV)||Error (eV)|
As shown here, we prove when two electron orbits of 1 × de Broglie wavelength cross each other perpendicularly, they give surprisingly accurate energy results in all two-electron atoms and ions !
(Fig.79) ↓ Helium two electrons e1,e2 orbits must be perpendicular to each other for avoiding destructive interference between two de Broglie waves.
Many experiments such as Davisson-Germer, diffraction and electron's microscope confirmed that an electron actually causes de Broglie wave and interference.
↑ The interference of all light and matter wave consists of destructive and constructive interference. ← The destructive interference (= canceling out wave ) excludes the electron from the place, hence, No electrons are found where the destructive interference of de Broglie wave occurs in two-slit experiments.
Realistic Bohr's atomic model could successfully predict the exact energy levels of all hydrogen-like atoms ( this p.3-4 ) by incorporating this electron's de Broglie wave inteference and using the idea that each electron's orbit must be an integer multiple of de Broglie wavelength to avoid its destructive interference.
Quantum mechanical Schrödinger equation also used this de Broglie wave idea and accidentally got exactly the same atomic energy values as Bohr's atomic model.
Quantum mechanics is unrealistic and self-contradictory, so false, because the quantum mechanical atoms must always include unreal zero orbital angular momentum where electrons always crash into nuclei (= like the earth crashes into the Sun ! ) and become unstable with its electrons causing de Broglie wave destructive interference in its unrealistic linear orbits (= due to zero orbital angular momentum ).
↑ So we can naturally conclude two electrons' de Broglie waves in a helium atom cause their interference, and this electrons' de Broglie wave interference plays a main role in the strong Pauli exclusion principle and its mysterious Pauli repulsion kicking out the 3rd electron from the inner 1s orbit into the outer 2s orbit ( this 5th paragraph ) against strong Coulomb attraction of a nucleus.
After ignoring the experimentally-verified de Broglie wave destructive interference, quantum mechanics artificially created the unrealistic concept called spin to wrongly explain Pauli principle.
The detailed physical mechanism of how such unphysical spins cause strong Pauli repulsion is unknown and still Not explained by quantum mechanics.
↑ The unphysical electron spin was originally proposed to explain the electron's magnetic field as a fictitious electron's spinning or rotation.
But this idea of the electron spin as "actual electron's spinning" turned out to be false, because a tiny electron must be spinning much faster than light (= forbidden by Einstein relativity, this 3rd paragraph ).
So quantum mechanics started to say contradictory things "each electron has spin angular momentum and magnetic moment, but the electron is Not actually spinning !" ← nonsense.
Physicists have stopped trying to understand such a paradoxical quantum mechanical world.
Though the concept of the electron's spin was introduced to explain electron-generating magnetic field ( this p.2 ), its electron spin-spin dipole magnetic interaction turned out to be too weak ( this p.5 ) to explain strong Pauli exclusion energy and ferromagnet.
So the already-contradictory quantum mechanics tried to create another contradictory concept called "exchange energy" to explain strong Pauli exclusion repulsion.
↑ This ad-hoc "exchange energy" is Not a real energy, because there is No such thing as "exchange force", hence quantum mechanical Pauli exclusion repulsion is neither explained by any real objects ( this p.6, this p.8-lower ) nor admitted as real forces ( this p.10, this p.5, this last-paragraph ). ← Unscientific exchange energy is unnecessary, useless, even harmful (= preventing innovation ) for us, because we cannot explain it using real things.
This quantum mechanical "unphysical Pauli exchange energy" not only failed to explain the real origin of mysterious Pauli repulsion but also prevents our scientific progress or innovation forever due to its nonphysical antisymmetric wavefunctions which cannot distinguish different electrons or atoms in different places by unrealistically forcing each electron to exist in all different atoms simultaneously ( this p.11 ) as if each electron exists in fantasy parallel world.
In order to explain the real origin and repulsive force of mysterious Pauli exclusion principle, we have to use the experimentally-verified de Broglie wave interference.
↑ Admitting Pauli exclusion repulsion as real forces caused by some "real tangible objects" and explaining a single electron's interference without relying on fantasy quantum mechanical parallel worlds needs the existence of some "real medium" filling the space around an electron particle compatible with successful Bohr's realistic atom.
Accepting the experimentally-confirmed electron's de Broglie wave as "real tangible wave or objects" needs the real medium (= Not denied by Michelson-Morley experiment ), which contradicts Enstein paradoxical relativity which needs unreal virtual partices as fictitious force mediators.
As shown above, using electrons' de Broglie wave interference and considering helium's two orbits crossing perpendicularly to avoid the destructive interfeference of two de Broglie waves, our new helium model perfectly and successfully predict the exact experimental energy values of all two-electron atoms, ions and even all three-electron atoms, which fact proves that real Pauli repulsion by de Broglie wave destructive inteference is right.
We can successfully extend this realistic Pauli exclusion principle explained by the experimentally-verified electron's de Broglie wave interference to all other larger atoms and molecules.
(Fig.80) ↓ Midpoint of de Broglie wave doesn't expel another electron.
In realistic Helium atom with two electrons' orbits, each electron has to pass through another closest electron's orbital de Broglie wave (= opposite phase ) perpendicularly to avoid destructive interference of two de Broglie waves whose interference were confirmed experimentally.
