Top page (correct Bohr model including helium )

Strange "spin" is NOT a real thing

Special relativity is wrong.

Quantum computer cannot be realized.

- Present quantum computer has NO future.
- Two "shut up and calculate !" obstruct the computer's breakthrough.
- Controlled-NOT gate using qubits = quantum computer.
- Cooper pair really exists ?
- Quantum Zeno effect is real ?

*Quantum computer ?*

You may oftern hear that quantum computers based on quantum **superposition** have excellent potential to compute much faster than usual classical computers.

But in fact, the present quantum computer can only do very simple factorization 15 = 5 × 3.

And this factorization has **NO** relations with entanglement and "superposition", as I explain later.

( This mechanism can be explained by the usual **classical** mechanics such as magnetic moment interactions. )

*(Fig.1) Classical computer ?*

In Fig.1, N particles are lining up. Each number "0" or "1" represents the particle's state such as two different energy levels, and directions of magnetic moment. ( This two different states is called "**qubit**" or "quantum bit". )

In classical mechanics, we have to manipulate each particle to change their numbers.

So, N manipulations (= here **irradiation** with some laser ) are needed.

*(Fig.2) Superposition = parallel computing ??*

According to the quantum mechanics, all particles are in mysterious **superposition** state.

So if we do only **one** manipulation, all particles can be changed **at the same time** ! (= parallel computing. )

They often insist this logic, but they have **NO** quantum computers which have achieved this **supernatural** computing.

And **ONLY** a word of "quantum computer" and **algorithms** have developed a life of their own, **unaccompanied** by experiments.

*(Fig.3) Superposition = just oscillating classically.*

There are various quantum devices (= qubits ) such as ions, Josephson juctions, NMR and Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

But all of them have **reached their limits** now, and have **NO** power of computing at all, as I explain later.

( Only NMR using fluorine can do factorization 15 = 5 × 3, but this method is based on usual classical mechanics such as magnetic moment interactions. )

The important points is that all these quantum devices **cannot** demonstrate the power of mysterious superposition.

For example, they **only** periodically change the energy states of the qubits by electromagnetic irradiation.

And they only insist classically mixed states are mysterious **superpositions**, because these states can be produced by usual classical manipulations.

*(Fig.4) Superposition = unrealistic Many-worlds !*

If we try to realize quantum computers based on mysterious "**superposition**", we MUST know first what the superposition of wavefunctions **really** is.

Because if this superposition itself is wrong, it means we are aiming at just some **illusions**.

According to the quantum mechanics, the instant we try to observe a particle, the wavefunction **spreading all space** collapses into a **point** particle.

This process is *faster-than-light* (= nonlocal ), so we have to adopt strange **many-world** theory to avoid nonlocal phenomena.

In the many-world theory, observing the particle means we see one of **infinite worlds** which include particles of different states.

*(Fig.5) A single C60 buckyball interferes with itself !*

Even a single C60 buckyball molecule can interfere with itself.

To explain this interference of a single particle in the double-slit experiment, the quantum mechanics needs "**many-world**" interpretation (= "superposition" ) to avoid faster-than-light collapse.

Of course, many world theory needs **every** possible state, in which worlds are **unrealistically** increasing like ∞ × ∞ × ∞...

So this theory is **impossible**, and **too good** to be true about the wavefunction collapse mechanism.

Bohr model, which is based on real **de Broglie wave**, can explain this interference naturally, as shown in Fig.5 left.

There is also "**pilot-wave**" theory (= Bohm interpretation ), which insists "**real**" particle's motion even in the quantum mechanics.

*(Fig.6) Pilot-wave theory cannot explain electron's motion of various atoms.*

Fig.6 left shows the probability density of 3d state in the hydrogen atom.

Of course, Schrodinger's hydrogen depends on **Coulomb** relation, so the electron MUST obey Coulomb relation.

But if the electron of 3d state is moving obeying Coulomb force, it **cannot** move like complicated Fig.6 left.

Furthermore, pilot wave theory **cannot** explain two-electron **helium** at all.

Because two repulsive electrons of helium are easily **chaotic** and autoionized.

As shown on this page, they could NOT express three-body helium using real electron's motion, so all they could choose was to accept problematic **probability** concept.

( If there was only hydrogen atom, Bohr-Sommerfeld model could do more naturally. )

*(Fig.7) Pilot-wave theory = faster-than-light signal. *

You may often hear that Bell inequality violation denied hidden variable proposed by Einstein.

In Fig.7, the moment a photon (= A ) passes through the filter A and turns its polarization in the direction of filter A, the polarization of photon B also becomes the same as **filter A**, no matter how far they are apart from each other.

