Tent, (fr. tente): this is represented as in the margin. It often has a pennon attached, which should be named. A tent royal should be made more ornamental than the figure, and should have a split pennon flowing towards the sinister. [See example of MERCHANT TAYLORS, given under Robe.]
The terms Pavilion and Tabernacle generally imply a tent like the above, while in the grant of arms to the UPHOLDERS' COMPANY the tents are termed spervers.
With the thistle may be grouped the Teazel, used especially in dressing cloth, and it will be seen to be used both in the insignia of the Exeter WEAVERS' Company(see under Weavers), and of the CLOTH-WORKERS(see under Clothiers).
Thunderbolt: a bearing derived from the classic mythology, in which the emblem is ascribed to Jupiter. In one instance it is only outlined or chased on the escutcheons. It is the crest of the families of CARNAGIE and HAWLEY.
Tierce, (fr.): a charge occurring in some French arms, consisting of three triangles arranged generally in fesse. There may be two tierces in the same shield. Tiercé, (fr.): tierced, or triparted: in French arms the term is generally of the shield when it is divided into three parts per fesse; but the shield also may be blazoned as tiercé per pale or per bend. See under Party. Tierce-feuille: a trefoilleaf, but without a stalk. Tigé, (fr.): used when stalks or stems are of a different tincture. Tiger: thus beast, as drawn by ancient painters, is now often called the heraldic tiger, as distinguished from the natural. Such distinctions of course are not real, since the old heralds drew the tiger as they did many animals, conventionally. The heraldic form of the tiger is shewn in the margin. The tiger looking into a mirror(q.v.) is a very remarkable bearing. Amongst other extraordinary ideas which our ancestors entertained respecting strange animals was this-that in order to rob the tigress of her young, it was only necessary to lay mirrors in her way, in which she would stop to look at her own image, and thereby give the robbers time to escape. Tigers'heads and faces also occur.
A brief notice of each of the above will be found beneath their respective headings.
The mode of representation of the tincture by lines was an invention which must be attributed to Silvester Petra-Sancta, an Italian Jesuit, whose book, entitled Tessarœ Gentilitiœ, printed at Rome in 1638(or rather his earlier book, De Symbolis heroicis, libri ix., 1634), seems to have been the first work in which the system was used. The claim of Marie Vulson de la Colombiere will not hold, as his work did not appear till 1639.
Some whimsical heralds have called the tinctures borne by kings by the names of Planets and other heavenly bodies, as given above; and this method so far made way that in some few heraldic MSS. the tinctures are expressed in the tricking by the astronomical marks denoting the planets.
Other heraldic writers again have given to the tinctures of the arms of peers the names of precious stones, also shewn above, but this practice is now looked upon as absurd, and calculated to bring the science into ridicule. Sir John FERNE, in his Blazon of Gentry issued in 1586, enumerates fourteen different methods of blazon as follows:--1. By colours; 2. By planets; 3. By precious stones; 4. By virtues; 5. By celestial signs; 6. By the months of the year; 7. By the days of the week; 8. By the ages of man; 9. By flowers; 10. By the elements; 11. By the seasons of the year; 12. By the complexions of man; 13. By numbers; 14. By metals. Such fanciful arrangements, however, tend to degrade the study of heraldry into a mere amusement. Happily they were never much used. Tines: of stags' antlers. See Deer. Tipped: sometimes used of ends of horns and the like when of a different tincture. Tire. (fr.): a term used for the several rows in vair. Tires. See Attires of stags; also under Deer. Toad. See Frog. Tobacco: this plant is found in the insignia of a Company; also on the arms of a Spaniard naturalised in this country.
Tobias. See Ararat. Tod. See Fox. Toison. See Fleece. Tomahawk. See under Danish Axe. Tombstone: the seat of Prester-John(q.v.) in the insignia of the See of CHICHESTER, and of S.Mary in those of the See of LINCOLN(see Nimbus), is so called, though in neither case is it at all probable that the bearing is intended for such. The Tombstone, sometimes called an Altar, on which the Holy Lamb stands, in the Arms of the College of ASHRIDGE is probably a Tomb, the device signifying the Resurrection. Other examples occasionally occur, e.g.
