Cabré(fr.) is applied by French heralds to a horse which, brought to a check, is rearing(but not so much as acculé). Cadency, marks of, otherwise called Distinctions, or Differences(fr. brisures): variations of the original arms of a family, or marks attached to them for the purpose of pointing out the several branches, and the relation in which they stand to each other and to their common ancestor.
In ancientheraldry "a plainLabel" (as Sir N. H. Nicolas remarks), "most frequently azure, appears to have been the distinction of the eldest son and heir apparent;" as, for instance, at the Siege of Caerlaverock, Maurice de BERKELEY, who joined in the expedition, is described as having over his arms(gules, crusilly with a whitechevron) a labelazure, because his father was still alive:
"E. Morices de Berkelée, Croissillie o un chievron blanc,
Ki compaigns fu de cele alée, Ou un label de asur avoit,
Banier ot vermeille cum sanc, Por ce que ses peres vivoit."
And again, one bore his arms in no manner different from his father[the Earl of Lennox] except the azurelabel:
"Cele au Conte de Laonois .... Ne la portoit par nul aconte
Patrik de Dunbar, fiz le Conte Fors de une label de inde diverse."
It also appears "that younger sons bore the label variously charged, sometimes with the whole or part of their mother's arms, or the arms of a distinguished family from which they were descended; that more distant branches changed the colours, or charges, of the coat; placed a bend over it; surrounded it with a bordure, or assumed a canton, plain or charged."
Although the charge of tinctures, and the addition, removal, or alteration of charges are very frequently marks of cadency, it must not be supposed that all families of the same name, and between whose arms there is some resemblance, are descended from the same ancestors, for the arms of ancient families have often been very unjustly granted with slight alterations to persons whose relation to such families consisted only in similarity of name. The differences now in use may be divided into two classes; those used by the royal family, and those which should be borne by all others. The sons and daughters of the sovereign all bearlabels of three pointsargent. That of the Prince of Wales is plain, but those of the other princes and princesses are charged with crosses, fleur-de-lis, hearts, or other figures for the sake of distinction. Princes and princesses, being the sons and daughters of the above, are distinguished by labels of five pointscharged in the same manner. All such differences should be borne on the arms, crest, and supporters.
The differences now in use for all families except that of the sovereign may be partially traced to the time of Edward III. They are as follows:--
First son. A label of 3 points. Fourth son. A martlet.
Second son. A crescent. Fifth son. An annulet.
Third son. A mullet. Sixth son. A fleur-de-lis.
Candlestick, (fr. chandelier). The taper-candlestick, borne in the arms of the FOUNDERS' Company, and usually drawn as represented in the annexed engraving, has a spike, or, as it is technically termed, a pricket, upon which the taper is placed. Vide also Mortcour, which is used at funerals.
Many even of early coats of arms allude, in some way or other, to the names of their bearer, and perhaps more than is commonly suspected would be found to be so, if we could always recover the early chance names given to the charges of which they are composed.
Geoffrey de LUCY, de goules a trois lucies d'or--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
Nicholas de MOELES, d'argent a deux barres de goules, a trois molets en le chief de goules--Ibid.
Thomas CORBETT, d'or, deux carbeaux noir--Ibid.
Roger de MERLEY, barree d'argent et de goulz, a la bordur d'azure, et merlots d'or en la bordur--Ibid.
Odinel HERON d'azur a trois herons d'argent--Ibid.
Arms parlantes do not often occur of later date than King James I., about which time they began to grow into disrepute from ignorance and misapplication, and were nick-named canting or punning arms. They were numerous at all preceding periods, not only in England, but throughout Christendom. Canton, (fr. canton, but also franc quartier appears to be often used in this sense): resembles a first quarter of the shield in form, but of smaller dimensions; its size does not appear to be fixed, but is generally about one-third of the chief. In old French cauntel, (i.e.) canton, is used for Quarter, q.v.
When the word is used alone, a dextercanton is intended; it may, however, be placed upon the sinisterside, if so blazoned, and when with a bend. Cantons in base occur upon foreign arms, but it is believed are never used in English armory.
Argent, a cantonsable--Oliver SUTTON, Bp. of Lincoln, 1280-99; Charles SUTTON, Bp. of Norwich, 1792, and Abp. of Canterbury, 1805-28; [also SUTTON, Baron Lexington, 1645, and other families of that name]. Argent, fretty gules, a cantongules--IREBY, Cumberland. Gul. LONGESPE, dazur, a sis liuncels dor--Soun frer au tel a une cauntel dermine--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
Where there is a bordure the canton always surmounts it, and when borne upon a coat consisting of three charges(2 and 1) it generally covers the whole or greater part of the first. If more than three it generally covers the whole of one, if not of more. In very exceptional cases, however(and then the arrangement must be duly described), the canton itself is partially covered by some ordinary(e.g. a bend).
It is often charged with another bearing, though generally plain, and the most frequent tincture is ermine, which rather tends to bear out a theory that its origin was suggested by some badge of honour placed upon the shoulder of the warrior.
A canton and fesse of the same tincture, as in the arms of WOODVILLE, should join, without even a line to part them. The same remark will apply to the uppermost of two or more bars, when occurring with a canton; but this is not so with a bend. When a canton and chief occur on the same coat the canton overlies it.
Cap: the principal caps in use as charges, parts of crests, or accessories to coats of arms, are the following:
The Lord Mayor's cap usually placed over the insignia of the city of London, or arms of a lord mayor, is thus represented. It is worn by the sword-bearer, and is of brownfur.
The caps borne by MAUNDEFELD are of a peculiar form, similar to that of the 'Doge's' cap. Those borne by DROKENSFORD, and called pilia pastoralia(if caps at all), were possibly similar.
A Cardinal's cap or hat is always red, and has tasselspendent from its labels in five rows, instituted by Innocent IV., at the Council of Lyons, 1245. The continental archbishops and bishops(especially those of France) bear green hats of the same form over their mitres, the former with five rows of tassels, and the latter with four. A blackcap of the same shape, with three rows of tassels, belongs to abbats. Prothonotaries use a similar hat with two rows of tassels. A blackhat or cap, with one tassel on each side, belongs to all other clergymen.
The longCap, of a peculiar shape, which occurs in the crests of WALPOLE and BRYDGES, is shewn in the margin, and a cap somewhat similar is termed an Albanian bonnet, probably that worn by the peasantry.
The Abacot, a mere corruption of bycocket, is said in Spelman's Glossary to have been given to a cap worn by ancientkings of England, and is so copied into heraldic books.
The Infula is used in one case in the sense of a cap.
Caps of Steel: of these there are various kinds, and they cannot properly be included under the term helmet. The first is the Basinet(fr.), or Basnet, properly a plain circular helmet resembling a basin, though sometimes they are drawn(improperly) like squires'helmets. The Burgonet is a steel cap, worn chiefly by foot-soldiers, and of the shape shewn in the margin.
There is also the Morion(fr. chapeau de fer), which was worn by foot-soldiers, and is usually of the plain shape annexed, but it may be ornamented. In many ancient examples the points of these morions are turned to the dexter.
A somewhat different morion is given on the crest of CECIL, Marquis of Salisbury.
The Castle is borne very frequently in the insignia of cities and towns, with other charges; of these insignia, however, the evidence is often only derived from the seal. The following may be named, but the list might probably be extended.
Cat, (fr. chat): occurs not infrequently. Probably the wild-cat is generally intended, though the special reference to the Cat-a-mountain in several arms seems to imply a distinction. A spotted cat is also referred to. Cats are found blazoned most frequently passant, but also rampant, salient, statant, and couchant. With French heralds the term effarouché is used to signify the cat when rampant(as if scared), and herissonée with 'the back up.' The wild-cat is supposed always to be represented guardant, although it be not stated in the blazoning. Musion, a fanciful name for a cat, is used by BOSSEWELL.