So this signal between two **entangled** photons travels **faster-than-light** (= nonlocal ).

To avoid this faster-than-light signal, they try to rely on many-world interpretation.

If we adopt "real" pilot-wave theory, we MUST accept faster-than-light signal as **reality**.

As shown on this page, if we use the classical **electromagnetic waves**, we can explain this violation as **local** and **realistic** phenomenon.

( Of course, giving up particle photon means quantum mechanics and QED themselves are wrong. )

*(Fig.8) All interpretations are unnatural → "Shut up and calculate !" *

People who insist some concrete interpretations such as many-world or pilot wave, are **honest**, I think.

Infinite many worlds are unrealistic, and pilot wave theory has no Coulomb relation.

Considering all these interpretations are **unnatural**, most physicists adopt just "**Shut up and calculate**" interpretation.

This "Shut up and calculate" corresponds to Copenhagen interpretation, in which they **give up** what the wavefunction (= superposition ) really is, and only calculate.

But it is **risky** to aim at quantum computer after giving up asking the real mechanism of wavefunctions.

Because what they are aiming at may be just a **illusion**.

And as you notice, it is **impossible** to expect some breakthrough without asking the real states of wavefunctions themselves.

*(Fig.9) Spinning speed of electron ?*

If the electron spin means real rotating, its spinning speed must be more than **100 times speed of light**, as shown on this page.

And the spinning electron can NOT return to its original configuration by one revolution.

( It needs **two revolutions**. This concept is **impossible** in this real world, as I said many times. )

So **all** physicists **give up** asking what the strange spin really is, which attitudes **obstruct** the development of science.

*(Fig.10) Electron spin (= Bohr magneton ) = circular movement (= Bohr magneton ) ?*

As shown on this page, the magnetic moment means the current I × the area of the current loop (= πr^{2} ).

Surprizingly, the quantum mechanical spin also has the **same** magnetic moment (= Bohr magneton ) as Bohr's ground state circular orbit.

This trick exists in the electron spin g factor = "2".

As a result, the magnetic moment = g-factor × angular momentum = 2 × 1/2 = 1 (= Bohr magneton ).

The important point is that this Bohr magneton **originates** in Bohr's orbit, and can NOT be gotten from the quantum mechanics itself.

In conlusion, it is natural that all strange spins of various particles such as electron and nuclei are considered as some **real rotations**, because "Shut up and calculate !" can **NEVER** be a true theory.

*(Fig.11) Two "Shut up and calculate !" obstruct the computer's development. *

As you may notice, it is completely **inconsistent** to aim at the development of quantum computers without asking **deeper** mechanisms such as wavefunctions and spins.

Unless we can manipulate each particle's **position** and **velocity** precisely, we **cannot** manipulate their various interactions and cannot achieve the development of the quantum computer itself.

Of course, knowing the position and velocity at the same time means **uncertainty principle** of quantum mechanics itself is **wrong**.

*(Fig.12) Hyperfine structure of trapped Be+ ion.*

First, we explain qubits based on Be+ ion which is oscillating trapped in Paul trap.

The quantum computers based on various ion trap have **NOT** been realized, so ONLY their theory developed a life of its own.

Considering nuclear spin ( or rotation ), 2s1/2 state of the valence electron of Be+ ion is divided into two hyperfine states ( up and down ). ( See this page. )

And we also produce small energy difference considering ion's motion and Coulomb interaction between ions (= "**phonon**" mode 1 or 0 ).

And they often insist two trapped Be+ ions can be **entangled** with each other.

But their distance is **very short** (= several µ m ).

So the entanglement of two ions is **NOT** true due to **locality loophole**.

( In short, they are just ocsillating classically by some irradiation, NOT related to mysterious entanglement. )

*(Fig.13) Angular momentum zero (= s state ) → Shut up and calculate !*

The instant we suppose 2s1/2 state, which has **NO** orbital angular momentum, it means we accept "Shut up and calculate !" interpretation.

From a **commonsense** point of view, outer electron **cannot penetrate** inner electrons due to the strong **repulsive** Coulomb forces.

Instead of admitting this strage **zero** angular momentum, it is more natural that we think the outer electron is orbitting around the inner electrons. ( **NOT** penetrating them ! )

As shown on this page, if we consider elliptic and circular orbits, we can explain the energy difference between 2s and 2p states.

Furthermore, different from hydrogen atom, Be+ and Ca+ ions have inner electron's magnetic moment.

Natural orbits, inner electrons, and nuclear rotation can explain all spectrum results without doing "Shut up and calculate!".