Tower, (fr. tour): towers and turrets are more frequently named in connection with the Castle(q.v.), but they are also found in some cases as distinct charges. Though a castle is sometimes represented as consisting of a single tower, it generally has at least three. The ordinarytower is drawn as the first example given in the margin.
But the tower is also frequently represented as bearing three smaller towers or turrets, and then it is blazonedtriple towered, or triple turretted: in that case it is drawn as the annexed figure in the margin, sometimes with the turrets slightly sloping outwards, sometimes upright. It is frequently described as having a dome or cupola, both terms being used for the same thing; and sometimes a spire or conical roof. Also as provided with a port or entrance, port-holes or windows, battlements, &c.
Town, (fr. ville), or city: this device has been introduced occasionally into late coats of arms. An example of the city of NAKSIVAN will be observed under Ararat, and of ACRE under Sphinx. Examples more frequently occur in French arms.
.... the castle, church and town of Tiverton with Lowman's and Exe bridges; beneath them a woolpack ... --Seal of the Town of TIVERTON.
De sable, au lion d'or surmonté d'une ville d'argent--MAVAILLES.
D'argent, la ville en perspective du côté du midi, l'hotel de ville girouetté, les églises, le château et les bâtiments ajourés du même, essorés de gueules, les tours ajourées et maçonnées de sable, la porte ouverte et dans l'ouverture un maillet d'or--Ville de JOIGNY, Bourgogne.
When the term tree only is named without any adjunct, it may be considered to be that of the oak, and may be drawn like the example given under that term. But more frequently it is subjected to some special treatment, e.g. it may have the appearance of being torn up by the roots, to which the term eradicated(fr. arraché) is applied(and this is a better term than erased, which should only be applied to parts of animals). The tree is often trunked, i.e. truncated(fr. étêté), pollard(fr. écimé), or lopped(fr. écoté); or it may be couped, so that the section is seen in perspective, and in that case the term snagged should be applied. Again it may be withered(fr. sec); or it may be broken, or blasted, or without branches(fr. ébranché). A full-grown tree is said to be accrued. A tree may be fructed(fr. fruité), and this applied to the oak(q.v.) would signify with acorns(fr. englanté). When the trunk is of a different tincture from the rest of the tree the French use the term fûté.
But besides the trees themselves, parts of trees are frequently borne. We find the trunk(fr. tronc d'arbre), stock, stem, stump(fr. souche), or body, the terms appearing to be used indiscriminately by heralds, but meaning the same thing; these are generally blazoned as couped, and if not it is implied; they are also frequently eradicated, and it should be stated when they have branches(as in the arms of BOROUGH above) or slips, as in the arms of STOCKDEN below.
We find also the term limb used, and this is generally represented raguly(similar to which, perhaps, is the fr. noueux). It should be drawn so as to give the appearance of wood, and not to be mistaken for a fesse or bendraguly; and its position should be denoted; if not it should be drawn in pale.
We next find branches(fr. branches), boughs(fr. rameaux), twigs, sprigs, slips, and the term scrogs: to these terms certain differences are assigned, but the rules laid down are not very rigorously followed. The branch, if unfructed, should consist of at least three slips, but if with fruit then four leaves are sufficient; the sprig should have at least five leaves, the slip should have but three. The branches represented borne in the beaks of doves are no doubt olive branches. Many of the terms noted on the previous page as applied to the tree are also found applied to the branches, &c. As to stavedbranches(if the word is not a misreading of starved=withered), it may mean that they are lopped to represent staves.
Trefoil, (fr. trèfle): the term 'iij foils,' i.e. 'trefoils' seems to occur in blazon as early as Edward II.'s reign; but whether the 'three leaves' were conjoined or separate there is no evidence to shew; the term may possibly afterwards have been adopted to represent the clover leaf.
The ordinary form is that shewn in the margin, but it is subject to variations. It is, however, always borne with a stalk, generally ending in a point, when the term slipped is used.
If, however, the stalk is not represented as torn off(which the term slipped implies) it must be described as couped. A trefoil doubly slipped would be drawn as the first figure in the margin; but if raguly and couped, as the second figure. With French heralds the trèfle is distinguished from the tiercefeuille by the former having a stalk and the latter not.
