Eagle, (fr. Aigle): the eagle being the recognized king of birds, it is natural that it should from a favourite device. With the Romans, it will be remembered, it was adopted as their ensign, no doubt as symbolical of the courage and power attributed to that bird. It is found very frequently in the earlier rolls of arms, and is very common throughout the Middle Ages. In the roll, for instance, of the time of Edward II., to which reference has already been made, over forty coats of armsbeareagles. In that, however, of Henry III. there are only two or three, and in that of Edward III. not so large a number in proportion. From the following selection it will be observed that amongst the earliest examples the beak and claws are blazoned of a different tincture from that of the body; and in Edward the Second's reign we find the double-headed eagle, and in Edward the Third's reign we get the term espanie, signifying displayed, or spread out; (conf. modern fr. épandre). The mention, too, of the eagles being tincturedbarry implies rather that they were represented displayed, even where not so described.
But there are various terms which, though not confined to the eagle, are more frequently applied to it than to other birds, namely, as regards its wings, and the several positions in which it is represented. It may be with wingsclose, i.e. closed, or it may be with its wingselevated, or it may be with wingsdisclosed, i.e. somewhat open, but inverted, and pointing downwards(and this is practically the same as the expression overt, written sometimes overture).
Again, an eagle may be rising, that is, about to fly; volant, that is, flying; or eyrant, that is, sitting, as it were, on its nest; or it may be statant, i.e. standing in an ordinary position; and if so, generally perched upon some branch or other object, or holding something in its mouth; or it may be represented as preyant; or, again, pruning its wings. These are a few for which examples are readily found; but to judge of the varieties which might be adopted, the reader is referred to those noted under Bird, and to the article Wings.
The double-headed eagle was borne by the German emperors(who claimed to be considered the successors of the Cæsars of Rome), and hence the term frequently applied to it is the imperial eagle. The wings of the imperial eagle are always drawn by German heralds with a small feather between each pair of large ones. An eagle is also borne by the emperor or czar(that is Cæsar) of Russia. In the Bulle d'or of Charles IV. (A.D. 1323) the eagle is there represented with but one head, and it is not until Sigismund his son began his reign that we find the eagle represented double headed.
The eagles in the arms of many English families can be traced to some former connection between those families and the German empire. The Eagle of France dates from Napoleon Bonaparte.
The Congereel, a large eel found upon the British coasts, is as frequently adopted as the eel of the rivers. The head is perhaps more frequently found in heraldry than the whole fish, and also demi-congers.
Effaré, (fr.): same as Effrayé. Effarouché, (fr.): of a cat when scared. Effets: these in heraldic drawing are perhaps hardly to be distinguished from lizards, and hence the same arms are sometimes variously blazoned. The asker, which is a water-lizard, and the newt, are also found.
Elephant. (fr. éléphant): occurs in a few insignia of cities, and in the arms of some families. The trunks or probosces(fr. proboscides) occur separate in some few cases. The tusk in French blazon is called the defense, and tusked is described as defendu of such a tincture. In one example the elephant is represented carrying a howdah, and in two examples a castle. Elephants sometimes appear as supporters, e.g. to the arms of OLIPHANT of Gask, co. Perth, and to the city of OXFORD, &c. They are not unfrequently used as crests.
Emanche, (fr.): a term about which English heralds seem to differ. It is, however, confined to French and German heraldry, and appears to be a piecepartitioned off from the shield by a dancetty line, but often so much exaggerated as to be like two or three piles; they may be upright or fesswise; the indentations appear not to be always drawn uniform.
The adjectival form emanché is perhaps more common than the substantive, an emanche. When there is only one projection the term embrassé seems to be employed by French heralds.
Emanché d'or et d'azure de trois piecès, à trois besants d'or en pointe; au chef d'argent chargé de trois bouterolles de gueules--BRUYSEL DE SURE.
D'argent embrassé de gueules de sénestre a droite--DOMANTZ, Silesia.
Embattled, battled, battelly, crenelled, or kernelled: a line of partition resembling a row of battlements, (from which it derives its origin and its name) across the shield; the term may also be applied to the edge of an ordinary.
When a fesse or bend or chevron is said to be embattled, it implies that it is so upon the upper side only, though sometimes this is mentioned(fr. crenellé), and the term super-embattled is occasionally found. When a fess or a chief is embattled on the under side only, the French use the term bastillé.
The "crenelles" are properly speaking the embrasures or open spaces between the "merlons," which are the upright solid pieces.
If the ordinary is crenellated on both sides it may be said to be embattledcounter embattled, and this is properly used only when the crenelles on one side are opposite to the merlons on the other, and vice versâ. It may also be said to be bretessé, and this is properly used with English heralds, to signify that the crenelles are opposite to each other. With French heralds, however, the wordbretessé is frequently used for counter embattled, and these terms do not seem to be used with their respective meaning very strictly even by English heralds.