*(Eq.1) Four different states of trapped two Be+ ions. *

First we prepare four different states, in which two Be+ ions of "m" and "n" are upper or down hyperfine energy levels.

And "phonon" energy mode of them is supposed to be zero.

( This phonon is very **vague** concept, you can consider it as some kinetic energies + Coulomb interactions between ions. )

*(Eq.2) Right-polarized light radiation. *

Here we suppose if we irradiate "m" Be+ ion by right circularly polarized light (= π pulse ), its hyperfine state and phonon mode change like Eq.2.

Due to the π pulse, the phase factor "i" is added.

We cannot know the phase of Be+ ion itself. we only estimate it from the light and its irradiation time.

( You may consider this phase of ion as some state in oscillaltion. )

After irradiation of Eq.2, the four states of Eq.1 become

*(Eq.3)*

And then we illuminate them by "2π" pulse laser, which irradiation time is twice π pulse.

So after the irradiation of "2π" pulse laser, the factor " -1 " is added to the phase of Be+ ion.

We suppose when we irradiate the "n" Be+ ion by left circularly polarized 2π pulse laser, the following change happens,

*(Eq.4)*

Here we suppose phonon state is influencing both two Be+ ions.

As a result, after irradiation of Eq.4, the states of Eq.3 become

*(Eq.5)*

And again we irradiate the "m" ion by right circularly polarized light ( π puse ).

So like Eq.2,

*(Eq.6)*

As a result, the states of Eq.5 become

*(Eq.7)*

As shown in Eq.7, only the phase of up and up hyperfine states becomes negative.

If we define the ± states of

*(Eq.8)*

From Eq.7 and Eq.8, we have

*(Eq.9)*

As shown in Eq.9, only "up" state can change the sign of ±states.

This operation is called "controlled-NOT" gate, which is the basis of computers.

But of course, we **cannot** apply this manipulation of Be+ ions to usual computers due to various problems such as unstability and very short decoherence time ( about 0.1 second ).

So the present studies about the quantum computer have already **reached their limits** at this point.

*(Eq.10) Entanglement ?*

Using Eq.9, we can generate the state of Eq.10.

In Eq.10, two pairs of ( up, + ) and ( down, - ) are generated.

So they insist these states are mysterious **entanglement**.

( In this case, up state is entangled with + state. )

But as I explained above, this state has **NO** relation with faster-than-light entanglement.

We only generate these states by usual classical manipulations.

It looks like they are trying to link **everything** to entanglement.

And the distance between Be+ ions is very short, **locality loophole** exists, in which ions can be controlled by usual classical irradiation.

*(Fig.14) Qubit molecule.*

The molecule of Fig.14 consists of several fluorines and carbons.

Due to the magnetic moment of each nucleus and interaction among electrons and nuclei, it is divided into various energy states, which intervals are very small.

Using these different energy states, nuclear magnetic resonance ( NMR ), and some algorism, they factorize 15 = 5 × 3.

But differernt from other quantum bits, they can get only **average** NMR spectrum informations from an enormous amount of molecules.

They **cannot** manipulate each quantum qubits (= atom ) independently, and don't use entanglement.

So this methods only use some different energy states and NMR, which has **NO** relation with superposition.

Due to various annoying motion of each atom, the factorization of 15 = 5 × 3 using 7 qubit molecule is their **limit**.

*(Fig.15) Cesium fine structure + polarized light.*

In Fig.15, cesium (Cs) atom inside microcavity is irradiated by left (-) or right (+) polarized lights.

We set up the device in which only right polarized light tends to interact with **cesium fine structre** energy states.

So in this case, qubit is two energy levels of fine structure of Cs.

When we send two photons of following four patterns to cavity,

*(Eq.11)*

We get various photon's phases depending on the interactions with Cs.

When δ becomes 180 degree, we can get controlled-NOT gate like upper Be+ ion.

But even this basic NOT gate **cannot** be realized in this method.

And the left or right circularly polarized lights are clearly classical electromagnetic waves, **NOT** photon particles.

*(Fig.16) Mach-Zehnder interferometer and Josephson junctions.*

In Fig.16 left, using some superconducting circuit including Josephson junctions, they try to get different energy levels.

These energy level difference can be gotten by manipulating directions and amounts of currents.

Though they often insist these states are "superposition", but they are just **mixed states** of different **classical** motions.

In Fig.16 right, they try to get various phases of electromagnetic waves using beam splitters in Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

They insist these states are quantum mechanical superpositions, but these are **only** interference patterns of classical electromagnetic waves.

