Magnet, or rather Magnetic needle, is represented in one instance, and a Compass-Dial in another. A compass also occurs in the hands of the demi-miner, which serves as the crest of the Company of MINERS ROYAL[Inst. 1568].
As already said, the different varieties of men are more frequently exhibited in the supporters of coats of arms, a few examples, therefore, are here given, which speak for themselves: a remarkable one, viz. a student of the University of Oxford will have been noticed under Knitting-frame.
Marined, (fr. mariné): a term fancifully applied to any beast having the lower parts of a fish, e.g. a Lionmarined for Sea Lion, q.v. Marlet, Marlion, Merlion. See Martlet. Marquess: the second order in the peerage of England, being below a duke, but above an earl. The title seems to have been originally given to certain officers to whom was committed the government of the Marches, or borders of Wales. We find the word Marchio used in this sense as early as the reign of Henry III. The first Marquess in the modern sense of the word was Robert de Vere, Earl of Oxford, whose elevation for life to the marquisate of Dublin by King Richard II. (in the year 1386) gave no small offence to the earls, who were obliged to yield him precedence. In Sept. 1397, the same king made John Beaufort, Earl of Somerset, Marquess of Dorset, which title was taken from him in the next reign. The oldest existing marquisate is that of Winchester, created by King Edw. VI. in 1551. A special coronet belongs to the Marquess. Marqueté, (fr.): spotted, used of a trout. See under Salmon. Mars. (1.) The planetary name for Gules. (2.) Astronomical sign of. See Letters. Marshal: a title formerly granted by the Sovereign at will. William the Conqueror appointed the Earls of Hereford and Arundel Marshals of England, but in 1672 the office of EarlMarshal was annexed to the Dukedom of Norfolk.
Marshalling is the art of arranging several coats of arms in one shield, for the purpose of denoting the alliances of a family.
Before marshalling was introducing rare instances occur of arms composed, i.e. when an addition of a portion of the arms of a wife has been made to those of the husband. The instance usually quoted(though of most doubtful authority) is that of Henry II. taking an additional lion upon his marriage with Eleanor of Guienne.
a. Impaling. The simplest and earliest way of placing the arms of a husband and wife was side by side. Shields thus placed are said to be accolées, or in collateral position. Contemporary with this practice, but continuing much longer, was the custom of impalingarms by dimidiation, the dexter half of the husband's arms being joined to the sinister half of the wife's.
This was much practised about the time of King Edward I. The arms of Aylmer de Valence, Earl of Pembroke and Montgomery, and Mary his wife, daughter of Guy de Chastillon, may be taken as an example. They are borne by Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, founded by the latter in 1343.
An early instance of dimidiation, though rudely represented, occurs on a brass in Stanton Harcourt Church, Oxfordshire, which commemorates Sir Richard Harcourt(ob. 1330), who married Margaret, daughter of Sir John BEKE of Eresby.
Dimidiation in many cases, however, was found inconvenient, and was exchanged for impaling the coats entire, though bordures, tressures, and orles were usually omitted(as they are still) on the side next the line of impalement.
As an instances of impaling an example from the arms in Dorchester Church, Oxfordshire, is given.
In a few early instances, in which the wife was of much higher rank than the husband, her arms were placed upon the dexterside; a seal of John of Ghent, as King of Castile and Leon, is an example.
When the wife is an heiress(even in expectation) it is now customary for the husband to bear her arms upon an escutcheon or pretence; but it is evident that until the husband has issue by the heiress, and until the death of her father, he should merely impale her arms; because until then be cannot transmit her inheritance to his posterity. Instances might be cited of husbands bearing their wives' arms both upon an escutcheon of pretence over their own, and also as an implement.
Many modern heralds condemn the practice of a knightimpaling the arms of his wife within the garter or collar of his order, but there are many precedents for so doing. The widow of a knight, though she continues to impale the arms of her deceased husband in a lozenge, must of course relinquish his insignia of knighthood. When a man marries a second wife, he should certainly cease to impale the arms of the first. Some, however, have thought proper to impale both, which may be done in two ways, as shewn in the annexed cuts(figs. 1, 2), the bend shewing the position of the man'sarms, and the numerals those of his wives. The other figures shew how the arms of three, five, and seven wives might have been borne, or at least represented. When a widow of a peer marries a second time, her second husband impales her paternal arms only.
in 1340, three years after his taking the title of King of France, his mother, in whose right he claimed the crown of France, being daughter and heiress of Philip the Fair. He is said to have set the example to others.