Battledembattled, or battledgrady, is a name given to a figure having, as it were, an extra battlement, but, as usual for these fanciful names, no examples are given. And the same may be said of battledarrondi, i.e. with the tops of the battlements rounded instead of straight. The term double embattled, however, does occur, and it is possibly the same as grady.
Embelief, a word of doubtful origin, but of which enhanced is the probable signification, as will be seen by comparison of the two blazoning of the arms of GREILLI. Sir Harris Nicolas suggests that it is a misreading of en le chief. Confer with derechief in arms of S.AMANT, from Roll of Carlaverock, under roundle.
Embroiderers' Broaches, Trundles, and Quill.
The broach is an instrument used by embroiderers, and borne by their several companies; it is represented as in the margin, but as a rule two are borne together in saltire.
The Trundle represents a quill of gold thread, two of which are represented in the arms of the London company, as in fig. 1, though in the drawing there appears to be some confusion between the trundles, fusils, and quills when full.
Quill(or wheelquill) of yarn, if full, would be represented as in fig. 2; an empty quill as in fig. 3; but there are many varieties of drawing of the same arms. See also Fusil.
England, Armorial insignia of. The Insignia of England are said to have had originally only two lions, but that on the marriage of Henry II. with Eleanor of Aquitaine, another lion for that duchy was then added. They thus appear for the first time on the Great Seal of RICHARD I.; the Seals of the two Williams, as well as of the two preceding Henries, shewing only the reverse side of the shield, and that of Stephen being to all appearance plain. From this time forward they have been recognized as the Arms of England.
Erased, eraced, or erazed(fr. arraché): violently torn off, leaving a jagged edge. The term is chiefly applied to the heads and limbs of animals. When applied to birds'legs the expression à-la-quise, i.e. à la cuisse, is often added to signify that the upper part of the leg is shewn. A headerasedclose signifies that it is torn off without any part of the neck remaining attached to it.
Robert de TATESHALE, escheque d'or et de goules, ung cheif d'ermyne--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
Robert de TATISHALE eschequere d'or e de goules al chef armine--Roll, temp. HEN. III. Harl. MS. 6589. John de NEVILLE, COWERDE, mascule d'or et de goules ung quartier de hermyne--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
Hugh BOLEBEK, vert ung lion d'ermyn rampand--Ibid. Le Counte de Bretaine eschekere d'or e dazur a une kantelle dermine a un bordure de goules--Harl. MS. 6589, temp. HEN. III.
Cele de TATESHALE a oun De or e de rouge eschequeré
Por sa valour o eus tirée Au chef de ermine outréement.
Roll of Carlaverock, A.D. 1300.
Again, while numerous instances occur of "gules with a fesseermine," it is doubtful if an example is to be found of "gules with a fesseargent." And the Carlaverock poet possibly intends ermine when he writes:--
Bien doi mettre en mon serventois Baniere ot rouge ou entaillie
Ke Elys de AUBIGNI li courtois Ot fesse blanche engreelie.
The same poem also gives
BADELSMERE, Ki tout le jour Portoit en blanc au bleu label
Iluec se contint bien e bel Fesse rouge entre deux jumeaux.
Although the form shewn in the illustrations is used in all modern emblazoning, there were ancient forms of the erminespot, as shewn in the margin. No. 1 is from the surcoat of Sir Robert du BOIS, upon his tomb in Fersfield Church, Norfolk,--he died 1311; No. 2, from the stall-plates of Sir Walter PAVELEY, one of the first knights of the Garter, and Sir Thomas BANASTER, his successor in the stall,--the first died 1376, the other, 1379; and No. 3 from the stall-plate of Sir Simon DE FELBRYGG, K.G., who died A.D. 1422. An erminespot, (fr. hermine, or moucheture, whence the wordmouchetor in some heraldic works) is occasionally found to occur by itself; sometimes more than one are named, and sometimes, when there is only space for a few spots, the term spotted is used.
Ermine, (the animal). See Weasel. Escallop, or escallop shell, (fr. coquille). This is the badge of a pilgrim, also a symbol of the Apostle S.James the Great, who is generally drawn in the garb of a pilgrim. As it is found in ancientheraldry as early as Henry III.'s time, it was probably suggested by the eastern pilgrimages. It is borne in various ways, often surmounting an ordinary or other charge, especially a cross, chief, or bordure, &c. It is clear that the old French term coquille(from which we derive our modern cockle shell), is the same, though heralds pretend that when this is used the shell should have the edge upwards.
The shell is always represented with the outside of the valve towards the spectator; but in French arms the interior is sometimes shewn, and then the term vannet is used. See fan under basket.