A cat'shead is also found on one coat.
It is more usual, however, to designate the material of which the chaplet is composed. It may be of roses(and this, perhaps, is the most frequent) or of flowers generally, or it may be of leaves, and often of laurelleaves. In the latter case it is termed a crown triumphal.
Rarer instances occur of chaplets of holly, or of hazel, or of brambles, while the single instance of the chaplet of rue is a name sometimes given to the crown of rue(q.v.) which occurs in the arms given by Frederick of Barbarossa to the Duke of SAXONY.
When the material is oak the device is often blazoned as a wreath, and there is especially a 'wreath of oakacorned' which bears the name of the 'Civic wreath,' or the Civic Crown. It is supposed to represent the Roman crown conferred upon public benefactors, especially upon those who had saved the life of a citizen. The leaves should be represented tied together by a ribbon. The Ducal Coronet(q.v. under Crown) had originally oakleaves, but strawberry-leaves have been substituted.
The Crown obsidional is also mentioned in old works on heraldry, which is a chapletgraminy, i.e. composed of twisted grass, and is fancifully said to have been bestowed upon any general who had held a city against a besieging force.
Chequy, Checky, Checquer-bearing, (fr. échiqueté, old fr. eschequeré): terms applied to a field or charge divided by perpendicular and horizontal lines, into small squares of metal and colour alternately. There should be at least twenty squares in the shield. If less, the number is named(as in the shield of TOLEDO, where there are 15). When only 9, with the French heralds the terms equipollé is applied. This pattern is said by some to be derived from the game of chess, which if not originally introduced into Europe by the Crusaders was certainly revived by them. Others, however, with greater probability derived it from the Steward's or 'chequer' board. In the Exchequer of the kingdom, and the Chancellor of that department, the word is still retained; and the 'Checkers,' a frequent sign of small inns, with the board painted in squares on the outside, still hands down the tradition of the account board. It is not, however, impossible that this board gave the name to the game of chess played upon it.
While the number of pieces in the field must be, as already said, at least twenty, a fesse or other ordinary when blazonedchequy must contain three rows of squares, for if there be but one, the ordinary will be compony, and if but two, counter-compony. At the same time the field may have but two rows in chief of a fesse, for so the arms of Lord Clifford are represented in the glass windows at Dorchester, Hasely, &c.
When a bend, chevron, or saltire is checquy, the square are not placed perpendicularly, but slanting in the direction of the ordinary.
Chevron, (fr. chevron, old fr. cheveron): an ordinary occupying one-fifth of the field. The origin and meaning of this term has afforded ground for many guesses, but in diversifying the forms which bars across the shield may take, that of the chevron is a very natural one. The name itself is derived directly from the fr. chevron, i.e. a rafter of a roof. It is found in the earliest of the Rolls of Arms, and is one of the most frequently employed of the Ordinaries. At the siege of Caerlaverock, for instance(A.D. 1300), Henry le TYES had a bannerargent, or, as the poet writes, 'whiter than a brightened lily,' with a chevrongules in the midst. And at the same siege, Robert FITZWALTER, "who well knew of arms the business," on a yellowbanner had a fesse between two redchevrons. Both of these arms are to be seen in stained glass in Dorchester Church, Oxon, in a window which was probably nearly contemporary with the siege, and perhaps recording the benefactors to the Church.
Baniere ot Henris li TYOIS
Plus blanche de un poli lyois
O un chievron vermeil en mi.
O lui Robert le FIZ WATER
Ke ben sout des armes le mester ...
En la baner jaune avoit
Fesse entre deus cheverons vermaus.
A chevron may be enhanced, that is, borne higher up on the escutcheon(no instance has been observed in which it is abased), and it may be reversed, that is, it may have its point downwards, like a pile, or it may be combined with a pile, but such variations are of rare occurrence. It is also sometimes found couped, that is, not extending to the edge of the escutcheon, or with the apex terminated by some other charge, when it may be said to be ensigned of such a charge.
Besides the above there are various forms of broken chevrons. But the terms do not appear very distinctly defined by heralds, and the actual examples are but few. We find the terms fracted, disjoint, bruised, or debruised(fr. brisé), and rompu or downset, the last term, to all appearance, being a barbarism derived from the French dauncet, which would be equivalent to dancetty.
In the margin are given illustrations of one or two forms found in books, but no ancient examples have been observed. With the French engravers the chevronbrisé is generally drawn in a similar manner to fig. 1, though the two portions are often still further apart, so as not to touch at all. Rompu and failli seem to be used by them when the sides of the chevron are broken into one or more pieces.
In chevron would be applied to charges arranged chevronwise.
Per chevron. See Party. Chevronelly, i.q. Chevronny. See at end of Chevron. Chevronny, (fr. chevronné): is used when the field is divided into an even number of equal portions chevronwise. Chevronelly appears to be used more correctly.
Chevronel: a diminutive of the chevron, of which it is nominally one half the width; the term being used properly when there is more than one chevron. With the older writers, however, the term chevron is used, and so may still be used when there are two or even three chevrons.
The chief does not, as a rule, surmount other charges, and consequently such have often to be abased. The bend, for instance, starts from the dextercorner just beneath the chief. When associated with a bordure(unless there is direct statement to the contrary) the bordure would be turned and continued beneath the base line of the chief.
It is contended by some writers that the chief has a diminutive, and to a figure as shewn in the margin is given the name of fillet. French heralds, however, blazon this as chef retrait, the wordfilet being used for a diminutive of the cotice. The wordcombel is also given by some English heraldic writers as meaning the same thing. It is said that the fillet does not occur at all in English arms, but perhaps the following example may be cited--
In Chief is a term frequently used when the charges are to be placed upon the upper part of the escutcheon, and differently from their ordinary position, There are also three points(q.v.) in the escutcheon connected with the chief, viz. the dexterchiefpoint, middle chiefpoint, and sinisterchiefpoint. Chieftain. See Head. Child: Children, boys, and infants are represented on armorial bearings as early as the sixteenth century, and in a great variety of ways. Perhaps some of the oldest are those where the eagle snatches away the child from its cradle, which occurs in different families, and is variously depicted in the arms of the branches of the same family. Of course such arms are readily associated with tradition, but it is scarcely within the scope of a 'glossary' to discuss them. More frequently, however, the children's heads(q.v.) alone occur.
The three children in a tub or vessel are generally referred to the miracle of S.Nicolas, who restored them after they had been murdered and salted down for food: and in the insignia of the SEE OF ABERDEEN the Bishop is represented as praying over them. (See under Bishop.) Some curious legend must account for the origin of the following.
To another, (probably that of W. de ALBINI) is due the arms of Richard BARNES, Bishop of Carlisle, in which a naked child, front faced, is represented in one instance as holding in both hands the tongue of a bear. The following is one blazon.
Chough. See Cornish Chough. Chub, (leuciscus cephalus): this fish, common to England and belonging to the order cyprinidœ, seems only to have been chosen for the sake of the punning name, since it is only borne by the family of CHOBBE.
Again it is represented on the seal to Thomas Arundel, Abp. of Canterbury, 1397-1414, where the shield bearing the fish(which are supposed to be roach) is represented as borne by one of the four murderers of Thomas à Becket, though what connection they had with the Roche family is not known.
It may perhaps be noted that the application of this charge to the name of the family is a singular instance of the punning adopted in heraldic devices, for the remains of Roche Castle, founded by Adam de la Roche, still exist on an insulated rock(fr. roche) of great height, and it has been suggested that the proverb 'sound as a roach' has its origin in the same confusion of the French and English language.
The roach is found borne differently by different descendants of the family, e.g.
Church: this is not unfrequently represented in coats of arms of recent date, but there seem to be no special characteristics to be noted in the several examples, and the method of representing the church seems somewhat arbitrary. This is so in a very marked way on the insignia of the Burgh of CULROSS.