The fact that two de Broglie waves crossing each other perpendicularly can avoid destructive interference is also shown in the fact that two light waves polarized orthogonally do Not (destructively) interfere with each other ( this p.1-last-paragraph ).
An electron moving around the nucleus has to do a "U-turn" at some point to return to its original point. Of course, also when the electron does a U-turn (= ex. when the electron-1 has moved 1/4 orbit and arrived at y-axis in Fig.60 ), it has to avoid destructive interference from another electron's de Broglie wave.
In this Helium model with two perpendicular 1 × de Broglie wavelength orbits, electrons do a U-turn when another closest de Broglie wave phase becomes the safe "midpoint phase" between opposite phases (= midpoint is just like this node between wave crest and trough ), as shown in lower orbits in Fig.80.
This midpoint is neutral phase (= just between trough and crest ± opposite phases ), so it does not affect or destroy another electron's de Broglie wave.
So electrons can do a U-turn smoothly and safely when the closest de Broglie wave phase is gradually changing into the neutral midpoint phase, which does not cause destructive interference in this Helium model.
The electron is repelled by the other negative electron by Coulomb electric repulsion, so the electron tends to move towards the opposite phase (= destructive interference area ) of the other electron's de Broglie wave by Coulomb repulsion, hence, the electron automatically needs to cross this opposite phase of the other de Broglie wave perpendicularly to avoid destructive interference ( experiencing Coulomb electric repulsion from other electron negative charges simultaneously ).
(Fig.81) ↓ An example of real Pauli principle by de Broglie wave's destructive interference. When there are four 1 × wavelength orbits in a atom, an electron is expelled by destructive interference from more than one other de Broglie waves' opposite phase.
Bohr's realistic atom could successfully explain energy levels of all hydrogen-like atoms using the condition that the circumference of the electron's orbit is just equal to an integral number of de Broglie wavelength to avoid destructive interference between de Broglie waves.
The exact ground state energies of the smallest atoms such as Hydrogen and Helium atom could be obtained when the the electron's orbit is 1 × de Broglie wavelength (= corresponds to principal quantum number n = 1, as shown in this p.3 )
Quantum mechanical Schrödinger equations also used the same de Broglie wave condition and obtained exactly the same hydrogen energy levels as Bohr's atomic model designated by the quantum number n (= meaning the total orbital length is n × de Broglie wavelength ), though only quantum mechanical atoms include unrealistic zero orbital angular momentum whose linear orbits (= like the earth crashes into the Sun ) are chaotic and unstable by destructive interference within its own de Broglie wave.
As shown in the ionization energies and periodic table, the ionization of the Lithium (= Li ) suddenly becomes smaller than the former Helium atom (= He ), which means the valence electron of the Lithium enters the outer orbit (= n=2 or 2 × de Broglie wavelength orbit which is farther away from the nucleus, as shown in good agreement between prediction and experimental Li ground state energy, this 5th-paragraph ) instead of the inner smaller orbit (= n=1 or 1 × de Broglie wavelength orbit which is closer to the nucleus ).
This change seen in the first ionization energies in various atoms shows the maximum number of electrons entering the smallest 1 × de Broglie wavelength orbits (or n = 1 ) is two (= Hydrogen and Helium ).
Actually quantum mechanics also claims only two electrons as seen in Hydrogen or Helium atoms can enter the innermost 1s orbitals (= n= 1 ), and the 3rd electron of Lithium must be excluded from the inner n=1 orbit and instead, enter the outer 2s orbital due to Pauli exclusion principle.
Here we explain why the maximum number of 1 × de Broglie wavelength orbits contained in an atom is two using realistic Pauli exclusion principle.
Each 1 × de Broglie wavelength orbit contains only one electron, so each atom can contain up to two 1 × de Broglie wavelength orbits with up to two electrons.
When the total number of orbits is unsymmetrically odd number ( ex. three electrons in three orbits, which cannot form the stable symmetrical orbits, hence must change into the even-number two or four orbital atoms, as seen in Not symmetrical electrically = Not equilateral triangular positions of three electrons ).
In these unsymmetrical three electron's orbits, satisfying two conditions of electrically-symmetrical positions of three electrons' orbits balancing Coulomb repulsion among three electrons and three orbits perpendicular to each other is impossible, so the odd number electrons' orbits become unstable and destroyed (= by destructive interference among three electrons' de Broglie waves )
So we think about the case of the symmetrical even number = four electrons in four 1 × de Broglie wavelength orbits, and explain why this four-electron case is impossible (= fictitious Beryllium with four electrons in four 1s or 1 × de Broglie wavelength orbits is impossible ) with respect to real Pauli exclusion principle based on de Broglie wave destructive interference.
When a fictitious atom contains four 1 × de Broglie wavelength orbits, each electron (ex. e3 ) is surrounded by opposite wave phases of other two orbits (= opposite phase thick lines of e1, e2 surrounds and expels electron e3 ) as shown in lower figure of Fig.81.
When an atom contains only two orbits of 1 × de Broglie wavelength like the real helium atom (= an electron crosses the other one electron's opposite de Broglie wave phase perpendicularly and safely ), an electron is never surrounded by two opposite-phase de Broglie waves of other two electrons like Fig.81 lower figure of a 4-orbit fictitious atom.