Escarboucle: since the earliest form which we find of this word is charboucle, which only in very much later times was corrupted into carbuncle, we must look for its origin in a buckle of some kind. The present form seems to owe its origin to the metal-work on the shield, such as is exhibited on the monumental effigy(commonly ascribed to Geoffrey of Mandeville, Earl of Essex, who died in 1144,) now existing in the Templechurch. The effigy, however, can scarcely be earlier than 1185, the date of the consecration of the church. The device being so exactly of the character of the metal-work of the thirteenth century it was no doubt intended by the sculptor to pourtray the ornamental iron-work, which was added to strengthen the shield, the protuberances representing bosses or rivets. That they were not intended for the arms of DE MANDEVILLE is clear, as in the contemporary Rolls of Arms we have his shieldblazoned thus
Le comte de MANDEVILE, quartele d'or et de goulez--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
Nor is there any reason to attribute them especially to any knight who is likely to have been buried there. The special figure appears afterwards to have been assumed as a regular device, and it is found amongst the historical arms painted on Queen Elizabeth's tomb in Westminster Abbey, but it is of more ornamental a character than the one on the supposed tomb of Geoffrey Mandeville.
Having become a regular device, and borne by several families, it came to have varied nomenclature, and the number of rays was reduced to six and extended to twelve, so that the number came to be mentioned. Some authors have called the raysstaves, nor is this altogether needless, as examples are to be found with the stavesblazonednowyed, or pometty, and others floretty. In some of the cases, however, the device thus blazoned may be intended for a wheel, but badly drawn. The name charboucle is the old form, as will be seen, since it is used in the earliest rolls as well as by Chaucer.
"His sheld was all of gold so red, A charboucle beside."
And therin was a bores hed, Chaucer, Rime of Sire Thopas, 13798.
Espanié, (old fr.): of an eagle, displayed. Espaule, (old fr.): for shoulder. Esquartelé=quarterly. Esquire, equire, esquierre, or squire(fr. esquerre, or équerre): a figure similar in form to a gyron. The chief examples are those in the arms of MORTIMER(earls of March), which are variously blazoned, each successive heraldic writer attempting to improve upon his predecessor. The following is the description in the Siege of Carlaverock, and it has been thought well to give the English in a paraller column.
Epuis Rogiers de Mortemer, |And next Roger de Mortimer,
Ki, deca mer e dela mer, |Who, on both sides the sea,
A porté quel part ke ait alé |Has borne wherever he went
L'escu barré au chief palé |A shield barry with a chief paly
E les cornieres gyronnées, |And the corners gyronny,
De or e de asur enluminées, |Emblazoned with gold and blue,
O le escuchon vuidie de ermine. |With the escutcheon voided of
Roll of Carlaverock. | ermine.
Next are given the varieties of blazoning, the same, or nearly the same, arms in different rolls of arms, as well as one or two more recent examples.
Theoretical heralds say that the esquire may be drawn across the whole shield, but no examples are found; while the expression based or bast esquire has probably arisen from some error, but it is found used by more than one writer. It would have been better if heralds had been content with the old form, cornersgyronny. Esquire, (lat. armiger, fr. escuyer): a title of a gentleman of the rank immediately below a knight. It was originally a military office, an esquire being(as the name escuyer, from escu, a shield, implies) a knight's attendant and shield bearer. Esquires may be theoretically divided into five classes: 1. The younger sons of peers and their eldest sons. 2. The eldest sons of knights and their eldest sons. 3. The chiefs of ancient families are esquires by prescription. 4. Esquires by creation or office. Such are the heralds and serjeants at arms and some others, who are constituted esquires by receiving a collar of SS. Judges and other officers of state, justices of the peace, and the higher naval and military officers are designated esquires in their patents or commissions. Doctors in the several faculties, and barristers at law, are considered as esquires, or equal to esquires. None, however, of these offices or degrees convey gentility to the posterity of their holders.
5. the last kind of esquires are those of knights of the bath; each knight appoints two to attend upon him at his installation and at coronations.
A special helmet was appropriated to esquires. Essorant, (fr.): Soaring, or rising. Essore, (fr.): of the tincture of roofs of houses(?). Estendart, (fr.): standard. See Flag.
Evangelistic Symbols: These four symbols, which have their origin in the mystical interpretation of the first chapter of Ezekiel(ver. 10) compared with the fourth chapter of Revelation(ver. 6, 7), occur on at least one coat of arms.
The old French pichier, the modern pitcher, is found as early as the roll of the Siege of Carlaverock, but it appears to be a solitary example, and the name of the bearer seems rather to suggest its connection with the water bouget.
Le bon Bertram de MONTBOUCHIER, En son escu de argent luisant
De goules, furent trois pichier En le ourle noire le besant.
Roll of Carlaverock, A.D. 1300.
Ewers are borne by families of TODWELL, REGINALD, &c. Expanded, or expansed, i.q. displayed. Some writers would confine the term displayed to birds of prey, and apply that of expanded to tame fowls. Extendant: also used in the sense of displayed, and likewise to signify that some charge generally found curved(as a serpent), is borne straight. Eye: The human eye is sometimes represented in arms; the eyes of animals are rarely referred to, and only when they are of a different tincture.