The credit of this minute example of blazon(presenting a great contrast to the simple insignia of more ancient companies) is due to Sir Edw. Walker, Garter, who granted it in 1677. Close: a term applied to wings of birds; and to helmets. Closet: this may be considered as the diminutive of the Bar, of which it is half the width, i.e. a tenth of the shield, so that only nine closets can be borne in one shield; the term closetty is sometimes used signifying barry of many pieces, though the term barry may be used of any even number of pieces.
Clothiers' implements. The habick was a tool used for holding the clothfirm whilst it was operated on by the teazel or other instrument. The word is probably a corruption of the 'habitinghook,' and it is represented on the arms of the Company, as shewn in the margin.
The teazel is referred to elsewhere, under thistle. The shears for cropping the pile or nap for rendering the surface smooth will be found under the implements of Weavers.
The preen appears to be an instrument which was used for much the same purpose as the teazel. It does not, however, occur in the insignia of any of the companies, but it is found in the arms of a private person, where it seems to have been chosen for the sake of the name.
Clouds(fr. nuée) sometimes occur as bearings, as in the cases of the MERCERS' and DRAPERS' Companies, and a few families. Very frequently arms, &c., are represented issuing from the clouds; and in French arms still more so, since the dextrochere as it issues from the side of the shield is generally surrounded by clouds. The partition-line called nebuly(fr. nuagé), which may be considered as a conventional representation of clouds, is common in heraldry. See also examples under Ray and Tiara.
Clove: the spice so called. It is usually drawn not exactly in its natural form, but as in the margin, resembling the arms of the Cross Avellane, to which the filbert has been supposed to supply the design.
Similar to the Cockatrice is the Basilisk, and it is usually held to be synonymous with it, but it is said in books of heraldry to have an additional head, like that of a dragon, at the end of the tail, and hence the Basilisk is sometimes termed an Amphisian Cockatrice. Similar also is the Amphistere, which is found frequently in French coats of arms, and is described as a wingedserpent with dragons' feet, of which the tail ends in another serpent, or in more than one serpent; in the latter case it is said to be gringolé of so many serpents. The Hydra(fr. hydre) also occurs in heraldic designs, but though compared with the dragon it is more like the wyvern, having only two legs, even if it has those. The peculiarity is that it partakes somewhat of its mythological prototype, inasmuch as it has seven heads-though in one case the blazoning especially reduces the number to five.
Collar of SS. Collarsstudded with the letter S, or consisting of many of that latter linked together, either alone or alternately with other figures, have been at times much worn by persons holding great offices in the State, as well as by the gentry of various ranks from esquires upwards. They were worn by the Lords ChiefJustices, the Lord ChiefBaron of the Exchequer, the Lord Mayor of London, the Kings of Arms, and Heralds, and the Serjeants at Arms, though frequently they are little more than ordinarychaincollars with the links twisted so as to resemble the letter S. The signification of the letter S in connection with the collar has been variously explained. Perhaps the best conjectures are, either that the device was invented to represent the wordSouerayne, the favourite motto of Henry IV., which he bore when Earl of Derby, and retained when he succeeded to the throne; or else that that word was suggested by an after-thought of some courtier, or perhaps of the royal jeweller himself, as explanatory of the form which the workman had adopted, and which was so suitable to chain-work.
There is ample evidence that the collar of SS was originally a badge of the house of Lancaster, and that Henry IV. was the first sovereign who granted to the nobility as a mark of royal favour a licence to wear it; and, according to an old chronicle, Henry V., on the 25th day of October, 1415, gave to such of his followers as were not already noble permission to war "un collier semé de lettres S de son ordre."
The right of knights to wear such a collar of gold was recognised by Act of Parliament, 24 Hen. VIII., but restricted to persons who were not below that grade.
Sir John DRAYTON.
Collar of Suns and Roses.
The collar of SS begins to appear upon monuments at the beginning of the fifteenth century, and upon distinguished persons of both sexes. It is represented as if worn by Sir Thomas Burton, in 1381, on the brass at Little Casterton Church(though the brass was not executed till circa 1410). It is also represented as worn by Sir Robert de Hattfield, who is attired as a civilian, and by his wife, on the brass in Oulton Church, Yorkshire, which is dated 1409. On a brass in Hereford Cathedral it is represented as worn by Lady Delamere(1435), but not by her husband. The monumental effigy in Little Dunmow Church, Essex, to Matilda, Countess of Huntingdon, who lived temp. KingJohn, is of no value as evidence, as the effigy is of the fifteenth century. The example here given is from the brass of Sir John DRAYTON, 1411, which exists in Dorchester Church, Oxon. The Collar of Suns and Roses also should be mentioned here, being one of the badges of Henry IV. It occurs on several brasses, and the right to bear this mark of favour was no doubt acquired direct from the sovereign. This collar was not so common as that of the SS. According to Haines, it occurs on brasses at Rougham, Norfolk, c. 1470; at Lillingston Lovell, Oxon, 1471; at Broxbourne, Herts, 1473; at Sardley, Derbyshire, 1478; at St.Albans, 1480; and at Little Easton, Essex, 1483.
Some kings of arms and heralds have also encircled their arms with the collars pertaining to their degrees. Collar-point. See Point. Collared, i.q. gorged(fr. colleté): having a collar, q.v. College. In one case only as yet a representation of a College occurs in a coat of arms, and it can scarcely be said to be an English example.
In poetical blazon, however, with old writers, other than technical terms are used. For instance, at the Siege of Caerlaverock, which took place A.D. 1300, we learn from a contemporary poem of the siege that Robert FITZ-ROGER had his banner.
"De or e de rouge esquartelée, O un bende tainte en noir,"
Other examples will be found, e.g. in an example given under cadency, where it will be seen that 'gules' is described as 'red as blood,' vermeille cum sanc; and under chaplet, 'deux chapeaux des roses vermals.' Colt. See Horse.
HALL, Bishop of Oxford.
Columbine, or Columbian flower, (aquilegia vulgaris), seems to be used more frequently than many other flowers. Possibly this may be owing to the fact that it was the badge of the House of LANCASTER. It occurs in one of the London insignia. The ancient and heraldic method of drawing is shewn in the margin, but in modern times it has been drawn as shewn below, in the arms of HALL, Bishop of Oxford. The fr. ancolie is borne by the family of BACONEL, Picardie, while the allied campanule is borne by that of HESPEL, Artois.
Compasses, (fr. compas): in the insignia of the Company of Carpenters, as well as in others named, this instrument is borne expanded chevronwise, as shewn in the margin. For the Compass Dial, see under Magnetic Needle.
Although not borne by name, cords are frequently so in fact, under the name of knots, of which there are the following varieties, though they are chiefly employed as badges, and not as charges. It may be noted that theoretically the cords are of silk.
The Lincolnshire branch of the HENEAGE family have, according to the visitation of the county, a peculiar badge or cognizance in the shape of a knot which is suggested by the motto "Fast though united." This knot does not appear to have been used as the crest, which is a greyhoundcouchant. The three following knots in a similar manner are respectively the badges of the three families of LUCY, STAFFORD, and WAKE. The last is borne by the family as a crest.
Cordon(fr. Cordelière), is the silvercord which encircles the arms of widows. Its institution has been attributed to Anne of Bretagne, widow of Charles VIII, King of France, "who," says Ashmole(Order of G., p. 126), "instead of the military belt or collar, bestowed a cordon or lace on several ladies, admonishing them to live chastly and devoutly, always mindful of the cords and bonds of our Saviour Jesus Christ; and to engage them to a greater esteem thereof, she surrounded her escocheon of arms with the like cordon." The special use is to distinguish the arms of widows from those of wives; but in England it is but rarely painted upon funeral achievements. The precise form and number of the knots is arbitrary. The arms given in the illustration are thus blazoned.