When an electron does a U-turn (= when an atom consists only of two orbits, it's OK ), in a fictitious atom of four 1 × de Broglie wavelength orbits, the electron is expelled by destructive interference surrounded by other two opposite de Broglie wave phases (= resultantly, cannot do U-turn at safe midpoint in this fictitious four 1 × de Broglie wavelength orbits ).
↑ When more than one orbits of the opposite de Broglie wave phase are near an electron, this electron cannot pass just one orbit of the opposite phase perpendicularly. (= an electron crossing two other orbits of opposite phase in two different directions perpendicularly at the same time is impossible ) = realistic Pauli exclusion principle mechanism.
So the 3rd electron of Lithium and the 3rd, 4th electrons of Beryllium are unable to enter the innermost 1 × de Broglie wavelength orbits due to destructive interference between opposite phases of de Broglie waves..
The maximum number of 1 × de Broglie wavelength orbits contained in a single atom proves to be up to two like Helium atom.
This is a realistic mechanism of Pauli exclusion repulsion based on real force and force carrier (= surrounding "medium" causing destructive interference between multiple de Broglie waves corresponds to force carrier, which is lacking in unrealistic quantum mechanical Pauli principle's "exchange energy" ).
As a result, we can successfully explain real Pauli exclusion principle using the destructive interference of real electron's de Broglie wave (= real objects exerting real forces ) without unreal spin.
(Fig.82) ↓ Electrons cross the opposite phases of another electron's orbit perpendicularly like Helium without destructive interference.
Like Helium, another noble gas = Neon with eight valence (= outer ) electrons can be explained by the same principle based on avoiding destructive interference of other electrons' de Broglie waves.
In periodic table, Neon is in the 2nd horizontal row which corresponds to 2 × de Broglie wavelength orbits in energy levels ( = n = 2 ).
There are clear ionization energy gaps between atoms of different rows in periodic table, which sudden change of ionization energies shows H and He atoms in the 1st row of periodic table belong to 1 × de Broglie wavelength orbits (= n = 1 ), and Li-Ne in the 2nd row belong to 2 × de Broglie wavelength orbits (= n = 2 ).
Neon has eight valence electrons.
And one orbit of 2 × de Broglie wavelength (= two pairs of crest and trough wave phases ) can contain up to two electrons.
So we can assume Neon consists of four 2 × de Broglie wavelength orbits, each orbit contains two electrons, therefore the total number of Neon valence electrons is 4 orbits × 2 electrons = 8 electrons, which agrees with the fact.
As shown in above figure, all electrons cross the opposite de Broglie wave phase of other electrons perpendicularly at vertices of hexahedron (= Coulomb electrically symmetrical, hence stable electrons' distribution ).
So Neon's electrons can avoid destructive interference of de Broglie waves just like Helium.
An orbit of 2 × de Broglie wavelength contains more pairs of wave crest (= electron ) and trough (= opposite phase ) than an orbit of 1 × de Broglie wavelength, so Neon can contain as many as four orbits ( without destructive interference ), such four orbits were impossible in Helium of two 1 × de Broglie wavelength orbits.
(Fig.83) ↓ Electrons safely do a U-turn at midpoints of other electron's de Broglie waves without destructive interference in four 2 × de Broglie wavelength orbits (= each orbit contains up to 2 electrons ).
When Helium contains up to two orbits of 1 × de Broglie wavelength, electrons can avoid destructive interference with other electrons' de Broglie wave of opposite phases and do a U-turn safely at the closest electron's neutral midpoints (= a point just between crest and trough of one de Broglie wavelength orbit, this midpoint between the opposite phases does Not affect or destroy other electron's waves ).
But when the fictitious ( Beryllium ) atom contains four orbits of 1 × de Broglie wavelength, electrons are expelled , surrounded by more than one other opposite wave phases (= encounter several opposite wave phases in more than one different directions, hence cannot avoid destructive interference unlike the helium case where each electron encounters only one another electron's opposite wave phase and crosses it perpendicularly ), which is a realistic mechanism of Pauli exclusion principle.
In case of 2 × de Broglie wavelength (= more pairs of crest and trough of wave than 1 × de Broglie wavelength ), it can contain four orbits without destructive interference from other electons, enabling electrons to move and do a U-turn smoothly and safely at other electron wave's neutral midpoint.
This midpoint in de Broglie wave is the point just between opposite wave phases (= between crest and trough ), so this midpoint wave phase is neutral, which neither affects other electrons' de Broglie waves nor causes destructive interference, as seen in Fig.83 lower.
This is why 2 × de Broglie wavelength allows up to four orbits (= total electron number is up to eight compatible with Neon's eight valence electros, in comparison to just two orbits of 1 × de Broglie wavelength in Helium's two valence electrons. )
(Fig.84) ↓ An orbit of 2 × de Broglie wavelength can contain up to two electrons = two pairs of crest (= a part containing an electron) and trough (= opposite phase to the crest wave phase )
An atom such as Neon can contain four orbits of 2 × de Broglie wavelength where each electron can cross another electron's opposite de Broglie wave phase perpendicularly without destructive interference like Helium consisting of two 1 × de Broglie wavelength orbits.
This is a realistic mechanism of Pauli exclusion principle.
(Fig.85) Orbits of Neon cross each other "perpendicularly".