**Neither** of these two methods has been realized as quantum computer at all.

*(Fig.17) Parallel-worlds = superposition is just an illusion !*

As I showed in the above sections, **NO** quantum qubits utilize the powers **specific** to quantum "**superposition**".

So it seems that only fascinating words such as "parallel computing" and "entanglement" have attracted people's attentions **without** reality.

Studies about the present quantum computers based on "superposition" have reached an **dead end**.

This serious fact indicates that they are aiming at essentially **wrong** concept and just a **illusion**.

*(Fig.18) "Cooper pair" really exists ??*

According to the present condensed matter physics, it is said that a Cooper pair is two electrons that are bound together at low temperature through very **vague** existence of "phonons".

Surprisingly, the distance between the two electrons in the Cooper pairs is about **100- 1000 nanometer** (nm) !

For example, in the hydrogen molecule (H2), the distance between two nuclei is about **0.073 nm**.

How can these two electrons bind stably to each other in the superconductor ? This is strange.

According to the standard interpretation, positive ions (nuclei) are said to be related to this very long binding as a quasiparticles such as **phonons**.

( But I think, this very long binding is very **unnatural**. How do you think about it ? )

According to BCS theory, under some low temperature, the Cooper pair is formed in the superconductivity.

So the present BCS theory can not explain **high-temperature superconductivity**.

*(Fig.19)*

One of the most important facts which support the Cooper pair is **magnetic flux quantum** (= Φ_{0} ).

It is known that the magnetic flux (Φ) is quantized, when it passes through a superconductor ring.

*(Eq.12) Quantized magnetic flux.*

As shown on this page, they try to explain this quantized magnetic flux using Cooper pair.

Of course, strange spin is also one of the reasons why they need Cooper pair.

Because if spin 1/2 fermions exist as they are, they cannot show boson-like nature.

So Cooper pair can cancel this spin 1/2 effect out, they insist.

But as I show in Fig.18, this Cooper pair is **unrealistically** too long.

Here we suppose the electron is rotating around near the hole of Fig.19 to cancel the magnetic field.

When the *centrifugal force* is equal to the **Lorentz force**,

*(Eq.13)*

When one round of the orbit is equal to an **integer (= K ) times de Broglie's wavelength**,

*(Eq.14)*

where λ = h/mv.

From Eq.13 and Eq.14, we have

*(Eq.15)*

So,

*(Eq.16)*

Eq.16 means the magnetic flux (Φ) passing through the hole of Fig.19

( πr^{2} is the area of the hole. )

As a result, we can get the magnetic flux quantum of superconductor using "real" de Broglie waves.

*(Eq.12) Quantized magnetic flux.*

And Cooper pair is not needed here.

Of course, if Cooper pair does not exist, the problem of **high-temperature** superconductivity never happen from the beginning.

( They try to solve this problem using conformal field theory of the string. But these methods have **NO reality**. )

The Josephson effect is the phenomenon of electric current across two weakly coupled superconductors, separated by a very thin insulating barrier.

In this arrangement, the two superconductors are linked by a non-conducting barrier, which is called "**Josephson junction**".

In 1962, Brian David Josephson prediced this effect, and it is important in the quantum-mechanical circuits, such as SQUIDs.

The Josephson junction barrier is very thin, so if we apply the weak stimulus, the electric current can pass through it.

But even in the **no** magnetic field such as superconductor, the electric current occur in this barrier. (*Quantum tunneling*.)

If we can explain this quantum tunnel effect by **de Broglie's waves**, this means that Bohr model can explain Josephson effect and Quantum tunneling.

*(Fig.20) Josephson juction.*

The DC Josephson effect is the phenomenon of a direct current crossing from the insulator in the absence of any external electromagnetic field, owing to tunneling.

(Of course, to make the magnetic field zero in the superconductor, the electric current only near the hole exists to cancel Φ.)

This DC Josephson current is proportional to the sine of the phase difference across the insulator, as follows,

*(Eq.17)*

where the phase difference θ can be expressed as

*(Eq.18)*

Eq.17 and Eq.18 mean that when the magnetic flux (Φ) in the hole is an integer times the magnetic flux quantum, the phase difference becomes zero, and the Josephson currenct doesn't occur.

So we can insist that the **Josephson juction is influenced by de Broglie's waves** of electrons near the hole.

The quantum tunnel effect is caused by de Broglie's wave itself.

With a fixed voltage V across the junction, the phase will vary linearly with time, and the current becomes an AC current.

(**AC Josephson effect**.)

According to *Maxwell equation*, the voltage of the ring in Fig.20 can be expresses as

*(Eq.19)*

where Eq.18 is used.