The Beckit is supposed to resemble the Cornish chough, though the name does not appear in works by modern naturalists. But it is interesting as the canting arms ascribed(at what date is not clear) to S.Thomas A BECKET.
Le counte CHAUMPAINE, dazur a une bende dargent a custeres dor diasprez--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
Humphry de BOUN, d'azur ung bend d'argent entre six leonceux d'or cotisee d'or[ove ung labell de goules]--Ibid.
Le counte de HERFORD, dazur a sis Liuncels dor a un bende dargent lyte[i.e. with listes] dor--Another Roll, temp. HEN. III.
When a single 'cottice' is shewn, it is called a cost(lat. costa, a rib). The cottice may be considered as the diminution of a bend containing one fourth part of the breadth of the ordinary.
Although the term cotticed is strictly applicable to the bend only, it is sometimes applied also to fesses, pales, chevrons, &c., and ordinaries are occasionally to be met with which are double and even treble cotticed. An instance of cottising with demifleurs-de-lis may be seen under fleur-de-lis. Cottisé with French heralds is sometimes used for describing a field covered with ten or more bendlets of alternatecolours, and for a diminution of the cotice they use the term filet.
Couchant, (fr. couché), i.e. lying down, is a term not often used, but it may be applied both to beasts of prey as well as to beasts of chase, that is to the lion as well as to the deer. Beasts thus described should be drawn with their headsupright, to distinguish their position from dormant. With beasts of chase the more usual term to represent this position is lodged.
Couched. See Chevron. Coué. (old fr.), or cowé: i.q. coward. See Tail. Coulissé, (fr.): a castle is so described when the herse or portcullis is down, and fills up the gateway. Coulter of a Plough, q.v. Counter, (fr. contre), simply means opposite; but with this general sense it is variously employed.
When applied to the position of two animals, it signifies that they are turned in contrary directions, i.e. back to back, as two foxes counter-salient in saltire. If but one animals is spoken of, it means that it faces the sinister, as a lion counter-rampant, that is in an opposite direction to that which is usual. Two lionsaccosted counter-couchant means that they lieside by side, with their heads in contrary directions. Again, two lions counter-couchant in pale denotes that one occupies the upper part of the shield, and the other the lower, one facing the dexter, the other the sinister. One lion counter-couchant always faces the sinister. The term counter-passant(fr. contrepassant) is used in the same way. A good example of counter-trippant will be found under Deer.
When applied to the tinctures the term counterchanged is of frequent occurrence, and signifies that the field consists of metal and colour separated by one of the lines of partition named from the ordinaries(per pale, per bend, &c.), and that the charges, or parts of charges, placed upon the metal are of the colour, and vice versa. Counter-coloured is sometimes, but erroneously, used. The annexed illustration affords a simple instance.
Per paleargent and sable, a chevron counterchanged--S.BARTHOLOMEW'S Hospital, London. [Indentical with those of LAWSON, Cumberland, (Bart., 1688.)]
Sometimes the counterchange is more complicated, as in the following.
When roundles occur in counterchanged arms(whether cut through by the line of partition or not) they are not called bezants, torteaux, &c., as in other cases, but retain the appellation of roundles.
In old French rolls the term de l'un en l'autre occurs, and is still used by French heralds: it is in most cases practically equivalent to the more recent term counterchanged. The following are examples, and another will be found previously given under bargemel. See also under Party.
Sire Robert de FARNHAM quartile de argent e de azure, a iiij cressauz de lun en lautre--Roll, temp. ED. II.
Monsieur de METSED, quarterly, d'or et gules, a quatre escallops de l'une et l'autre--Roll, temp. ED. III.
Couped-fitchy is an expression used to signify that the cutting is not by a clean straight stroke, but that a point is left projecting.
Heraldic writers say that an ordinary when blazonedcouped and voided would differ essentially from the same ordinaryblazonedvoided and couped; but as no examples are given shewing that the difference exists in fact, it is hardly necessary to lay it down as a rule.
The French coupé has a distinct meaning, and is frequently employed to signify the partition of the shield horizontally into two equal parts. English heralds would describe the same as party per fesse. Couple-close: this is one of the diminutives of the chevron, of which it should be one-fourth the width. Couple-closes are always borne in pairs, from which circumstance they derive their name. They are often borne with the chevron, which is then said to be between couple-closes, a more exact expression perhaps than coticed.
Cramp, or Crampoon, and sometimes cramp-iron(fr. Crampon), are similar to the pieces of iron bent at each extremity, used for the purpose of strengthening a building. In their origin the irons are supposed to represent the hooked attachments to the scaling-ladders. Hence a cross may be cramponny(fr. cramponné) when the ends are thus terminated. Cramps are generally borne in pairs, and are sometimes(though erroneously) called Fleams or Grapples.
Crenelly, Crenellé, and Crenellated. See Embattled. Crequer plant, (fr. créquier): is described as a wild plum-tree, or cherry-tree, the fruit of which bears the name of 'creques' in the patois of Picardy, and from the peculiar representation in the following arms the word crequier will be found sometimes given in dictionaries as meaning a seven-branched candlestick.
Crescent, (fr. croissant, old fr. cresaunt, pl. cressanz): a half-moon with the horns uppermost. The other positions of the half-moon, viz. increscent and decrescent, will be found mentioned under moon.
A crescent is the ancientensign of the Turks, and was without doubt introduced into heraldry(properly so called) by the crusaders, and hence in arms dating from Henry III.'s reign onwards it is very frequently employed. It is also the mark of cadency assigned to the second house.
Cresset. See Beacon. Crest, (fr. cimier): a figure anciently affixed to the helmet(fr. casque) of every commander, for his distinction in the confusion of battle, and in use before the hereditary bearing of coat armour: it is not unfrequently confounded with the badge or cognizance, which is a different thing. The wordtimbre includes the crest, helmet, wreath, &c., in short every-thing which is above the shield. Crests do not appear to have been considered as in any way connected with the family arms until the fourteenth century, when Edward III. conferred upon William of Montacute, Earl of Salisbury, the right to bear an eagle. The earliest representations of a crest in mediæval times in this country upon any authentic record is perhaps that on the great seal of Richard the First, on which a lion appears figured on the helmet. It does not, however, seem to be a separate attachment, but to be a part of the helmet, and also appears in old illustrations to have been attached to the head of the horse as well as to that of the rider.
The royal crest of England--a lion upon a cap of estate--appears for the first time during the reign of King Edward III., upon one of his great seals. It continues the same to the present day, but is now generally placed upon the royal crown. The following are early instances of family crests:--
Ancientcrests were, for the most part, the heads of men, or of birds, or of animals, or plumes of feathers. Such inappropriate figures as rocks, clouds, and rainbows, were never used for crests while heraldry was in its purity, The list of the varieties of crests found on arms at the present time would fill several pages, but it may be observed that heads and portions of men and animals are still found to be the most frequent. Unless the contrary be expressly mentioned, a crest is always to be placed upon a wreath, and such was, in general, the most ancient practice, nor was it until the time of COOKE, Clarenceux, in Queen Elizabeth's reign, that the ducal coronet and the chapeau(which is also proper to a duke) were indiscriminately granted. Mural and other crowns are occasionally used in the same way.
Though corporate bodies may bear the arms of their founders just as the founders themselves borne them, it is scarcely in accordance with principle for them to bearhelmets and crests(as many of the mercantile companies of London do). The oldest mercantile crest, perhaps, is that of the TALLOW-CHANDLERS, with the Head of S.John the Baptist in the charger, q.v. Crested, (fr. crêté): of a bird when of another tincture. See under Cock. (2) Of a helmet, q.v. Crevice, (corrupted from écrevisse), but used for the crayfish. See Lobster. Cri di guerre. See Motto. Crible, (fr.): a sieve; used only in foreign arms. Crickets: the gryllus domesticus of the naturalists has been chosen for the bearings in at least one coat of arms.