As shown on this page, we can show the appropriate new Neon model, in which orbits can cross each other "perpendicularly" one to one.
Crossing perpendicularly (= Not parallel ) means they can avoid "destructive" interference between two de Broglie wave opposite phases.
Neon consists of four 2 × de Broglie wavelength orbits ( total 4 orbits × 2 electrons in each 2 × de Broglie wavelength = 8 electrons )
(Fig.86) Maximum orbits = midpoint lines + 2 (= two perpendicular orbits )
We can prove all atoms use the same principle as Helium where two de Broglie waves cross perpendicularly to avoid destructive interference of electrons' de Broglie waves.
As the number of de Broglie wavelength in each orbit is higher (= more pairs of crest and trough of electron's de Broglie wave ), more orbits and more valence electrons can be contained in each atom.
For example, an atom can contain up to two orbits of 1 × de Broglie wavelength (= total two electrons ), as seen in Helium, and can contain up to four orbits of 2 × de Broglie wavelength (= total eight electrons ), as seen in Neon.
If an atom tries to contain more than two orbits of 1 × de Broglie wavelength, multiple electrons' de Broglie waves interfere with each other destructively, hence impossible.
An atom can contain 6 orbits of 4 × de Broglie wavelength, as seen in Krypton. Coincidentally, Krypton has 18 valence electrons (= based on experimental ionization energy change in periodic table ), 18 is a multiple of 6.
↑ In the 4 × de Broglie wavelength, the maximum is 6 orbits where every single crest phase of de Broglie wave can find and cross its partner = trough opposite phase in one of other electrons' de Broglie waves perpendicularly in Coulomb electrically symmetrical stable position.
If an atom tries to contain more than 6 orbits of 4 × de Broglie wavelength orbits, it destroys the symmetrical positional relation of a pair of trough and crest opposite de Broglie wave phases crossing perpendicularly. → destructive interference like more than 2 orbits of 1 × de Broglie wavelength
So as the number of de Broglie wavelength (= number of de Broglie wave's crest and trough ) increases, each orbit can cross more other orbits perpendicularly (= opposite wave phases cross each other perpendicularly ), avoiding destructive interference.
As a result, this new atomic model not only agrees with experimental results, but also explains real Pauli exclusion principle based on experimentally-verified de Broglie wave interference, without relying on unreal spin or unphysical exchange interaction.
(Fig.87) The opposite de Broglie wave phases cross perpendicularly.
Electrons spin is unrealistic and can explain neither the maximum valence electrons' number nor real mechanism of strong Pauli exclusion principle.
The maximum numbers of valence electrons by quantum mechanics and its unrealistic spin description are false and inconsistent with experimental facts.
According to quantum mechanical rule, the maximum numbers of valence electrons in different energy levels or principal quantum number (= n ) must obey 2n2, so ↓
n = 1; maximum valence electron = 2 (= actual number = 2)
n = 2; maximum valence electron = 8 (= actual number = 8)
n = 3; maximum valence electron = 18 (= actual number = 8) ← disagree !
n = 4; maximum valence electron = 32 (= actual number = 18) ← disagree !
↑ But the actual maximum valence electron numbers are 2 (= n = 1 ), 8 (= n = 2 ), 8 (= n = 3), 18 (= n = 4 ) as shown in the way of the ionization energy change and atomic sizes in periodic table, which contradicts quantum mechanical prediction of 2n2 valence electron's numbers.
So irrational quantum mechanics started to make a contradictory claim that electrons of 3d orbital (= n = 3 ) should exist in the 4th row (= n = 4 ), and the 3d orbital energy levels should be magically higher than 4s orbital (= n = 4 ).
Quantum mechanics can neither predict these contradictory energy levels nor explain why 3d orbital energy is higher than 4s using its useless Schrödinger equations ( this p.1-left ).
Useless quantum mechanics just vaguely says the approximate effective central positive charge (= Zeff ) is higher in 4s orbital (= then, Coulomb energy is lower ) than 3d orbital due to 4s electrons' penetrating inner electrons without showing any exact analytical solutions or energy values.
Because quantum mechanics is unable to solve any mutli-electron atomic Schrödinger equations ( this p.7 ), it just chooses fake solution (= called variational method, this last-paragraph ) by adjusting free parameters such as effective central charge Zeff to fit empirically-obtained energy values ( this p.2, this 4th-paragraph ) instead of obtaining physical values from quantum mechanical theory ( this middle-effective nuclear charge, this p.7 )
So quantum mechanics is useless and unable to predict any experimental physical values which disagree even with approximate vague quantum mechanical description.
Using the experimentally-verified de Broglie wave interference, we can naturally explain Pauli principle and valence electrons' number without unreal spin and nonphysical exchange energy.
Each orbit crosses another orbit perpendicularly in the center line P as shown in Fig.87 (= 2 orbits ).
An orbit of 1 × de Broglie wavelength contains a pair of wave crest (= includes an electron ) and trough (= opposite phase of crest ).
And an orbit of 2 × de Broglie wavelength contains two pairs of wave crest and trough (= so, including two electrons ).