The arms, however, of Castile and Leon are quarterly(see ante, under Castle), and are sculptured on the tomb of Eleanor, Queen of Edward I., who died 1296, and thus afford an earlier example. Again, in the Inventory of the goods of Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford, taken in 1322, we find--
"j. autre[quintepoint, i.e. quilt,] quartelé des armes Dengleterre et de Hereford."
An early instance of quarterling arms is that of John Hastings, earl of Pembroke, who married King Edward's youngest daughter Margaret, and died 1375. Their arms are emblazoned upon the north side of the king's tomb at Westminster:--
Feudal Arms are sometimes quartered by subjects, as arms of dominion are by princes; and an augmentation is sometimes so borne. But the most common reason for quartering is to shew what heiresses have married into the family.
An elected king, or one succeeding under any special arrangement, generally places his hereditary arms upon an inescutcheon over the insignia of his dominions, as did the Emperors of Germany, and as William of Orange did, when raised to the throne of Great Britain. This has been the usage in the kingdom of Greece.
It was a frequent practice from the reign of Edward III. to that of Henry VIII. for the husband, if he acquired any great possession through his wife, to quarter her arms with his own, and even to place them in the first quarter; or sometimes to give her arms alone; or, reversing modern usage, to give her arms and others, bearing his own in an escutcheonsurtout.
The rules attending the Quartering of arms are somewhat complicated, and vary according to the attendant circumstances. The general principle is that when a man marries an heiress, all the issue of that marriage are entitled to bear both the maternal and paternal coat quartered; also the quarterings to which the mother may be entitled, so that an escutcheon may be charged with the arms of any number of families. Indeed in an achievement of the KNIGHTLEY family, in the hall at Fawsley, Northamptonshire, there are 334 quarterings.
The manner in which quarterings are acquired will be best shewn by an example. One is therefore given in the three plates annexed, and the frontispiece, which are derived from a pedigree of the WILLOUGHBY family drawn up in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. By attention to the following examples a clearer idea of the system will be obtained than by printing any code of regulations.
Sir Philip MARMION, Knt., nat. circa temp. R. Jo.
=Joan, daughter and coheiress of Sir Hugh, Baron of KILPECK.
JOAN, daughter and coheiress of Sir Philip MARMION.
=Sir Alex. FREVILE, Knt.
The arms of Sir A. F. were Or, a cross patoncegules. His wife being a coheiress of the families of Marmion and Kilpeck, bore, or by later usage might have borne, their armsquarterly.
Sir Baldwin FREVILE, Knt. son and heir
=Maude, daughter of .... DEVEREUX.
He inherited the arms of Frevile from his father, and those of Marmion and Kilpeck from his mother. As his wife was not an heiress, the coat of Devereux(Argent, a fessegules, in chief three torteaux) was impaled by him during her lifetime only, after which the family of Frevile had nothing further to do with it.
Sir Baldwin FREVILE, Knt., Baron of Henley in Arden, son and heir
=ELIZABETH, d. and coh. of John de MOUNTFORTE, Baron of Beaudesert.
Sir Baldwin FREVILE, Knt., Lord of Henley in Arden, son and heir
= .. daughter of ... Lord STRANGE.
This Sir B. F. was entitled by inheritance to the following quarters--Frevile, Marmion, Kilpeck, Mountforte, De la Plaunche, and Haversham. His wife's arms(Argent, two lionspassantgules, armed and languedazure) were borne in the same manner as those of Devereux.
Sir Baldwin FREVILE, Knt., Lord of Henley in Arden, son and heir.
=JOICE, d. and coh. of John, Lord BUTTETOURT, of Welley Castle.
MARGARET, daughter and coheiress of Sir Baldwin FREVILLE, Knt.
=Sir Hugh WILLOUGHBY, of Willoughby on the Wold, Knt.
Sir H. W. bore the paternal arms(Or, on two barsgules, three waterbougetsargent) alone. His lady inherited Frevile, Marmion, Kilpeck, Mountforte, De la Plaunche, Haversham, Buttetourt, Dudley, and De la Zouche.
Richard WILLOUGHBY, Esq., son and heir, ob. s. p. 1471.
Stained glass in the windows and brasses on the floors of churches often afford much assistance in determining family connections through the marshalling of the arms. Annexed are the arms as emblazoned upon the brass at Winwick, Lancashire, of Sir Peter Legh, who died 1527; but who, on the death of his wife, had relinquished his secular position for the priestly office, so that he is represented wearing a chasuble over his armour, but over the former a shield is represented bearing seven quarterings. They are respectively:--
Robert LEIGH of Adlington, co. Chester.
