Ratch-hound. See Dog. Rateau, (fr.): Rake. Raven, (fr. corbeau): probably in heraldic drawing no difference would be detected in the drawing of the raven, the rook, or the crow; and perhaps even the old names Corbie, corby-crow, corbyn, corf, and the other variations of the Latin corvus were not marked by any nice distinction. As will be seen, the bearing occurs on several ancientarms for the sake of the play upon the name. It may be blazoned as croaking. It will be seen the daw also as well as the rook is adopted for the same reason.
Rebus: defined by Dr.Johnson as "a word represented by a picture." It is not a true heraldic term, and ought not to be applied to canting arms, but rather to those devices which are frequently found carved on buildings or painted in glass in reference to the name of the founders or benefactors. Such, for instance, are the following. Upon the Rector's lodgings at Lincoln College, Oxford, as well as on buildings at Wells, the rebus of a beacon and a tun is found in allusion to Thomas BECKYNTON, Bishop of Bath and Wells, 1443-65: and on a gateway at Canterbury, erected in 1517, a flint stone(supposed to be or) ensigned with a mitre is carved in allusion to Thomas GOLDSTONE, the second Prior of Christ Church: while on a boss in the north transept of the Cathedral an eagle(for John) an ox and 'ne' stand for John OXNEY.
In a window in the lady-chapel in Gloucester Cathedral a comb and a tun appear in allusion to Thomas COMPTON, Abbot of Cirencester, 1480; and in one of the windows in the chapel at Lullingston, Kent, the arms of Sir John PEECHE are encircled by the branches of a peach-tree bearing peaches, each one of which has the lettere on it.
Again in books, Richard GRAFTON, the printer, in 1547, puts as his rebus on the last page, a tree or graftrising from a tun; and a copy of the "De Antiquitate Britannicæ Ecclesiæ," presented to Queen Elizabeth by the author, Matthew PARKER, Archbishop of Canterbury, has on the outside a park enclosed with pales embroidered on the green velvet binding.
Lastly, on seals a rebus very often appears, e.g. on that of Thomas WOODSTOCK, sixth son of Edward III., whose arms are engraved suspended from the stock of a tree. Recercelé: a term which seems to have been inconsistently used by later writers from not understanding its original meaning. It occurs in ancientblazon, as will be seen, applied only to the cross and the bordure. In its application to the cross the early instances have already been given under Cross, §32, and it will be found also referred to under §6 and §24.
In the Roll of Henry III.'s reign, in the College of Arms(from which most of the examples with that date quoted in the present work have been taken) the word does not occur at all. In a somewhat later roll, but still ascribed to Henry III.'s reign(viz. that of which a transcript is preserved in Harl. MS. 6589 and by Leland) two examples of the term occur, and both applied to the cross(see §32). In the roll ascribed to Edward II.'s reign three examples occur of the term applied to the cross; two with the wordvoided added, and one without(see also §32). When we come to the roll, temp. Edward III. there are some four or five examples of a cross recercelée(see §32), and we find recercelé also for the first time applied to the bordure, and as will be seen, in the same arms in which the bordure in the previous reign had been blazoned as indented: possibly recercilé was used in these later instances to signify engrailed, with reference to the half circles which form that line of partition. In the following examples the varieties of the spelling in the roll have been adopted.
With respect to its application to the Cross, perhaps enough has been said to shew that the probabilities are it was a figure similar to, if not identical with, the cross moline, or the fer-de-moulin, but with the extremities perhaps more bent round, as shew in the illustration of the banner of Bishop BECK of Durham, from the Carlaverock roll under Cross, §24, and again from the brass where a dimidiated coat of the BEKE family is impaled with the arms of HARCOURT, q.v., under Marshalling. It may, however, be further added to this evidence that in Nicolas Charles' transcript of the Roll, from which the above are taken, (the original of which must be attributed to Edward III.'s reign,) one of the headings is "Les Croisées Sercelées et Fer-de-mollyns." One figure at the side serves for both the terms thus employed, and it is drawn similarly to the Cross anchory given ante, under Cross moline, §24.
English heraldic writers seem, however, to have made two words, recercele and sarcelly, and have implied that they are of different origin and meaning; but there is no agreement as to what those meanings were. The French heralds seem equally at fault. M.Bachelin-Deflorenne, in his "Science des Armoiries" (1880), gives under his list of terms as applied to the cross both recerselé and resarcelée, as two different words; in his glossary he gives only one, spelt resercelé, which he defines thus:--
What is meant by these descriptions seems to be that while a cross with its ends turned over, or a tail of an animal twisted, might be blazonedrecercelée, a crosscharged with a filet of the same form being of another tincture would be blazoned resercelée.
As has been pointed out, the probabilities are that the term was derived from the metal-work on the shield added partly for strength and partly for ornament(in the same way as the escarboucle). Applied to a bordure this would, if voided is understood, mean thin bars of iron strengthening the shield, and if not so one thick bar, with the edges engrailed or possibly invected. But the word at this time had not become technical, or received any definite signification. It has been pointed out that in some of the examples given from the roll of Edward III.'s reign, in which a border recersele is used, the bearer's ancestor bore the same indented, but in the earlier blazon probably little distinction would be made between indented, engrailed, or invected. It will be noted also from the same series that the terms recercele, cersele, and sercele seem to be used indiscriminately.