In Neon with outer 2 × de Broglie wavelength orbits in Fig.87, Both upper and lower parts of each orbit include 2 nodes (= crest or trough ) on the right and left sides (= total is four nodes = two pairs of crest and trough ), each orbit can cross other 2 orbits perpendicularly in a cruciform way (= wave crest crosses another wave's trough perpendicularly, one to one of opposite wave phases ).
So the total number of orbits ( where each wave crosses another wave's opposite wave phase perpendicularly one to one ) becomes 2+2 = 4 orbits, which is Neon containing 2 × 4 orbits = 8 valence electrons.
Neon (= Ne, 2 × de Broglie wavelength ) and Argon (= Ar, 3 × de Broglie wavelength ) have the same 2 nodes (= a pair of wave crest and trough ) in both the upper and lower parts of each orbit, so their total orbital numbers become the same 4 orbits, which can explain their same maximum valence electrons' number 8 (= 2 × 4 orbits ).
Krypton (= Kr ) is 4 × de Broglie wavelength, its orbit has 4 nodes in both upper and lower parts ( one orbit contains eight nodes ) which can cross additional four other orbits with their opposite wave phases crossing each other perpendicularly.
So an atom of 4 × de Broglie wavelength can contain at maximum 6 orbits (= 2 + 4 ), which can explain Kr valence electrons' number 18 (= 3 × 6 orbits ).
The fact that the valence electron numbers of those noble gas mean the maximum electron's number in each de Broglie wavelength can be found in the change of ionization energies in the periodic table.
1 × de Broglie wavelength = up to 2 orbits (= each orbit contains 1 electrons ) = 2 (= 1 × 2 ) valence electrons as shown in Helium.
2 × de Broglie wavelength = up to 4 orbits (= each orbit contains 2 electrons ) = 8 (= 2 × 4 ) valence electrons as shown in Neon.
3 × de Broglie wavelength = up to 4 orbits (= each orbit contains 2 electrons + 1 hole to satisfy Coulomb electrically symmetrical distribution ) = 8 (= 2 × 4 ) valence electrons as shown in Argon.
4 × de Broglie wavelength (= n = 4 ) = up to 6 orbits (= each orbit contains 3 electrons + 1 hole to satisfy Coulomb electrically symmetrical distribution ) = 18 (= 3 × 6 ) valence electrons as shown in Krypton.
5 × de Broglie wavelength = up to 6 orbits (= each orbit contains 3 electrons + 2 holes to satisfy Coulomb electrically symmetrical distribution ) = 18 (= 3 × 6 ) valence electrons as shown in Xenon.
6 × de Broglie wavelength = up to 8 orbits (= each orbit contains 4 electrons + 2 holes to satisfy Coulomb electrically symmetrical distribution ) = 32 (= 4 × 8 ) valence electrons as shown in Radon.
The point is a wave crest of one electron's orbit needs to cross the opposite phase (= trough ) of another electron's orbit perpendicularly, one to one, in this realistic Pauli repulsion mechanism based on electron's de Broglie wave interference.
If an electron's wave crest crosses another electron's crest (= both crests contain electrons, so this case where an electron ( = crest ) approaches another electron (= crest ) is unlikely due to Coulomb repulsion between electrons ), there must be places of two trough orbits crossing (= trough-trough crossing or opposite-opposite phase crossing ) each other near electrons.
After all, these two trough (= trouhg-trough crossing ) orbits (= opposite phase in two different directions destroying other electron crest phase ) kicks out another electron due to destructive interference between de Broglie wave oppsite phases (= an electron or crest phase cannot cross more-than-one trough opposite phases in more-than-one different directions perpendicularly at the same time ← destructive interference occurs ).
So to avoid destrucive interference of de Broglie waves, each electron (= crest part ) has to cross another ( only one, Not two ) electron's de Broglie wave's trough part perpendicularly, one to one.
When de Broglie's wave crest (= electron part ) and another electron' trough part crosses perpendicularly ( like He and Ne ) , a pair of wave crest and trough becomes harmless neutral phase (= the opposie crest and trough crosses perpendicularly, cancel each other seen by other electrons which tend to move in the symmetrically-middle or neutral part of other electron's crest and trough phases in multi-electron atoms ), which does not cause destructive interference in other electrons, so makes the whole atomic electrons stable.
(Fig.88) If Ar has 12 valence electrons, Coulomb repulsion is Not uniform.
Argon is 3 × de Broglie wavelength, and it has 4 orbits, so the total valence electrons should be 12 (= 3 × 4 orbits ) instead of actual Argon's eight valence electrons ?
Unfortunately, in this case, Coulomb repulsion among electrons is unsymmetric (= Not uniform ) and stronger only in some parts (= Coulomb repulsion among electrons in the atomic upper or lower part becomes stronger due to the shorter distance among electrons than the centeral part of the atom, as shown in the upper figure = electrically-unsymmetrical electrons' distribution around a nucleus in the upper 12-electron fictitious atom ).
So a fictitious atom with 4 orbits, each of which contains three electrons, total 12 electrons, becomes unstable and needs to exclude some electrons due to Coulomb repulsion, for electrons' distribution to be symmetrical around a nucleus.
As shown above, if Ar has 12 electrons, it contains 3 layers of the same 4 electrons, which electrons' distribution is asymmetric, and Coulomb repulsion among packed 12 electrons does not allow these 12 all electrons to be packed in a single atom with 3 × de Broglie wavelength orbits.
