But more especially a falcon, as also a hawk, is represented with the appurtenances which belong to the art of falconry, that is, it is blazoned frequently as belled(fr. grilleté) and jessed of such a tincture.
The bells(fr. grillets) are little hollow circular bells, of metal, having a slit on one side, and some hard substance within, which produces a jingling sound when they are shaken; this is attached to the hawk'slegs by jesses(fr. jets), or thongs of leather. To the jesses, it is said, are attached the varvels, sometimes written vervels, or rings.
The perch(fr. perche), to which a hawk is sometimes borne chained, or fastened by the leash(fr. lié), generally consists of two cylindrical pierces of wood joined in the form of the letterT.
The bird also may be represented hooded(fr. chaperonné); whilst the hood itself also appears as a separate charge. The hawker's glove is also found mentioned.
Fanon, (fr.): this ecclesiastical term, i.e. the ornamentation of the sleeve, or cuff of a priest's vestment, is only found(like the censer) in French heraldry, no English example having been met with.
D'argent, a trois fanons de gueules, doublés et frangés de sinople--CLINCHAMPS, Normandie.
Fer-de-moline, or fer de moulin(fr.), also inkmoline, mill-ink, millrind, millrine, (fr. anille), is according to Gibbon, "that piece of iron that beareth and upholdeth the moving millstone." Perhaps no charge has a greater diversity of forms found in ancient drawings; so much so that it may be reckoned amongst the conventional charges of heraldry. It is, indeed, generally drawn like one or other of the first two, but sometimes it appears like the third. The ordinary position of the fer-de-mouline is erect, but it may be borne fesswise, or bendwise.
Fesse, sometimes spelt fess, (fr. fasce): one of the ordinaries, and though not found so frequently perhaps as the bend, it is used as much as the chevron, and if its kindred charge(for this is not allowed to be a diminutive), the bar is taken into account more so. It is the most natural form to be produced in the construction of a shield, though fanciful heralds find an origin for it in the military girdle. It should occupy, according to heraldic rule, one third of the height of the escutcheon, but this proportion is almost always considerably diminished in practice. Its position is across the centre of the shield, unless it is described as enhanced, or abased.
Walter de COLEVILLE, dor ung fece de goulz--Roll, temp. HEN. III. Le Counte de WARWICK de goulescrusule de or, a une fesse de or--Roll, temp. ED. II.
Monsire Symon de COLVIL, porte d'or a une fes de gules.
The fesse is subjected to the same series of variations as to its margin as have already been noted under the bend, &c., and this from earliest times; the fesse dancetty was called a dauncet, and when indented q.v. the number of indentations is sometimes given. It is also found humetty(q.v.) and even with the ends botonny.
There cannot properly be more than one fesse in a single coat of arms; if more they are bars; but still, in rare instances, in old blazoning the term fesse is used where bar would be used now; the term a demi-fesse occurs also when it is joined with a canton. (See under Canton, arms of PYPARD.)
Sir John de WAKE, port d'or ov ij fesse de gulez ov iij torteus d'or en la chef.--Falkirk Roll, A.D. 1298, HARL. MS. [But in the Roll in the Cottonian MS. Caligula, A. xviii. A.D. 1308-14, these arms are blazoned, Sire Johan WAKE, de or, a ij barres de goules, en le chef iij rondels de goules].
Sir Rauff PIPART, porte d'argent ov ung fees et demy fees et le cantell d'azure; et en le cantell quint foyl d'or--Falkirk Roll, Harl. MS. 6589.
And it may be debruised or broken, when it would probably be represented as in the margin; though there is much doubt as to the practical application of such terms as debruised, fracted, &c., as has been shewn under the terms bend, chevron, and downset.
Party per fesse(fr. coupé) is very rare in comparison with party per pale. While the division into three horizontal portions(fr. tiercé), though comparatively common in French arms, is seldom if ever found in English examples. See Party.
Fesswise, or fessways, is used to signify that a charge, the normal position of which is upright, is placed lengthways.
Fetterlock: this, so far as heraldic drawing is concerned, appears to be the same as what is elsewhere blazoned as shacklebolt, shackbolt, or manacle. It is, in fact, a 'handcuff,' or prisoners' bolt, and generally represented as shewn in the margin, though sometimes represented of a square form. In the arms of SHAKERLY, Worcestershire, they are sometimes represented more like oval rings, while in the crest of WYNDHAM the semicircular part is generally represented as a chain, and in the badge of PERCY it is made to resemble the swivel, as in the arms of the IRONMONGERS. A double bolt also occurs in the arms of ANDERTON.
The device does not seem to occur in the more ancientrolls, but it is found very widely spread among several ancient families.