The Archbishop, besides his Crosier, made use also of a Staffsurmounted by a cross; that of the Pope having a triple cross. That of the see of Canterbury is represented as surmounted by a cross formy. In actual examples, some few of which remain, the Archbishop's Staff is found to be of various patterns and highly ornamented. The annexed cut represents the Staff of Archbishop Warham(who died 1520), from his tomb at Canterbury. It is borne of this form, but not so highly ornamented, in the ensigns of the archiepiscopal sees of Canterbury, Armagh, and Dublin.
The Crosier of a bishop ends in a curve resembling that of a shepherd's crook, from which there is every reason to believe it was derived, notwithstanding the opinion of some, that its origin is to be traced to the lituus of the priesthood of pagan Rome. There are many existing specimens of episcopal staves, which, while they all retain the general form of a crook, differ very much in their enrichments. In heraldry the simple form shewn in the margin is generally adopted.
The Crosier and Staffsurmounted by a cross are, however, often confounded under the general term Pastoral Staff, and the French term Crosse is used equally for the crosier as for the staff with the cross.
The pastoral staves of Abbots resembled those of bishops, and were no doubt equally ornamented, especially when the Abbot was head of the MitredAbbeys. However, it seems there was a custom to attach a small pallium, called also sudarium, or strip, to the crosier of Abbots to distinguish them from those of Bishops, though it was not generally adhered to; and this seems to be represented on the insignia of S.Benet's, HULME. Examples are also found of Abbesses represented with a pastoral staff, as on the brass of ISABEL HERVEY, Abbess of Elstow, Bedfordshire(ob. A.D. 1524).
Sable, a crosier in pale or, garnished with a pallium crossing the staffargent[otherwise, having two ribbons entwined about it] between two ducal coronets of the second[otherwise between four crosiers or]--Abbey of S.BENET'S, HELME, Norfolk.
The following Abbeys, Priories, &c., bear the crosier in their insignia--
ALVINGHAM, Lincoln; BARDNEY, Lincoln; BYLAND, Yorkshire; BOXLEY, Kent; BUCKFESTRE, Devon; BURSCOUGH, Lancashire; BUTLEY, Suffolk; CUMBERMERE, Cheshire; DELACRE, Stafford; DEREHAM, Norfolk; FEVERSHAM, Kent; FURNESS; HALES; LLANDAFF; LANGDON, Kent; MALMESBURY, Wilts; MISSENDEN, Bucks; RICHMOND, Yorkshire(S.Agatha); Ditto, (S.Martin's); SHREWSBURY; STRATFORD, Essex; THAME, Oxon; THORNEY, Cambridge; THORNTON, Lincoln; VALE ROYAL, Cheshire; WARSOP, Notts; WENDLING, Norfolk; WESTMINSTER; WIRKSOPP, Notts.
The following Sees also bear the crosier in their insignia:--
ARGYLL; BARBADOS; CALCUTTA; CLONFORT and KILMACDAUAGH; CORK and ROSS; ELPHIN; GALLOWAY; JAMAICA; KILLALA and ACHONRY; KILMORE; LLANDAFF; LEIGHLIN and FERNS; LIMERICK; QUEBEC, &c.
Cross of S.GEORGE.
Cross, (fr. Croix; old fr. crois, croyz, &c.): the term Cross without any addition signifies, §1, a Plaincross, which, it is said, should occupy one-fifth of the shield; but when charged it may occupy one-third. Its use as an heraldic ensign may be considered to be as early as any, and to belong to the time of the first crusades, in which the principal nations of Christendom are said to have been distinguished by crosses of different colours: and it is naturally found to be most frequently employed in the insignia of religious foundations.
"And on his brest a bloodie crosse he bore,
The deare remembrance of his dying Lord,
For whose sweete sake that glorious badge he wore,
And dead, as living ever, him ador'd:
Upon his shield the like was scor'd."
Spenser's "Faerie Quene," bk. i.
§1. The primary idea of the plain heraldic cross is that the four arms are equal, and that they meet in the fesse-point of the shield; from the shape of the shield, however, the horizontal bar is generally shorter than the vertical. This even-armed cross is frequently termed the Greek cross, to distinguish it from the Latin cross, in which the lower member is always longer than the other three. The plaincross of gules on a fieldargent is termed the Cross of S.George, having been assigned to S.George of Cappadocia, or S.George of England. (See Union Jack under Flag.) The plaincross was the most frequent amongst the early arms.
The cross admits of great varieties in outline and treatment, and the inventors of heraldic devices have not been slow to avail themselves of this, and heraldic writers have in their ingenuity multiplied the forms. In giving a summary of the chief forms only we are met with the difficulty of many synonyms occurring, for practically the same form is often much varied by incorrect drawing, and much confusion has arisen from blunders of heraldic writers in misreading or misunderstanding the terms employed. The French terms are more varied still than the English, and the correlation of the two series can only be attempted approximately. It is the plaincross which is most frequently made subject to the variations described, §1 to §7, but it will be noted that other forms of the cross are also at times subjected to the same treatment.
In the following classification the varieties have been, as far as possible, restricted to cases of which examples can be found; and an index at the end(see p. 179) will, it is hoped, render reference easy.
§2. First of all it will be well, perhaps, to note that the edges of the cross are subjected to the same variety of flection as other ordinaries, namely, they may be engrailed(fr. engreslée), embattled(fr. bretessée), indented(fr. denchée), invected(fr. cannelée), wavy, (fr. ondée) raguly, &c., and this treatment is found at tolerably dates.
French works give a cross émanchée, but the application of this exaggerated form of dancetty to a cross must be somewhat difficult, and no figures of it have been observed. The écotée of French writers has the appearance of a coarse kind of raguly. In one case the term slipped is applied to a cross, which should probably have its edges adorned with leaves.
§4. A cross is frequently charged with other devices.
Sire Nicholas de VALERES, de argent, a une crois de goules e v escalops de or--Roll, temp. ED. II.
Sire Johan de BADDEHAM, de argent a une crois de goules; en la crois v molez de or--Ibid.
Sire Wauter de CORNEWAILLE, de argent, a une crois de sable besaunte de or--Ibid.
Sire Gelem de DUREM, de argent a une crois de goules e v flures de or--Ibid.
When, however, the cross is composed as it were, of five pieces or divisions, the central being that of the field, the term quarter-pierced is used. Heraldic writers have, however, invented various terms, e.g. quarter-voided and square-pierced. And some have described the form(taking the field into account) as 'chequy of nine panes;' but it is to be noted that as a rule the pieces are charged with some device. With the French, however, the term équipollée describes the figure exactly.
§6. A cross is described as voided when the central portion of the four limbs is of the same tincture as the field, and only a narrow border is left, and this is found in ancientblazon described as 'une fausse croix.'
The term voide is used of a Cross in one or two ancientrolls in connection with recercelé, and it has been thought to imply that the voiding extends into the field, which may be described as voidedthroughout, and as is shewn in the illustration of the arms of KNOWLES. (See under §32.)
But as it is possible to superimpose one cross upon another(fr. croix chargée, or remplie), and the latter may be of the tincture of the field, the result would be the same as a crossvoided. Modern heralds consider that the difference is to be shewn by the shading of the lines, as already noted in the case of the chevron, but such niceties were unknown in ancientheraldry.
De gueules, à la croix d'argent chargée d'une croix alaisée d'azur--NEUFVILLE, Limosin.
Further, there is a third way in which such arms might in some cases be blazoned, namely, as fimbriated, bordured, or edged(fr. bordé) of such a tincture.
And with this may be noted crosses which have cotices, though these are by no means common in English arms. One remarkable example, however, occurs, in which a fleur-de-lis serves as a cotice instead of a line.