For Coulomb repulsion to be uniformly (= symmetrically ) distributed around nucleus, the electrons' numbers of the upper and lower layers must be smaller than that of the middle layer (= the upper and lower layers have 2 electrons, and the middle layer has 4 electrons, the total is 8 electrons ).
When the total valence electron's number is 8 (= each orbit has 2 electrons + 1 hole in each 3 × de Broglie wavelength orbit ), the Ar valence elecrons are evenly distributed in hexahedral way like neon, so stable due to balanced Coulomb force.
This is why both Neon (= 2 × de Broglie wavelength orbits ) and Argon (= 3 × de Broglie wavelength orbits ) have the same 8 valence electrons due to balanced Coulomb repulsion among 8 symmetrical electrons.
Coulomb repulsion must be considered also in Kr with 4 × de Broglie wavelength orbtis, and each orbit contains 3 electrons and 1 hole in Kr 6 orbits (= total valence electrons are 3 × 6 = 18 in Kr ).
Classical orbit is far more useful and easier to handle in molecular calculation than unreal quantum mechanical wavefunction.
(Fig.89) If the number of orbits exceeds the maximum number ↓
As I said, there are the maximum (= limit ) numbers of orbits depending on number × de Broglie wavelength.
In 1 × de Broglie wavelength, an atom can have up to two orbits like helium.
If an atom tries to contain more than two orbits of 1 × de Broglie wavelength, an electron is expelled by destructive interference of opposite phase of other electrons' de Broglie waves. ← this is real Pauli principle mechanism.
In 2 × de Broglie wavelength, an atom can contain up to four orbits like neon.
If an atom tries to contain more than four orbits of 2 × de Broglie wavelength, it also expels electrons by destructive interference with opposite phase of other de Broglie waves.
How are these maximum orbit numbers determined ?
When an atom has just the maximum number of orbits like helium and neon, each electron can cross the opposite phase of another electron's de Broglie wave perpendicularly, one to one (= crest-1 crosses trough-1 | crest-2 crosses trough-2 | crest-3 crosses trough-3 | crest-4 crosses trough-4 .. = all perpendicular crossing ).
For example, in neon atom of Fig.89, e1 electron (= crest-1 ) crosses the opposite phase (= trough-1 ) of e3 de Broglie wave perpendicularly, e3 electron (= crest-2 ) crosses the opposite phase (= trough-2 ) of e2 de Broglie wave perpendicularly ..
When an electron (= electron phase, crest ) crosses the opposite phase (= trough ) of another electron perpendicularly, this pair of crest and trough de Broglie waves becomes "neutral phase" which cannot affect other electrons any longer by destructive interference. So all electrons' motions become stable and OK.
But if an atom contains more than the maximum number of orbits, this symmetrical "neutral phase" is broken, and destructive interference of de Broglie waves occurs, and electrons' motions become unstable.
In case of more orbits than the maximum number contained in an atom, some intersection points contain the abnormal same electron-electron (= crest-crest ) phase (ex. e1 and e3 in Fig.89 right lower ), and other intersection points contain the abnormal same opposite (= trough-trough ) phase (ex. e2 and e3 opposite phase in Fig.89 right upper ).
This abnormal "trough-trough (= opposite-opposite phase )" crossing de Broglie waves are Not neutral ( only when different phases: wave trough-crest cross each other, these two crossing de Broglie waves is neutral and does no harm to other electrons ), so abnormal "trough-trough" waves can affect other electrons by destructive inteference and makes electrons' motion unstable.
For example, in Fig.89 right lower, e1-electron (= crest ) crosses e3-same (= crest ) phase wave, perpendicularly and abnormally. ← "Perpendicular crossing" means these e1 and e3 same-phase (= crest-crest ) orbits do not affect each other (= so, originally, e1 electron should cross the opposite phase of e3 electron perpendicularly ).
But other e3 and e2 opposite phase waves (= trough-trough, in Fig.89 right upper ) affect and destroy e1-electron wave (= destructive interference ) from two different directions.
Because neither e3 nor e2 opposite phase waves is perpendicular to e1 orbit (= it's impossible for e1 orbit to cross two different-directional opposite-phase orbits perpendicularly at the same time ).
→ e1 electron is excluded by e3 and e2 opposite-phase de Broglie waves from two different directions by destructive interference.
This destructive interference of de Broglie waves determines the maximum number of valence electrons in different de Broglie wavelength orbits.
And, this is a realistic physical mechanism of Pauli exclusion principle.
(Fig.90) Two perpendicular de Broglie wave orbits in H2
Helium has two 1 × de Broglie wavelength orbits which cross each other perpendicularly to avoid destructive interference.
In the same way, hydrogen molecule (= H2 ) also contains two 1 × de Broglie wavelength orbits which cross each other perpendicularly, as shown in Fig.90.
We can explain Pauli exclusion principle which prevents three hydrogen atoms from forming imaginary H3 molecule (= joining three hydrogens together ) using realistic mechanism based on repulsive force and force carrier (= medium ).
If the 3rd hydrogen atomic orbit approaches H2 molecule, this 3rd H orbit interferes destructively with the parallel opposite phase of one of two hydrogen orbits in H2 molecule, as seen in Fig.90 lower.