Finches: beneath this term it has been thought well to comprise a number of birds of the finch tribe, examples of which are found in heraldic blazon. In many cases only single instances have been met with, and some appear to have been adopted only for the sake of the name. They are as follows, and for the sake of reference to foreign arms the scientific names according to Linnæus have been added to each: The Goldfinch(carduelis); the Bulfinch(pyrrhula); the Chaffinch(fringilla cœlebs); the Brambling(fringilla montifringilla); the Canary(fringilla canaria); the Linnet(fringilla cannabina), and the Pinzon. This last is the only one of the series which occurs in any of the old rolls, and it has evidently been chosen for the sake of the name. It is not quite certain what is the bird meant, but it has been supposed to be the chaffinch, i.e. the modern fr. pinson. It has not, however, been found possible to fix upon the equivalents of the above in the French lists of arms.
Fire-chest: a figure resembling an iron box used to contain fire to warm a hall is drawn as in the margin in Berry's Heraldry, and attributed as a crest to one of the families of PRYCE. It is said to have been blazoned as a fire-beacon, but probably its use was domestic, not military. Fired: the term is especially used of a grenade, or fire-ball, when represented bursting, or of a cannon with flames if fire issuing from the mouth. See Gun. It is also sometimes used for flammant or inflamed, e.g. of a beacon. Firm. See Throughout. Fish, (fr. poisson): in the earlier arms(as in the case of beasts) very few varieties of fish indeed are found mentioned in heraldic bearings. In the four rolls of arms referred to under the summaries of beasts, birds, &c., viz. of Henry III., of Edward I., II., and III., the only fish represented are the Lucies or Pikes, and the Barbel. But in later arms we find named between thirty and forty varieties of fish, as will be seen by referring to the Synopsis. As in the case of the birds, a large proportion are selected for the sake of the name, as lucie for LUCY, eels for ELLIS, and chub for CHOBBE; hence too, we find many local names of fish introduced , some of which it has been difficult to identify, such as the birt fish(see under turbot), the cob and the sparking(see herring), the spalding, and the tubbe fish. The last, however, borne by the family of TUBBE, are usually blazonedgurnets, q.v.
It must not, however, be forgotten that the term fish had a much wider meaning than we now give it. In unscientific days not only the Dolphin was considered a fish, but, as already said in the notice of this mammal, it was looked upon as the king of fishes. At the same time the Whale was classed as a fish, being an inhabitant of the sea. Also the crustacea, such as crabs and lobsters, and the mollusca, such as the escallop and whelk, were considered as fish, or at least what were called shell-fish.
When a fish is mentioned without any definite name, it may be drawn perhaps like a trout or herring.
As has been already pointed out under dolphin several Lord Mayors of London bore this supposed fish in their arms, by reason of the flourishing condition of the FISHMONGERS' Companies. The two Companies of SALT and STOCK-FISH MONGERS were united in 1536, when they obtained a charter from Henry VIII. In their old Hall, destroyed by the fire of London, there were arms in the windows of twenty-two Lord Mayors, who had been chosen from the Fishmongers' Company. Fish are, as a rule, borne upright, when the old French term hauriant is used, i.e. the heads are supposed to be just above the water, and to be taking in air; but they are also often borne extended, when the old term naiant, or swimming, is applied: and so it is generally stated which of these two should be the position of the fish, though if not, the first must be assumed. If two fish are 'respecting one another,' or endorsed, the upright or hauriant position is implied, or in fesse the naiant position. Two fish may also be drawn in saltire, &c. The term embowed appears to be applied only to the Dolphin, and the same of vorant. The term urinant, i.e. diving, is sometimes applied to a fish with the head downwards. Besides the above, the terms allumé(fr.), when the eyes are of some bright tincture, and pamé(fr.), when the mouth is open, and the fish is as it were gasping, are applied by French heralds, but seldom, if ever, by English writers. Dolphins and sometimes other fish may be finned of another tincture than that of the body.
In French heraldry the following have been observed: truite, hareng, saumon, brochet(pike), carpe, tanche, eperlan(smelt), lamproie, rosse(roach), and rouget(gurnet).
Fitché(fr. fiché), fitchy, or fitched, are terms signifying pointed at the lower end, they are chiefly applied to crosses, or crosslets. See Cross, §19, where several examples will be found. Crosses may be simply fitchée, that is, from the middle downwards, or only fitchée at the foot. Crosses fitchée of all four are mentioned by theoretical writers, but it is doubtful if examples occur. The pale has sometimes the tower terminated pointed.