§7. As with other ordinaries, a cross may be couped; and then it is termed humetty(fr. alaisée, spelt sometimes alésée), though the term coupée seems to be occasionally used. Of course all the four arms are couped, unless there is any distinguishing note to the contrary. It would also appear that this cross should be always drawn with its arms equal. When more than one cross or crosslet occurs in the same shield it stands to reason they must be humetty, so that it is not necessary to mention it.
The term humetty is sometimes used in connection with special terminations to the arms of the cross, but practically it is needless, for were the cross extended to the edges there would be no room for such terminations. See e.g. cross annuletty, §11, and fleuretty, §20; also gringolée and the like, §21. To these might be added anserated and ancetty(from the French anse, 'a handle'), though the terms have not been observed in any English blazon.
In many cases, too, we find five or more charges arranged in cross, and in one case a cross is supposed to be formed of one lozenge with the fleury projections(see under mascle); and in another case a cross is formed of bones. While to a cross composed of two strings of beads the name of cross pater-noster has been given, although no example is cited.
If a Crosstriparted should be also floryheralds say that the fillets, &c., should terminate in the manner shewn in the margin, but no example is given in the works which lay down this rule. A crosscabled is given in English lists(in French lists cablée) and described as formed of a cable or twisted rope; but no arms bearing these devices, either English or French, have been noticed. And the fr. cr. vivrée probably consists of a filletcrossed by an endorse, both of them nebuly or dancetty. §9. The expression pierced is applied to crosses, and is variously used. The term pierced(more frequently applied to mullets than similar charges) implies that there is a circular opening, and the field shewn through, and such opening would be in the centre of the cross. But the opening may be of a lozenge form or of a square form. When the whole of the centre is of the tincture of the field it is, as has already been described, to be blazonedquarterlypierced; but, farther, some heralds contend that if the aperture does not occupy the whole of the central portion where the arms meet, it is to be blazonedquarter-pierced.
§10. In some few cases, but rarely in English heraldry, from the angles formed by the meeting of the arms there project certain charges, e.g. rays, acorns, fleur-de-lis, &c.; with rays the term rayonnante would be used. The French term is anglé of such a charge, but there is no English equivalent. Edmondson uses the expression "adorned at angles," but gives no example.
We now come to crosses which have special names, derived either from their general outline or from their termination.
§13. Cross barby(fr. barbée): much the some probably as the French croix tournée, or the croix cramponnée(the crampon being the hook shape described under that term); it does not seem to be a very definite term, but may be represented as in the margin.
§14. Cross bottonnée is derived from the French bouton, a bud or knob, though the name does not appear to be used by French heralds, who use the term tréfflée. It is a cross ending in three lobes like the trefoilleaf, and is of rather frequent occurrence.
§15. Cross Calvary, (fr. cr. de Calvaire): is a longcross or Latin cross(that is with the lower limb longer than the other three, and raised upon three steps). It has been poetically said that the three steps are symbolical of the three Christian graces, Faith, Hope, and Charity, and it is suggested by theoretical writers that the bearer took the arms in consequence of having erected such a cross at Rome. It is also sometimes called a Holy cross.
But the steps or degrees, or grieces(spelt also grices), as they are variously termed, are sometimes referred to apart from the Cross of Calvary, and the term graded or degraded is employed. Consequently a cross degraded(fr. à degrés, and sometimes enserrée de degrés and peronnée) and conjoined signifies a plaincross, having its extremities placed upon steps joined to the sides of the shield. The number of the steps should be mentioned, as it is often four, and sometimes as many as eight.
§17. Crosslet, (fr. croissette or petit croix): two or more crosses are sometimes borne in the same coat, and are then termed crosslets. If only two or three are borne they may be termed crosses or crosslets. If more, they must be termed crosslets. They are drawn couped, but it is not necessary to mention that circumstance, because they could not be otherwise.
William de SARREN, d'azur a trois crois d'or--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
Or, three crossesgules--DE LA MAYNE.
§20. Of crosses with a floriated termination there are many varieties found in the actual emblazoning, but the nomenclature both of French and English heralds appears to be in a very unsatisfactory condition. The term most frequently employed is a cross fleury, and this is written also flory, floretty, and fleuronny, while the modern French heralds give us fleurée, fleuronnée, florencé (or fleuroncée), and fleur-de-lisée. It is not easy, however, to distinguish these from each other, or correlate them with the English terms, or with those used in ancientheraldry.
The commonly-accepted distinction by English heralds is that fleury signifies the cross itself terminating in the form of the upper portion of a fleur-de-lis, but that fleuretty(which is seldom used) signifies the cross to be couped, and the flower, as it were, protruding from the portion so couped; but it is a great question whether there is the slightest authority for such to be obtained from actual examples, or any such agreement to be found amongst the heralds of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. As to the French terms, fleurée seems not to be applied so much to the cross as to other ordinaries, and signifies rather the edges ornamented with flowers or trefoils, while fleuri is applied only to plants in flower. The French fleur-de-lisée, on the other hand, seems to be the equivalent of the English fleuretty, and is represented with the flower protruding from the couped ends of the cross. The florencée and fleuronnée seem to be practically the same term, and both to be the equivalent of the English fleury. On the other hand, fleur-de-lisée seems in English blazon to be applied to the edges of the cross rather than to the ends, and consequently to be synonymous with the French fleurée. We find also confusion in drawings between the cross fleury and the cross patonce, which latter, it will be seen, may be said to lie between a cross fleury and a cross patée, according to some authorities, though drawn differently by others.
It will be observed that in the old blazon, the ends(chefs or bouts) are sometimes described as fleuretty. "Richard SUWARD, who accompanied those[at Caerlaverock], had a blackbanner painted with a whitecross with the ends fleuretty."
John LAMPLOWE, argent ung crois sable florettee--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
Sire Johan de LAMPLOU, de or a un crois de sable les chefs flurettes--Roll, temp. ED. II.
Sire Roger de SUYLVERTONE, de argent a une crois de sable, les chefs flurettes--Ibid.
Monsire William TRUSSELL, port d'argent une crois de gules les bouts floretes--Roll, temp. ED. III.
Monsire de PAVELEY, d'asure a une crois d'or en les bouts floretes--Ibid.
Monsire le Suard D'ESCOZE portsable a une crois d'argent les bouts floretes--Ibid.
Richart SUWART, Re o cus converse O crois blance o bouz flouretée.
Noire baniere ot aprestée Roll of Caerlaverock, A.D. 1300.
§22. A Cross hameçon is given in heraldic books, but appears to be borne only by one family in England, and that probably of foreign origin. The name implies that the ends should be represented like fish-hooks.
Le noble evesque de Dureaume,
Le plus vaillant clerk du roiaume ...
Vermeille, o un fer de molyn
De ermine, e envoia se ensegne.
Roll of Caerlaverock, c. 1300.
The Cross recercelée too is found more frequently in the later rolls, e.g. in Edward III.'s reign, and then it will be seen that the cross moline occurs but in one instance.
The drawings very in the extent to which the bifurcated end is curved, and either of those shewn in the margin may be followed. If they are much more curved, the term 'anchory' may perhaps be given to the cross, a translation of the French term ancrée, which seems to represent the cross moline; but it is not a very happy description, as the ends are not drawn like the flukes of an anchor.
The cross called by French writers anillée, and varied in spelling by French and English writers into neslée, nyslée, nillée, &c., seems to be but another name for the cross moline, the French anille being exactly the same as the mill-rind. But because some French heralds have drawn the curved extremities more slender than is usual in English drawing, the cross anillée has been described as a very thin cross anchory.
A severer form, and perhaps one more skin to the original notion of the fer-de-moline, is one with rectangular ends, which heralds have named cross mill-rind, abbreviated into cross miller). But so far as has been observed the title occurs only in heraldic works, and is not applied especially to any actual arms.
Under this head it may be well to include the Cross fourchée. It is found in ancientblazon, particularly in the roll of arms of the time of Henry III., and in one the term fourché au kanee occurs, which has been itself a crux to heraldic writers. The exact form of the crossfourché is not known, but it is supposed to be like that in the margin, for which later heralds have invented the term cross miller rebated. In French heraldic works a distinction seems to be made between fourchée and fourchetée, but it is not clear what that distinction is.