Because it's impossible for an electron to cross more-than-one other electrons' opposite de Broglie wave phases (= more-than-one different directions ) perpendicularly at the same time.
This is a realistic mechanism of Pauli repulsive force in molecules which cannot bind to more external electrons than the maximum number of electrons determined by de Broglie wavelength.
In multi-electron atoms such as Neon with 8 valence electrons, multiple electrons' pairs of de Broglie wave crest and trough phases crossing and canceling each other (= crest and trough opposite wave phases crossing each other become neutral seen from other electrons ) generate the harmless neutral phase in the symmetrically middle directions where other electrons' orbits pass safely avoiding destructive interference.
Unlike the multi-electron atoms with longer orbits of multiple electrons' pairs canceling each other, in the shorter one-electron hydrogen atomic 1 × de Broglie wavelength orbit (= with no holes ), the 3rd hydrogen atomic orbit (= right side ) crossing the 2nd-middle small hydrogen atomic orbit perpendicularly cannot avoid being parallel to the 1st hydrogen atomic opposite de Broglie phase (= left side ) causing destructive interference, which realistic Pauli principle mechanism can perfectly explain why unreal H3 molecule is impossible.
Realistic Pauli exclusion principle of all other atoms such as oxygen atoms of C=O bonds can also be explained by this realistic atomic model without fatal paradoxes of quantum mechanical molecular orbitals.
This realistic atomic model based on actually moving electrons can perfecty explain the single (= C-C ethane ), double (= C=C ethylene ) and triple (= acetylene, HCCH ) molecular bonds.
Quantum mechanical molecular orbital theory cannot explain the carbon monoxide (= CO ), making a paradoxical claim that a carbon atom absorbs a oxygen's two electrons and becomes a unrealistic carbon negative ion (= C- !?, this last ), despite the oxygen's stronger electronegativity.
Unlike the paradoxical quantum mechanical CO molecule, the realistic moving electron model can easily explain the carbon monoxide electrons' structure without any contradiction.
Quantum mechanics tries to explain Pauli exclusion principle as unphysical exchange interaction (= unrealistically indistinguishable electrons ), even this fake exchange interaction cannot generate strong repulsion enough to prevent the 3rd electron from binding to H2 molecule, so quantum mechanical nonphysical exchange interaction allows unrealistic H3 molecule. ← Quantum mechanical Pauli repulsive mechanism is false.
↑ According to contradictory quantum mechanical Pauli principle's exchange energy rule, when two neighboring hydrogen atoms have the opposite spins (= one atom has up spin, and the other atom has down spin ), these two hydrogen atoms can bind to each other and form H2 molecule.
In the case of three hydrogen atoms aligned side by side (= H-atom-1 with up spin + H-atom-2 with down spin + H-atom-3 with up spin ), any two neighboring hydrogen atoms have the opposite spins to each other (= symmetric bonding ), hence unreal H3 molecule is possible in quantum mechanical spin exchange rule.
Quantum mechanical Schrödinger equations are completely useless, unsolvable and unable to obtain exact molecular orbitals or wavefunctions ( this p.2, this p.6 ).
Such a useless quantum mechanics can only artificially choose fake solutions called trial functions or basis sets ( this p.27, this p.2-3 ), adjusting many free parameters to fit experimental results (= without predicting experimental values ) by variational approximate methods ( this p.20, this p.36-37 ), which is extremely time-consuming and impractical ( this Approach, this p.8-left ) with No power to predict any molecular bonds.
So physicists have relied mainly on empirically-obtained energies or adjusted parameters instead of deriving them from the useless quantum mechanical theory in various molecular bonds, as seen in the popular Hückel approximate method for π double bonds ( this 2.2.7, this p.12-14 ).
↑ This is the clear proof that quantum mechanics made No contribution to the actual molecular science.
The most serious problem is the unrealistic quantum mechanics can neither use real Coulomb force nor separate actually-separable atoms and electrons, so quantum mechanics is intrinsically unable to deal with any multi-electron atoms and molecules, forever, so we must find realistic practical molecular models as soon as possible.
Due to the circular motion of an electron inside an atom, the influence of de Broglie wave or Pauli repulsion is limited, Not affecting distant area, hence, the inner orbital de Broglie wave cannot affect or destroy the outer 2s electron's orbital de Broglie wave where the outer orbits keep some distance from the inner orbits (= 1 × de Broglie wavelength inner orbits do not affect or destroy the outer 2 × de Broglie wavelength orbit, because outer orbits keep some distance from the inner orbits ).
(Fig.91) Wave nature is needed for closed stable orbits ↓
Only in the simplest one-electron hydrogen atom and helium with just 2 symmetrical perpendicular orbits, each electron orbit is naturally closed even if we simply compute the orbits using just Coulomb force.
In all other complicated atoms and molecules, each electron's orbit is usually Not closed, if we consider only Coulomb force for predicting electron's motion.
As shown in two slit experiments, de Broglie wave interference has strong power enough to modify Coulomb force (= an electron is scattered by Coulomb force of slit wall atoms, but the direction in which an electron is scattered is changed by de Broglie wave interference causing fringe. ).
Electron's de Broglie wave tries to avoid destructive interference and synchronize in phase with each other.