=Maud(second wife) daughter and coheiress of Sir Thurston NORLEY,
Lord of Norley, &c., and heiress to BOYDELL.
The arms of this Robert Leigh were Azure, two barsargent, over all a bendcompony or and gules. His marriage was so great a match that the family, now or later, relinquished their own arms, and took those of (2)Norley instead. It seems that by this marriage were brought in the arms of--(3), Ashton(4), and Boydell(5).
Piers LEIGH of Hanley, beheaded 1399
=Margaret(first wife), daughter and heiress of Sir Thomas Daniers,
Lord of Grappenhall and Brone, widow of Sir John Savage.
The Leighs did not quarter the arms of Daniers. Probably they never got the lands.
Sir Piers LEIGH, slain at Agincourt, 1415.
=Jane, daughter and heiress of Sir Gilbert Haydock, Lord of
Haydock and of many other manors.
Sir Piers LEIGH, knighted by Richard Duke of York, at Wakefield, 1460,
=Margaret, daughter(not heiress) of Sir Richard Molineux.
Piers LEIGH, ob. 1468, in his father's lifetime.
=Mabel, daughter and heiress of James Croft, Lord of Dalton and
Claghton, and heiress to her mother, who was heiress of ... Freckelton.
By this match came in the arms of Croft(6), and Freckelton(7). Their arrangement in the shield upon the brass is anomalous; but such anomalies are not unfrequent.
"Ladies often," says Haines(p. cxiii), "bore arms on their dresses, usually those of their husbands on their mantles or cloaks, and their own on their kirtles or gowns, as at Cardington, Beds, c. 1530; but after the fifteenth century their own are more frequently on the sinisterside of the mantle, their husbands' bearings occupying the dexter. The brass of Elizabeth KNEVET, 1518, at Eastington, Gloucestershire, is a good example of a lady in an heraldic mantle." The six quarters represent the families of 1. KNEVET, 2. CROMWELL, 3. TATERSHALL, 4. CAYLEY, 5. BASSET, and 6. BISHOPSDON.
When the number of coats to which a person is entitled is an odd one he usually fills up the last quarter by repeating the first. The royal arms brought into any family by an heiress(and there are more such cases than might be supposed) are sometimes placed in the first quarter, so e.g. they were borne by Cardinal Pole.
If a man marries two or more heiresses successively, the arms of each will descend only to her own children.
When a manbears a double surname(e.g. DYKE-ACLAND) it is the practice for his first quarter to contain the arms pertaining to those names quarterly, and for the second to contain his own paternal coat. This, however, is a modern usage, and, as it seems, not a very good one.
It is not uncommon, to avoid confusion by marshalling too great a number of coats in one escutcheon, to select a few of the principal, leaving out, for example, the secondary quarters brought in by heiresses. Many families entitled to a hundred or more quarters use but four, e.g. Howard, Duke of Norfolk, has done so for many generations.
In conclusion, it may be observed that quarteredarms may be borne on banners, surcoats, and official seals, just as single coats are. Marteau, (fr.): a large hammer used by smiths. Martel. See Hammer. Marten. See Weasel. Martin. See Swallow.
Masculy would appear in some few cases to have been used as synonymous with lozengy; since the form 'o mascles voidies' occurs, and a comparison of the different blazoning of the same arms in one case points in this direction; nor is it probable that the charges in the arms of the 'Earl of KENT' were drawn as mascles. Still in many cases the term probably had its present meaning.
Guillemes de FERIERES ... de armes vermeilles ben armés, O mascles de or del champ voidiés--Roll of CAERLAVEROCK.
Sire Allisandre de FREWYLLE, d'or, a une croys mascle de ver e de goulys--Roll, temp. ED. II.
Sire Baudewyne de FREWYLLE, d'or, a une croys de goulis a les mascles de ver--Ibid.
Monsire Baldwin de FREVILL, port les armes de Latymer[i.e. gules a une crois patey or] a cinq loisanes de verre en la crois--Roll, temp. ED. III.
Le Conte de KENT, masculée de verrée et de goules--Ibid.
Sir Toham de BEZOM, mascle d'argent e de sable--Roll, temp. ED. II.
Le bon Richart de la ROKELE ... Mascle de goules et de ermine.
Cil ot son escu fait portraire Roll of Carlaverok.
Masoned, (fr. maçonné): a term used to describe the lines formed by the junction of the stones in a building. It is sometimes applied applied to the field, but more frequently to a castle, tower, or wall, q.v.