The term is also found applied to the saltire in later times.
Rest: this is a puzzling device, but the more probable interpretation is that it represents a spear rest, though possibly in one or two cases a horn, from bad drawing, has been mistaken for it. The device is called by Leigh and others Sufflue, and by Guillim Clarion, though he hints that it may be a rudder. Gibbon proposes the term Organ-rest, but mentions a MS. wherein it is called Claricimbal, or Clavecimbal. Morgan terms it a Clarendon, obviously a mistake for Clarion. It is otherwise called a Clavicord. Rest, however, is the term generally used for the device.
Riband or Ribbon. (1.) The term Ribbon is used by one or two heraldic writers for a diminutive of the bend, of which it is one-eighth in width; if couped at each end it would represent a batondexter, but this does not occur.
Ring: the most important bearing of this name is the Gem-ring, that is a finger-ring(fr. bague) set with a jewel, and this is sometimes described as stoned, gemmed, or jewelled of another tincture: sometimes the name of the gem is mentioned.
A double rose also occurs, that is one within another, and they are thus conjoined, either by placing a whiterose upon a red one, or a red one upon a white. The term rosette is employed in one case where there are several.
The use of the Rose as a political emblem may be traced to the wars between the rival Houses of York and Lancaster, the former of which used the device of a whiterose, while a red one was the badge of the other, and these came to be blazoned occasionally as the Rose of York and Lancaster respectively. They are said to have been first assumed by John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, and his brother Edmund, Duke of York. Both these roses were sometimes surrounded with rays, and termed en soleil, and later on they were frequently conjoined.
The modern English rules, however, limit the several names to the several tinctures,--
Or called always Bezants. Vert called always Pomeis.
Argent // // Plates. Purpure // // Golpes.
Gules // // Torteaux. Sable // either Pellets,
Azure // // Hurts. Ogresses or Gunstones.
Under most of these terms many examples will be found. There are also roundles of the rarer tinctures, viz. sanguine and tenné, which have been named by later heralds respectively guzes and oranges.
The French use as a rule only the term besants for the two metals, and tourteaux for all else, but the latter is applied sometimes to metals also. The terms heurtes, gulpes, volets(for pomeis), ogresses, and guzes seem also to be used.
D'azur a trois tourteaux d'argent au chef de gueules--CARBONEL, Normandie.
D'or a trois chevrons de sable accompagnés de trois tourteaux de sinople--DESCHAMPS.
De gueules, coupé d'azur a trois tourteaux a hermine--CANISY.
The result is that the term roundle(written sometimes rundle and ronde) is retained only for cases where the circle is partycoloured, or charged with an ordinary or other charge. It may be ermine, or vair, or it may be barry-wavy(and if argent and azure it is then termed a fountain, q.v.). A case may occur also where the field being of more than one tincture and the roundles counterchanged, that term is used for convenience to cover the whole series, though one might be a bezant and another a torteau. The old rondel or rondelet voided is a term found applied to a figure like an annulet, and perhaps its equivalent.
| Rowel. |Estoile.| Mullet.
Henry III. (R. C. A.) .. .. .. | -- | 1 | 4
Henry III. (Harl. or Leland) .. .. | 5 | -- | 2
Carlaverock .. .. .. | -- | 2 | 5
Edw. II. .. .. .. .. .. | 9 | -- | 51
Edw. III. .. .. .. .. .. | -- | 1 | 32
| 14 | 4 | 94
As the rolls represent the chief families, many names being repeated in two or three of the rolls, the unequal distribution points to the somewhat arbitrary use of the three terms, though, as will be observed, the term mullet is not only the most frequently used, but is the only term common to all five rolls. The examples also shew that the terms mullet and rowel seem to be used indiscriminately in respect of the same families. There does not seem to be sufficient evidence that the difference in the terms used is at all due to the fact of the charge being pierced or not(see under Mulletpierced), though the ancientrowel probably was always so represented. See Spur-rowel.
Gauter BERTANT, pale dor et de goules a une cauntel dazur a une rouel dargent--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
Sire Johan de ASCHEBORNHAM, de goules, a une fesse e 6 rouwels de argent--Roll, temp. ED. II. John de SEIN JOHN, dargent a chef de goules a deux roueles dor un vers chef--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
Sire Johan de SEIN JOHAN, de argent od le chef de goules a ij moles de or--Roll, temp. ED. II.
Li preus Johans de SAINT JOHAN ..
Ki sur touz ses guarnemens blancs
Et chief rouge ot de or deus molectes.
Roll of Carlaverock.
Rudder: this device occurs but in few arms. The usual position seems to be with the hooks to the dexter, but they are sometimes drawn turned tho other way, and should be so noticed in the blazon. Guillim suggests that the crest(q.v.) was intended for a rudder.
Rustre, or Mascle round-pierced: a lozenge with a circular perforation. Certain ancientarmour composed of links of this shape sewed upon cloth is thought to have supplied the origin of the charge. It is, however, very rarely found.