The terms double fitched and treble fitched have been awkwardly applied by heraldic writers to crosses, the ends of which terminate as shewn in the margin. See Cross, §19. Fixed. See Throughout. Fizure: a name given in the 'Boke of S.Alban's' to a baton. Flag, (fr. drapeau): the flag, like the shield, was ornamented with heraldic devices, &c.; and further than this, it appears itself sometimes as a charge: a few notes on the names of flags are therefore appended. As already pointed out, a distinction has been made between a banner which is a squareflag, and a flagproper, though it is rather a theoretical than a practical one.
The Standard, (fr. estendart), is a longflag, gradually becoming narrower towards the point, which, unless the standard belong to a prince of the blood royal, must be split. The following figure is taken from a pedigree of the WILLOUGHBY family, c. temp. Eliz. It may be described as follows:--
Standards of different dimensions are assigned by heraldic writers to each rank, from an emperor's standard of eleven yards long, down to a baronet's of four yards.
What is now called the Royal Standard, namely a squareflag bearing the royal arms, is, properly speaking, a banner, for a standard cannot be square, and ought only to contain crests, badges, mottoes, and ornaments, and not the arms, but custom has sanctioned the name. The royal standards, however, were anciently of the true form, though the devices have varied; that of Edw. III. may be described as follows:--
The whiteedging was no doubt intended to prevent one colour from being placed upon another, but this precaution was hardly necessary, for the mere contact of the redcross and bluefield would have been authorized by numerous precedents. This combination was constituted the national flag of Great Britain by a royal proclamation issued July 28, 1707.
The word Jack is of doubtful origin, possibly some trifling incident may have given the name. Philologists have derived it from the surcoat, charged with a redcross anciently used by the English soldiery, which was once called a jacque(whence the word jacket): but it is doubtful whether the name Union Jack ever appears before the name jacque had quite gone out of use. Others suggest that the name of Jacques was given by the French in allusion to King JAMES, in whose reign the union took place. But these are more guesses.
The Gonfanon is said to differ from a banner in this respect that instead of being square and fastened to a transverse bar, the gonfanon, though of the same figure, was fixed in a frame made to turn like a modern ship'svane, with two or three streamers, or tails. Guidon, or(fr. Guidhomme), is a flag resembling the standard in form, but less by one third, and generally ending in a point. An ancient was a name given to the guidon carried at funerals.
A kind of pennon seems also to have been called an ancient, but many of these names appear to be loosely used. See Banner.
The Pennant in ships is probably the same. It sometimes ends in a point, more often it is forked. In the former case it is also called a streamer.
In flank, or in the flaunche, is also used to signify at the side; e.g. in a quarterly per saltire in the flanks would be equivalent to the quarters two and three; the French term flanqué is sometimes used instead of accompagné, or accosté, but the flanc is especially used for the extreme edge of the shield, from which, when any charge issues, it is said to be mouvante.
Fleece: the Golden Fleece, (fr. Toison d'or), owes its celebrity to the classical fable of Jason's expedition to Colchis in the ship Argo to obtain it. This fleece gave name to the very celebrated order of knighthood in Spain and Austria, and was afterwards borne by certain families.
Fleur-de-lis, (fr.). Although there has been much controversy concerning the origin of this bearing, no doubt it represents the lily, but in a conventional form, such as was produced by the workers in metal. It is essentially the Royal Badge of France, having been adopted by King Louis VII. in the twelfth century, in allusion to the name lois, or lys. It appears amongst the Royal Badges in England in the time of the STUARTS.
From some of the following examples it will be seen how variously the name is written in ancientrolls of arms. It will also be observed that the fleur-de-lys is subject to certain variations, e.g. stalked, slipped, leaved, seeded, and even fitchy.
The French coats of arms add to the list the demoiselle and the cousin, that is, the dragon-fly and the gnat.
Flying-fish, (lat. esocetus, a branch of the genus esox, established by Linnæus, which includes the pike). until a comparatively recent period this fish was drawn, not as it appears naturally, but more like a herring with the wings of a bird. Foreign examples are more frequent than in England, only two families here having been noticed bearing this device.
Fountain: this conventional device is supposed to represent a well or spring of water, and might generally be blazoned as a roundlebarrywavy of six argent and azure. That this is so is evidenced from so many families of WELLS bearing it. The family of SYKES also bear it in allusion to the old name of sykes for a well. Guillim also says that the six fountains given to the family of STOURTON represent six springs, whereof the river Stour in Wiltshire hath its beginning.
Fret: a charge consisting of two narrow bendlets placed in saltire, and interlaced with a mascle. It was been supposed to represent the meshes of a fishing-net. Being borne by the family of HARRINGTON it is found called a Harrington's knot; and riddle-makers see a connection between the Herring-town and the net. Whatever may be the origin, the term fret, or rather fretté, occurs frequently in the ancientrolls, but in many cases probably only a single fret is intended. When two or more frets are borne in the same arms they must be couped, unless each occupies an entirequarter.