Merchant's Mark: since those engaged in trade were not formerly allowed to beararms, the merchants adopted 'marks,' often composed of their initials or other special letters intertwined, and sometimes other devices intermingled; and, though contrary to rule, they placed them in shields and sometimes marshalled them with arms. The subject of merchants' marks, found as they are frequently in stained glass, on brasses and carved in wood and tone, is too wide a subject to treat in a short article; besides which they scarcely come under the head of heraldry. One example is given, which is characteristic of very many others. It is from stained glass in S.Michael'sChurch, Oxford. The letters may possibly signify Thomas R ... Merchant of Oxford. From the whiteroses(barbed and seeded or) we may infer that he was attached to the House of York. Mercury. The planetary name for Purpure.
Mermaid, (fr. siréne): composed of the upper half of a woman(with dishevelled hair) joined to the lower half of a fish. It occurs but very seldom as a charge upon true English arms. The Siren seems to be only another name for the mermaid.
A mermaid is found on the Seal of Sir William Bruvire, or Bruere, temp. Richard I., and probably had its origin in the tales told by travellers who joined in the crusades. Mermaids occur frequently as supporters; e.g. to the arms of the Burgh of MONTROSE, as also as crests, e.g. of Lord BYRON; and Sir John WALLOP, temp. Henry VIII., who bore a blackmermaid with golden hair. The German family of DIE ERSTENBERGER bear as their crest a mermaid, but with wings instead of arms. Meslé: mingled. Used by a few old writers in describing a field of metal and colour in equal proportions, as gyronny, paly.
Mitre, (fr. Mitre): one of the principal insignia of the episcopal office, although not belonging to it exclusively. There were three kinds of Mitres recognized by old writers--the precious, the 'aurifraged,' and the simple.
The privilege of wearing a mitre was first conceded to abbots and priors about the eleventh century. Soon afterwards it was decreed that mitred abbots exempt from episcopal jurisdiction should wear the second mitre mentioned above, the third being assigned to non-exempt abbots and priors. These rules do not appear to have ever been very strictly observed or enforced. It it the first which is always represented in heraldic drawing.
Though the use of the mitre as a part of the episcopal costume had, until quite recently (a), become obsolete in the Anglican Church, its prelates have continued to bear in above their arms. The mitres of the two archbishops, and the Bishop of Durham, are sometimes encircled with ducal coronets, which, however, is, at least in the two former cases, a practice of late origin, and without authority. The Bishop of Durham might(until lately) with propriety enjoy this mark of temporal dignity, as he was Count Palatine of Durham. His mitre in the sixteenth century was represented with a plume of ostrichfeathers issuing from the sinisterside and with the coronet.
(a) In recent days a mitre was worn by an Anglican Bishop for the first time on June 28, 1885, at S.Andrew's Lincoln.
The annexed figure of a mitre is taken from a roll of the peers of England, dated 1515. The abbots' mitres drawn in that document are precisely similar in form, but differ in the colour of the enclosed triangular spaces. Earlier mitres were generally lower: in later times they have usually been represented much higher and more acutely pointed. In all cases they should be represented with the labels, or pendent ribbons at the sides of the mitre. Sometimes the term stringed is applied to these when denoting their tincture.
As charges, mitres occur in the insignia of several English sees and abbeys, and previous to the introduction of the practice of bishopsimpaling the insignia of their sees, they often differenced their paternal arms by the addition of mitres, keys, or other official insignia within the shield.
Mole, (fr. taupe): this occurs more frequently than might have been expected. With it may be classed the mole-hill, though this is perhaps used to signify any small hill or hillock. See also under Mound.
Mogul, Fish of, (lat. Cyprinus Rohita): this fish, which is allied to the Carp(of which there is no English representation as an armorial bearing, though it is not unfrequent on the Continent) is used as a badge of dignity called the MAHI MARATIB, which dignity is said to have originated with the Mogul dynasty founded in 1206. General(created in 1807 Lord) LAKE had this dignity or order conferred upon him, and bore it on his arms.
Moon, (fr. lune, lat. luna): the moon is a common device. It is occasionally borne full, when it is termed in her complement, and it is then figured with a human face. It may also be illuminated, that is, surrounded with very short rays. It propertincture is argent. When sable it is supposed to be eclipsed. When a half moon is represented with the horns towards the dexterside of the shield it is supposed to be increscent, and is described as in her increment; when the horns are turned to the sinisterside it is supposed to be decrescent, and is described as in her decrement(or, as some blunderingly write it, in her detriment). But these terms are chiefly found in theoretical works, and not often in practical blazon. When the horns are represented uppermost the charge is simply a Crescent, and this from the earliest times was the special ensign of the Turks.