Due to constructive interference of de Broglie wave, the electron's orbit is naturally closed (= both ends with the same phase tend to automatically fit and bind to each other for avoiding destructive interference by the pressure balance mechanism where the opposite de Broglie wave phases with low and high density area tend to attract and connect with each other naturally ).
This realistic de Broglie wave interference effect modifying Coulomb force a little needs to be determined by actual experiments. = We should move forward with new experiments by treating electrons, de Broglie waves and Pauli repulsion as real physical objects which realistic atomic model-based scientific progress and experiments are miserably forbidden in the present unrealistic quantum mechanics due to "unrealistic exchange interaction" lacking real physical forces. → Our science stops progressing now.
↑ The current unrealistic quantum mechanics never even admits de Broglie wave as real waves or useful tool, and the concept of real force is Not available (= instead, nonphysical exchange energy prevails ) in impractical quantum mechanics.
(Fig.92) ↓ This realistic H2 molecule proves to be true by computation.
Due to complicated unclosed orbits, computing hydrogen molecule (= H2 ) is difficult ( not only computing ordinary Coulomb force but also de Broglie wave interference effect must be considered, which must be experimentally determined ).
So we use approximate method of estimating real H2 molecular orbits using the following computing program.
Two orbits of H2 molecule are perpendicular to each other. Here we suppose electron-a moves in the orbit parallel to x-z plane, and electron-b moved in x-y orbit, as shown in Fig.92.
Sample JAVA program to compute H2 molecule.
When you run this program, you need to imput the initial x-coordinate of electron-a (= ea ) and electron-b (= eb = distance between nucleus-b and electron-b ).
Then, you are asked to input binding energy of H2 molecule (= experimental value of H2 binding energy is 4.746 eV, this p.2 ).
Lastly, you are asked to input the distance between two nuclei of H2 molecule (= experimental value of H2 internuclear distance is 0.7414 Å ).
From these 4 input values, this program outputs de Broglie wavelength (= a value closer to "1" × de Broglie wavelength is better ) in one orbit, final coordinates of two electrons, and average forces acting on two nuclei.
For example, we input ea (= "3370" MM = 0.3371 Å, here this unit is used, so input "3370" ) and eb (= "4938.5" MM ), binding energy (= "4.746" eV = experimental value ) and distance between two nuclei (= "7414" MM = experimental value ).
In this case, one orbit is 0.985097 × de Broglie wavelength, which is almost "1" × de Broglie wavelength orbit, so good result proving H2 molecule model with two perpendicular orbits is right.
And in this case, average forces acting on nucleus-a is 0.000085 ( here, the force between electron and proton which are Bohr radius apart is supposed to be "1" ) which is almost 0, meaning nucleus-a of this H2 molecule is almost stationary and at the stable position.
In the same way, the force acting on nucleus-b is also almost 0 (= -0.000464, The sign = "plus+" force is in the direction of the other nucleus ), meaning nucleus-b is also stationary and stable.
So this realistic hydrogen molecule model with two perpendicular orbits of 1 × de Broglie wavelength just agrees with experimental values of H2 binding energy (= 4.746 eV ) and internuclear distance (= 0.7414 Å ).
The output value of "electron-1-attraction toward nucleus-a" is the force attracting electron-a at the initial position towards nucleus-a ( we suppose the magnitude of force between electron and proton which are Bohr radius apart is "1". In this case, we get attraction "1.100154" which is a little bigger than "1", meaning the electron's orbit shrinks in H2 molecule than independent hydrogen atomic orbit ).
Forces acting on two hydogen nuclei are almost zero, so two nuclei are stationary, stable and internuclear distance keeps constant.
In this program, we use a rough approximate method of calculating average values of forces acting on electron-a and electron-b, and suppose both electrons always feel the same average force and move at the same average speed approximately.
This rough approximation is the reason why we cannot reach "1" × de Broglie wavelength (= here, we get 0.985097 instead of 1 ). But this result is very good for a rough approximation.
On the other hand, quantum mechanical electron cloud cannot get experimental binding energy based on real Coulomb force at all.
Instead, quantum mechanics has to rely on illegitimate method of unphysical "exchange energy (= lowering kinetic energy instead of using real Coulomb force )" violating total energy conservation law.
So quantum mechanics is wrong.
(Fig.93) ↓ Quantum mechanics uses unreal quasi-particle without force.
We already have excellent technology of measuring and manipulating a single atom one by one using atomic force microscope.
But quantum mechanics makes these great technologies useless.
Because all quantum mechanics can do is use unreal obsolete quasiparticle model with fake (= effective ) mass.
Unphysical electron cloud and exchange intereaction forbid us from using real Coulomb force and Pauli repulsive force, instead, quantum mechanics forces useless model of treating the whole material as one pseudo-electron model called DFT.
Different from this useless unrealistic quantum mechanics, our new atomic model using real moving electrons, real forces (= Coulomb and Pauli repulsion ) can be easily used in all other applied science such as medicine.
Just two basic principles govern all atomic and molecular interactions. One is Coulomb force. The other one is de Broglie wave which determines electron's orbital radius and causes Pauli repulsive force by destructive interference.
♦ Valence electrons
♦ Bohr's Neon, Carbon bonds, Four-fundamental forces.
♦ de Broglie waves determine all atomic structures.
♦ Truth of electromagnetic waves.
♦ others atomic size.
2020/ 12/17 updated. Feel free to link to this site.