With the trefoil may be classed the shamrock, i.e. the three-leaved clover, which is considered the badge of Ireland, being traditionally associated with S.Patrick, who is said to have adopted it as a symbol of the doctrine of the Trinity.
The Cross botonny, §14, is by some called treflée, and not inappropriately, but the former is the more usual term. Trellised, (fr. trelissé, or treillé): sometimes used, perhaps, for fretty when with a smaller mesh; and this is usually so with French heralds; but with English heralds it is said to be equivalent to Lattised, q.v. Tremoile or Tremaille: this puzzling name occurs in an ancientroll, and the copyist in 1562 supposed the bearing to be 'men's hearts.' It has been thought that they were trefoils, and that both the name and the drawing had been mistaken. Mr.Wyatt Papworth puts them under 'mill-hoppers' (Qy. the wooden troughs belonging to a corn-mill) in noting these arms, but gives no reason. The family of TREMAYLE seem to bear three brogues(see under Foot), but in one blazon they are described as bearing trammels, the meaning of which is doubtful.
Tressure, (old fr. tressour, fr. trecheur): a subordinary, considered by some as a diminutive of the orle. It may be single or double(and some say even triple), but is mostly borne double, and fleury-counterfleury, as in the royal arms of Scotland, q.v., whence the charge is sometimes called 'the royal tressure.' When impaled, it is said to follow the rule of the bordure, and not to be continued on the side of the impalement, but several exceptions may be found. When an ordinary is described as within a tressure it should extend only to the inner side of the tressure.
Charges may be described as fretted in triangle, e.g. in the arms of TROUTBECK(under Salmon), or nowed in triangle, as in those of BRADWEN under Serpent. The insignia of the Isle of MAN are sometimes blazoned as flexed in triangle(see under Leg; also Arm). The term has also been awkwardly applied by some writers to cases where charges are borne transposed(as is very rarely the case), i.e. one(in chief) and two(in base). Trick: In trick, or tricking, is an expression used when the arms instead of being blazoned in the ordinary way are roughly sketched in, and the tinctures added, and other notes(such e.g. as the repetition of the charge) by abbreviations or signs. The letters usually adopted by the heralds, many of whose note-books we possess, compiled during their visitations, are, o for or, a for argent, b for azure(instead of az. which might be mistaken for ar.); g for gules; v for vert; s for sable; p for purpure; er for ermine(rarely; being more often used); ppr for proper. The accompanying figures are taken from a copy made by Nicholas Charles in 1606[Harl. MS. No. 6589, fol. 5 and fol. 6 verso] of a Roll of Arms temp. Ed. I. Besides copying the blazon, he has also here and there added the coats of arms in trick. It will at once be seen how simple the system is. At the same time in some of the visitations of heralds the arms are very difficult to decipher, and the animals and birds are generally drawn very roughly.
Trowel: used by plasterers, and borne by the PLASTERERS' Company, in which it appears as in the margin. The arms will be found blazoned under the wordHammer. True lovers' knot. See Cord. Trumpet: this musical instrument is found not unfrequently in the older rolls of arms, and has several shapes, but that annexed is the most common; sometimes it is drawn flexed, taking the shape of the letter S. The trumpet in the insignia of the Benedictine Abbey of ATHELNEY is shaped like a cow'shorn.
Tun, (fr. tonneau, but if small, barillet): a large barrel, represented usually as in the margin, that is lving length ways. They are sometimes represented with the hoops of another tincture. It occurs in the insignia of the BREWERS' and VINTNERS' Companies, as well as in the arms of a few families. Sometimes the term hogshead, or barrel, or even tub, is used, and perhaps in that case the charge should be drawn upright. It was very commonly used in the Rebus, q.v., so many names ending in ton. [See example of the lionhopping on a tun for name of Hopton under Lion.]
With the above must be grouped the flounder, or flook, as it is called in Scotland, which is probably not to be distinguished from them. Mr.Moule also finds that at Yarmouth this fish is called a butt; in Cornwall he has found the local name to be the carter fish, hence he concludes that the fish borne respectively in the arms of BUTTS and CARTER are meant for a fish of this kind. What the bret fish is, or the birt, he does not seem to have determined. The following examples are taken from his work.