In connection with the crossfourché may be noted the erroneous blazon of the shake fork(q.v.) as a crosspall; it is not, however, a cross at all; it is the forked character of the pall which has led to a combination of the two ideas.
A Cross moline is said to be sometimes used as a mark of cadency. §25. Cross nowy. When the term is used by itself it is supposed to signify that the arms of the cross, instead of meeting and forming right-angles, stop at the edge of a circle, which, so to speak, cuts off the angles; at least, it is represented thus in the drawing given in Edmondson. Thence varieties are imagined, viz. nowylozengy, nowymasculy, &c., with each of the angles filled by a projection of half a lozenge, mascle, &c., but no examples are named. Nowyquadrate, however, is applied when the projections appear to form a square, and an example will be found figured in the Arms of LICHFIELD under cross§31.
There is a term also said to be used, namely, nowyed, which means that the projection need not be in the centre but in each of the arms of the cross. Both nowy and nowyed, however, are quite distinct from nowed(fr. noué), applied to serpents, &c.
§26. The term Cross pattée(fr.), more often writen patty, primarily means that the arms of the cross become expanded, of opened out, as they approach the edge of the shield. Named by itself, it means that the extremities are bounded by a straight line, that is, they are couped before reaching the edge of the shield. If otherwise, that is if the arms are extended to the edge of the field, the wordthroughout must be added(or, as some prefer, fixed, ferme, or entire); or if they have any other termination, e.g. flory, pometty, &c., such termination must be named; but in this case they belong rather to the class of Cross patonce(q.v.). In one case the ends are indented by a hollow(see below, under DYMOCK), and Berry gives a figure of a cross patty notched, but gives no name of bearer. As to the expandingsides of the cross there seems to be no rule, but they are generally drawn slightly curved outwards, and not straight, as in the Maltese cross. Amidst the various forms which appear in the works of different authors it is difficult to define the line of demarcation between it and its kindred, cross patonce, which is described in the next article.
The extremities in French arms are sometimes so much curved that the outline of the four arms represent so many segments of a circle. With the French, however, the rule is for the Cross pattée to reach to the edge, and when it does not the term alaisée is introduced. It is not at all unusual in English arms for the lower extremity of the cross patty to be terminated in a point, and then it is blazonedcross patty fitchy. Crosscrosslets may also be patty, and the device is then a very striking one. A Cross patty is also said to be used as a mark of cadency.
As to the synonym formée or formy, which appears to be used with modern heralds as frequently as patty, it is difficult to explain its origin or meaning. One example is found in a roll as early as Henry III., but no other till a roll of Edw. III., where certain small crosses are described as formé de lis, that is, made up of the four flowers united in the centre. This may therefore be the origin of the term, since it will be observed that the same arms are blazoned in the previous reign(see above) as bearing 'iij crois patées.' It will be noted also that, as read by NICOLAS, the wordlis appears as lij, but there can scarcely be much room to doubt the true reading.
§27. Cross patonce is certainly an ancient term, as it occurs in the Roll of Arms, temp. Hen. III. Its definite origin or exact meaning cannot be determined; but the primary idea seems to be that the arms should expand, as a cross pattée, and that they should be terminated more or less like a crossflory.
The crossfigured in the margin is taken from the glass in Dorchester Church, which is not later than the early part of the fourteenth century, and may therefore be said to be contemporary with the man whose arms they represent, viz. William LATIMER, Lord of Corby, who sat in Parliament 1289-1305. But if we look at the blazon of the Latimer arms in the earlier rolls we find the cross described as a cross patée, though in later times as cross patonce.
§28. Cross patriarchal(fr. cr. of patriarcale) is a cross which has two horizontal bars instead of one. It is said that the ancient Patriarchs of Jerusalem bore this kind of cross, and that afterwards it was borne by the Patriarch of Constantinople, while the cross adopted by the Pope of Rome had three horizontal bars; but the historical evidence as to this adoption is very obscure. The name does not appear, so far as has been observed, in any of the rolls of arms in the thirteenth, fourteenth, or fifteenth centuries.
Sometimes the arms in the first-cited example are represented with the extremity of the lower limb and the extremities of the chief horizontal limb touching the edge of the shield, but the usual representation is as in the illustration, with all the limbscouped. It is often blazoned as a crossLorraine, and in some cases it is termed an Archiepiscopal cross, though it may generally in that case be taken to mean instead of the Ordinary a charge drawn like a crosier(q.v.), and surmounted by a cross instead of a crook.
An example is given by Palliot of a cross Patriarchal, viz. that of the bishopric of HERCHFELD, with the lower end terminating something like a cross patonce, to which he applies the term enhendée.
§29. Cross pomel, or pommelly(fr. bourdonnée). A plaincross terminating in four round pomels, e.g. like the knobs at the end of swordhilts, or in bourdons, that is, the knobs at the top of the pilgrims' staves. But there is much confusion arising from carelessness in writing the name in different ways. We find pomy, and very frequently pometty(fr. pommettée), and some heralds contend that the latter means something different, i.e. that there are two knobs terminating the arms of the cross; others say that it means a cross with a circular protuberance in the middle of each arm(like the escarbuncle). Again, in some French blazoning, the term pomettée signifies having knobs at several angles, as in the case of the Cross of Toulouse, given under cleche.
The French term Moussue, moussé, or émoussé, appears to mean a cross with the ends simply rounded at the extremities, from an obsolete word equivalent to blunted, and is given in some heraldic works, but without examples. §30. Cross portate or portante: an ambiguous term which Edmondson says is given by Randle Holmes to a longcrossraguly. Other heraldic writers give it to a peculiar form, which is neither chevron, bend, nor cross, but an odd admixture of the three, and is so drawn by Berry, who says that double portant means a cross patriarcale. The idea seems to be a cross 'in bend,' as if being carried. Confusion has also, no doubt, arisen from had drawing, hasty writing, and careless reading. One coat of arms only has a cross so blazoned.
§31. Cross potent, written sometimes potence(fr. potencée): so called because its arms terminate in potents(q.v.), or like crutches. It is also called a Jerusalem cross, from its occurrence in the insignia of the kingdom of JERUSALEM, established by the Crusaders, the crosses being supposed by some writers to symbolize the five wounds of Christ.
It is observable that in this coat metal is placed, contrary to the general rule, upon metal, a peculiarity which in this case is said to bear allusion to Ps. lxviii. 15.
A singular variety of the cross potent is called sometimes the Cross of S.Chad, because it occurs in the insignia of the episcopal see of LICHFIELD AND COVENTRY, of which S.Chad was the first Bishop.
Some other curious varieties of the cross potent occur. When engrailed the term applies only to the inner edges, the outer edges remaining plain. When crossed, it is meant that each arm is crossed by another piece half-way between the potent and the centre, and seems to be the equivalent of what is called by some writers a cross gemelle, though, as is so frequent, no examples are adduced of the use of the term. In one case the term batune is said by Papworth to be applied to a cross potent; but we have little doubt the word is botoné, i.e. §14, where from another Harleian MS. he gives BRERLEGH as bearing such a cross.
The most remarkable, however, is what Palliot and others call a Cross potence repotencée, drawn with the potents starting off at different angles, and said to be borne by the family of SQUARCIAFICHI. The potentrebated of Edmondson appears to be the Fylfot(q.v.).