Mortcour(so spelt, but qy. an error for Mortarium, or fr. Mortier): a candlestick used at funerals. It occurs only in the insignia of the Company of WAX CHANDLERS. In some drawings the ornamental foliage accidentally resembles small snakes.
Mortier, (fr.): a round cap worn by chancellors, &c., and placed above the crest in some French arms; somewhat similar to the Lord Mayor's Cap.
WILLIAM OF WYKEHAM.
Motto: a word or sentence upon a scroll, generally placed below the shield, but sometimes, especially in Scotland, above the crest. The family motto should never be inscribed(as it too often is) upon a garter or circle, nor should it accompany the arms of any woman except the sovereign. In the case of William of WYKEHAM'S arms here given it will be seen the garter is reserved for the motto of the 'order.' His personal motto, adopted by his two colleges, is manners makyth man; and that is always found beneath. Bishops, as a rule, do not use mottoes.
Many ancientmottoes were war-cries. Such it is probable were the following:--
Forward. DOUGLAS, Duke of Queensbury. Crom a boo. (I will burn). FITZGERALD, Duke of Leinster. Courage sans peur. GAVE, Viscount Gage.
Many mottoes refer obviously to the name of the bearer, as--
Cavendo tutus--CAVENDISH. Per se valens--PERCEVAL. Pie repone te--PIERREPONTE, Earl Manvers. Scuto amoris divini--SCUDAMORE. Time Deum, cole regem--COLERIDGE.
Some have reference to a charge in the arms to which they are annexed, or to the crest above it, e.g.--
But the generality of mottoes express a sentiment, hope, or determination. Such are the following:--
Dum spiro spero--DILLON. Garde la foy--COX, POULET, RICH, &c. Spero meliora--CORY. Toujours prest--CARMICHAEL.
Mottoes are often borne by several successive generations, but may be changed at pleasure. The languages most in use are Latin, French, and English; but in Scotland they are often in the old Lowland dialect, and in Wales, in the language of the principality. A few peers use Italian mottoes, and some recent ones are even in Oriental languages. The present royal motto, Dieu et mon Droit, was certainly used as early as the reign of Henry VI. It was probably a war-cry long before, as King Richard I. is recorded to have said, "Not we, but God and our right have vanquished France at Gisors." The Cri de guerre of the kings of France was Mon joye Saint Denis. Scottish heralds term such war-cries Slogans or badly spelt Sloghorns. Moucheté, (fr.): spotted with small leaf pattern like on lace, and in one case used of blackspots on the lamprey. Mouchetor, (fr.), moucheture: said to be an Erminespot without the three specks usually placed at its upper end. Moulin, (fr.), Mill. See also Windmill. Moulin, Fer de. See Fer de Moline. Mound. See Orb, also Mount.
Mount, (fr. montagne); in later heraldry it is not unusual to separate the lower portion of the shield by a curved line, and by tincturing the same vert to represent therein a mount supposed to be covered with grass. The French heralds use a specific term for this device, viz. terrassé. On this some other device is placed, most frequently a tree, but often an animal grazing, e.g. a stag(see one or two examples under Deer). It may be covered with flowers, or be burning, &c. The mount is sometimes incorrectly written mound, which is a very different device. [See under Orb, and note arms of BERWICK below.] It is sometimes blazoned as a hill, or hillock, (fr. tertre), or even mole-hill where there is more than one mount represented. A mountmounted is said to mean a large mount with a smaller one upon it. The French use the term coupeaux for a series of hills. The mountain also occurs, and perhaps may be distinguished somewhat in the drawing from a mount.
Mulberry, (fr. mûre, old fr. moure): the leaves of this plant occur on arms as early as temp. Henry III. as well as in recent arms. One example only of a branch has been noticed on arms, viz. on those of BASSANO(see under Silkworm), but it was used as a device or cognizance by MOWBRAY.
Mule. See Ass. Mullet. (fr. molette): this bearing is generally taken to represent the rowel of a spur, and in modern French heraldry is called molette d'éperon. In old French blazon it is sometimes termed rouwell, q.v. It might, however, when not pierced be taken to represent a star, and, as will be seen by the examples, it appears originally to have been interchangeable with the estoile. It usually has five points, and this number is always to be understood when no other is mentioned. In French heraldry the normal number of points is six.
Mullet besides having for the sake of variety more than five points(or, as they are termed in one instance, horns), may be pierced of the field, or voided of some other tincture, and this is found to be the case with very early examples. Sometimes, though pierced is not mentioned, it may be understood.