Integrating Eq.19 by time t, we can get

*(Eq.20)*

Substituting Eq.20 into Eq.17, we can get AC Josephson current of

*(Eq.21)*

So the **frequency** of Eq.21 is

*(Eq.22)*

The frequency of Eq.22 can be confirmed by the microwave, which synchronizes with the AC Josephson current. (Shapiro step.)

This measured voltage (V) is used to give the **definition of a volt**.

And the Josephson effect can give the correct Planck constant (h), which is included in Φ_{0}.

(Of course, this Planck constant originates from **de Broglie's relation of the electron**.)

*(Fig.21) A flying arrow "stops" by repeated measurements ??*

Quanum Zeno effect suggested that a flying arrow **stops**, when we try to **measure** its position at very **short** time intervals.

Though this arrow is actually flying and **moving** (= paradox ).

It is said that this mysterious quantum effects were actually observed in some experiments.

But this section proves that these Zeno effects can be explained by usual **classical** mechanics, and they do **NOT** show quantum mechanical validity at all.

*(Eq.23)*

In Eq.23, the initial state changes after short time (= t ) by time evolution.

The probability of this transition is P(t).

*(Eq.24)*

We measure this state **n** times during T.

So the measuring time interval is **T/n**.

Eq.24 shows the probability after n times measurements.

*(Eq.25)*

If we make this interval **infinitesimal** by measureing it **inifnite** times.

As shown in Eq.25, as n is close to infinity, the probability of the transition is close to **1**.

It means the transition (= change ) does **NOT** happen by infinite measurements at very short time intervals !

But is it really happening in this **real** world ??

*(Fig.22) Experimental results of Zeno effects ? Really ??*

It is said that the quantum Zeno effect was first observed experimentally in 1989 in Be+ ions trapped by electromagnetic fields.

By irradiating some light (= light A) to Be ion, its hyperfine states change between two **energy** levels (= 1 and 2 ).

But if we illuminate this ion by another light B ( 1 → 3 ), **just after** the irradiation of light A, the transition from 1 to 2 is **inhibited**.

So they insist this is quantum mechanical Zeno effect.

But as you feel, in this experiement, they just illuminate the ion by the light B **before** the transition from 1 to 2 is completed. (= So these are just **classical** phenomena ! )

Because the time interval between irradiations of light A and B is too **short**.

*(Fig.23) Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centre = quantum computer ??*

In nitrogen-vacency (NV) centre, one carbon is replaced by the nitrogen, and a atom is vacent next to this nitrogen inside diamond.

This NV centre is stable and includes various energy states related to "spin" at room temperature.

So they try to use this NV centre as quantum computer ( bit ).

But as I explained in this page, quantum computers and entanglements are just **imaginary** things.

Actually, the quantum computer and entanglment are **NEVER** useful for our daily lives, though they have been doing these experiments **extremely many** times.

In fact, physicists ( of quantum computer ) themselves **don't** think quantum computers can be realized in the future.

*(Fig.24) Point particle electron can be spin-polarized ??*

As shown on this page, it is **impossible** that a very tiny electron can spin at the angular momentum of 1/2 ħ.

Because the electron **must** rotate **much faster** than the light speed c.

Instead of angular momentum 0 state (= s ), Bohr-Sommerfeld model has **additional** circular motion of electron.

Considering electron magnetic moment is equal to **Bohr magneton**, spin means just classical circular orbit of Bohr model.

And it is **impossible** that **point** like electron can clearly turn in some direction.

How can the point particle with **no** size be spin-polarized **without** rotation ? ( **Impossible** ! )

They often use this word of "spin" in various papers.

But of course, in the actual experiments, they **cannot** see (rotating) spin itself, they just measure the estimated energy states.

As shown on this page, **spin-orbit** energy difference is just **equal** to Bohr-Sommerfeld fine structure **without** spin.

This is very strange.

*(Fig.25) Nitorogen-vacancy (NV) centre = Zeno effect ? Really ??*

Also in the case of NV centre, they use the **same** mechanism of ions in Fig.22.

Green laser (= measurement ) **only** blocks the transition between G0 and G1 by microwave (= MW ).

Because their time intervals are very short (= **ns** ).

In conclusion, quantum Zeno (paradox) effect does **NOT** show quantum mechanical phenomena.

In these experimets, one laser just **inhibits** another laser's effect. That's all.

So they can be explained by **usual** classical mechanics.

And they should not use this Zeno effect as the victory of **wrong** quantum mechanics, I think.

2013/1/29 updated. Feel free to link to this site.