§32. Cross recercelée: of all the crosses perhaps this has been the most disputed by heraldic writers. We find the term sarcelly more frequently used, but there are so many varieties of spelling adopted by different authors of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, that it is a question whether there is one word or two; attempts, however, appear to have been made to distinguish different meanings attached to different modes of spelling. They are as follows, so far as printed works go(manuscript readings would add to the number):--cercelée, recercellé, recersile, resarcelée, resarcelled, sarcelée, sarcelly. One writer speaks of cerclée being spelt cercelée and recercelée, and so confused with the sarcelly. The term as applied to the Cross occurs twice in one of the two rolls which are apparently of HENRY III.rd's reign. Also in a roll temp. EDWARD II. two examples occur with the term voided added and one without, though in the latter voided is, no doubt, implied; hence, as the general outline was similar to the cross moline, it may be considered as a cross molinevoided, or disjoined, and drawn as in arms of KNOWLES opposite. See §6.
The appearance is just as if in order to strengthen his shield the smith had taken four pieces of iron and bent them round, as was done in the case of hinges and other ornamental iron-work found remaining on churchdoors, &c., of the 13th and 14th centuries, primarily to add strength to the woodwork, but at the same time ornamentation.
Modern heralds seem to use the term alike for the cross moline and for the cross molinevoided, and employ usually in blazon the spelling sarcelly. But beyond this, in various books on heraldry, both English and foreign, an attempt is made to distinguish between recercelé, i.e. cerclé or circled, and sarcelly, defined by Berry as 'a crossvoided, or as it were, sawed apart.' See more under Recercelé.
§33. Cross recoursy(fr. raccourcie): a very doubtful term, Modern French heraldic works distinctly consider it to be the same as couped, but Berry, who appears to have based his definition on Edmondson and other English heraldic works, implies that it means voided.
§34. Cross tau, or of S.Anthony, who is represented with such a cross embroidered upon the left side of his garment. It is called crosscommisse by some heraldic writers, with a somewhat fanciful allusion to Ezekiel, chap. ix. ver. 4, or as representing the token of absolution with which malefactors are said to have been stamped on the hand. It should be drawn like a Greek Tau.
Crown royal of England, sometimes also called an Imperial crown. The forms of the crowns worn by the successive kings of England very considerably, and will be found in architectural illustrations of the sculptured heads of kings from monuments and other stone carvings in churches[see examples in Rickman's Gothic Architecture, sixth and seventh Editions]; but in this place they must be considered only in their connection with armorial bearings. The earliest instance of the royal arms being ensigned with a crown is in the case of those of Henry VI. At this time the crown had attained its present form, with the exception of the number of arches. The arms of Edward IV. are surmounted by the rim of the crown only, adorned with crossespattée and fleurs-de-lis. The crown of Richard III. shews five semi-arches, that of Henry VII. shews but four, and his successor's only three, although seldom met with until about the time of James II., before which five semi-arches were generally shewn. Several instances of Royal crowns are found on coats of arms.
The crown of Hanover. The electorate of Hanover having been constituted a kingdom, the bonnet which had hitherto been placed over the insignia of that state was exchanged for a crown, in pursuance of a royal proclamation dated June 8, 1816.
Crown of Charlemagne.
The crown of Charlemagne. This crown having been borne by five kings of England as Arch-treasurers of the Holy Roman Empire, claims a place in the armory of Great Britain. Its form is generally depicted as in the margin.
Ducal crown: see post, under Coronet, but the term is sometimes used.
Imperial crown: is properly the crown peculiar to the German emperor, which forms part of the crest of STOKES of Cambridgeshire, though, as already said, in English arms the crown royal of these realms is often so called.
Crown palisado is a name given to a form of crown with, as it were, palisades upon it, and hence fancifully said to have been given by the Roman generals to him who first entered the enemies' camp by breaking through their outworks. It is called vallar, or vallary, from the Latin vallus, which practically means the palisade surmounting the vallum. It is sometimes(though less correctly) represented as the second figure, namely, with a champaine border.
Naval crown: a circle, having upon its upper edge four masts of galleys, each with a topsail, and as many sterns placed alternately. Imaginative heralds say it was invented by the Emperor Claudius as a reward for sea service.
Crown of Rue, (fr. Crancelin, from germ. Kranslein): the ancientarms of the Dukedom of Saxony were barry of eight, or and sable. The story goes that the bendvert was added by the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, when he confirmed the dukedom on Bernard of Anhalt(c. 1156), who desiring some mark to distinguish him from the dukes of the former house, the emperor took a chaplet of rue which he had upon his head, and threw it across the shield. These were the paternal arms of the late Prince ALBERT. The bearing is sometimes called a ducal coronet in bend, and sometimes a bend archy coronetty.
Papal or Triple crown: see Tiara. Crown of Thorns: see Thorns, Crown of. The Crown Obsidional, and Crown Triumphal(composed of grass and of laurel or bay-leaves) have been already noticed under Chaplet. Under the article Crown it is convenient to include Coronet, as the two terms are in some cases interchangeable.
Helmet of EDWARD the Black Prince.
From the reign of Edward III. coronets of various forms were worn(as it seems indiscriminately) by princes, dukes, earls, and even knights, but apparently rather by way of ornament than distinction, or if for distinction, only(like the collar of SS) as a mark of gentility. The helmet of Edward the Black Prince, upon his effigy at Canterbury, is surrounded with a coronet totally different from that subsequently assigned to his rank.
The coronets at present in use in England are the following, but connected more frequently with the Crest.
1. The coronet of the PRINCE OF WALES only differs from the royal crown in the omission of one of the arches. Edward, the son of Richard III., is recorded to have worn a demy crown on the day of his father's coronation at York(June 26, 1483); and was that day created Prince of Wales. It was formerly only the rim of the crown; but the arch was added in pursuance of a warrant of King Charles II., February 9, 1661.
2. That of the PRINCESS ROYAL has a coronet composed of four fleurs-de-lis, two crosses, and two strawberryleaves; one of the crosses appearing in the centre. Within the circle is a cap of crimson velvet turned up with ermine, and closed at the top with a golden tassel.
3. That of other PRINCES and PRINCESSES, sons and daughters of a sovereign, resembles the coronet of the Prince of Wales, but without the arch. The cap as before.
4. That of PRINCES and PRINCESSES, sons and daughters of the above, is similar, except that strawberry-leaves are substituted for the fleur-de-lis. The Princes' crowns, however, are usually drawn in heraldry after a somewhat conventional manner.
5. That of DUKES is a circle of gold richly chased, and having upon its upper edge eight strawberry-leaves; only five are shewn in the drawing, two of them being in profile. The cap is of crimson velvet lined with white taffeta and turned up with ermine. At the top is a goldtassel. A coronet without the cap, and shewing but three leaves, is called a Ducal coronet, and frequently a Ducal crown.
7. That of the EARL. A rim of gold richly chased, on the upper edge of which are eight strawberry-leaves, and the same number of pearls set upon high points, so that it is readily distinguished from the coronet of the marquis. The cap, if shewn, the same as the first.
9. A BARON'SCoronet is a plain circle of gold having six large pearls upon it, four of which are seen in a drawing. The cap as before. This coronet was assigned to barons on their petition to King Charles II., soon after his restoration. Before that period they wore caps of crimson velvet turned up with ermine, and at a still earlier period, scarlet caps turned up with whitefur.
Cup, (old fr. Coupe): the cup was rather a favourite device from the fourteenth century onwards, as shewn by several references to it in the Rolls of Edward II. and Edward III. The plain chalice-like cup without a cover was perhaps first emblazoned, such as is found figured on incised slabs, &c.; but it is sometimes represented in modern heraldry ornamented, as shewn in the drawing of the arms of CANDISH.
But many families, especially those of BUTLER and CLEAVER, bear covered cups(fr. coupes couvertes), which are frequently represented on their tombs, and which are similar in shape to that in the margin, which is taken from the tomb of Johan le BOTILER, c. 1290, in the church of S.Bride, Glamorganshire.
Currier's Shave, i.e. the Curriers', or Paring Knife, borne by the Curriers' Company, is represented as in the margin. In some drawings, however, both the handles resemble that on the dexterside of the figure.