Du bon Hue le DESPENSIER ....
Fu la baniere esquartelée
De une noir bastoun sur blanc getté
E de vermeil jaune fretté.--Roll of Carlaverock.
Aymer de ST.AMONT, d'argent frette de sable ung chef de sable--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
Sire Johan de HOORNE, de goules a une frette de veer--Roll, temp. ED. II.
Hue le DE SPENSER quartele d'argent et de goules, ung bend de sable; les quartres frette d'or en le goules--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
Sire Laurence de HAMELDENE de argent fretté de goules e les flures de or e les nowe de la frette--Roll, temp. ED. II.
Monsire TRUSSELL le Cousin, port d'argent, fretgules, les joyntures pomelles d'or--Roll, temp. ED. III.
Fretty, (fr. fretté): is now understood to mean a continuous fret, and forms a pattern for diapering the field, or some ordinary. Very many instances are found, and sometimes the points of junction are ornamented, at others the fret itself is charged with roundles, &c. The fr. treillissé is only to be distinguished from the fretté from the mesh being smaller.
Fusil, (fr. fuseau and fusée), in its natural form and sense, is a spindle belonging to a distaff; but in its conventional form it is an elongated lozenge, and very often the one charge is mistaken for the other. In different arms they are differently drawn, and in the same arms at different dates they are variously represented. In an ordinary way the conventional fusil is the one to be drawn. In French armorial blazon the name fuseau seems to be reserved for the true spindle, while the fusée is used for the conventional form. In its primitive form, as in the arms of BADLAND, afterwards assumed by HOBY, it is represented as in the margin(fig. 1). The family of TREFUSIS bear another variety of the fusil(fig. 2); but the usual term for such is spindle, q.v.; while the heraldic fusil is drawn as fig. 3. The fusil does not appear in the rolls of arms, so far as been observed, before the time of Edward III.
Compared with the lozenge and the mascle the fusil should always be represented narrower in proportion to its height, but, whatever rules may be laid down, they are seldom adhered to, as the disposition of the fusils and shape of the shield oblige modifications.
Further, there is much inconsistency in nomenclature. A fesse, bend, or crossfusil, is used instead of a fesse, bend, or cross, composed of so many fusils: fusilly also is often written with the same meaning, but, as pointed out under cross, §8, it is incorrect.
Fusilly(fr. fusilé) is a well-defined term applied to the field, and the two tinctures must be named, as in the arms of PATTEN given below. The application of this term to a series of fusils(with one tincture only named) is consequently entirely wrong, but custom has so completely sanctioned it(no doubt through carelessness in the first instance) that the error has become almost the rule.
No case has been noticed in which when the term fusilly is applied to an ordinary two tinctures are named; as all the examples appear with one tincture, the term fusilly must be read 'of so many fusils.' Fusté, (fr.): of the handle of a weapon, or trunk of a tree, when of another tincture. Futé of shafts of arrows q.v.
Fylfot, [suggested to be a corruption of A.-S. fíer-fóte(for fyðer fote) four-footed, in allusion to the four limbs]: an ancient figure to which different mystic meanings have been applied. All that can be said as to the occurrence in England is that it possibly was introduced from the East as a novel device; for a similar form is said to have been known in India and China long before the Christian era. It is called in the Sanskrit 'swastica,' and is found used as a symbol by the Buddhists. It is curious that the same kind of device appears in the Catacombs, and at the same time it is found on a coin of Ethelred, King of Northumbria, in the ninth century. It is probably similar to the ornament which is mentioned by Anastasius as embroidered on sacred vestments during the eighth and ninth centuries in Rome under the name of gammadion, which was so-called on account of the shape resembling four Greek capital Gammas united at the base. There is no reason to suppose that all these are derived from a common source, as such a device as this would readily suggest itself, just as the Greek pattern is frequent on work of all ages. It was on account of its supposed mystical meaning perhaps introduced into mediæval vestments, belts, &c.; and though several instances of this use are found on brasses, only one instance occurs on coats of arms, namely, in those of CHAMBERLAYNE.
One instance only of the name also has been observed in any MS. or book anterior to the eighteenth century, namely in the directions given by Francis Frosmere, c. 1480, apparently to designate his monogram F.F. (See MS. Lansdowne, No. 874.)
Argent, a chevron between three fylfotsgules--Leonard CHAMBERLAYNE, Yorkshire[so drawn in MS. Harleian, 1394, pt. 129, fol. 9=fol. 349 of MS.]
[N.B. In Harl. MS. 1415 this coat seems to be tricked with what are meant distinctly for three escallops.]