A treatise on the relative optical velocity of the moving observer against light Takashi Kubota (Electronics technological writer) Prologue 　It was decided theoretically that the velocity of light in free space is a fixed value c (about 299,792,458 m/sec) as a fact on the measurement as well.Therefore, it is the fact known again by the Doppler effect and so on for the moving observer that a fluctuation arises in the relative optical velocity, too. 　However,is being taken that an optical velocity is c with Einstein's theory of special relativity by the assumption of "the principle of a universal constant" as to any observer and any coordinate. It is decided to be mentioned that there is a mathematical defect in this assumption on this paper. 　The matter that "the Michelson-Morley experiment " and "the phenomenon of Bradley's aberration " are verified theoretically by "the relative optical velocity of the moving observer against light" which it could get from another approach ,and,which depended is made the purpose of this paper. 　 The mathematical defect of "the principle of a universal constant c " 　Einstein's theory of special relativity is very precise to know well, and it is being built up by the ingenious　mathematical descriptions. 　 　 But, this is expanded in the well-known fact in the space-time coordinate four dimensions, and theory is being built up in the starting point of those contents as for "L, vt, ct, the right-angled triangle of the light" shown in the next figure 1 and the figure 2 ( "L, Vt, ct, the right-angled triangle of the light") being foundation. 　It is decided to be shown next that there is a mathematical defect in this light triangle. 　 We refer to systems "rest" and "motion" showed　figure 1.The motional system moves in the direction of the +X axis with respect to rest system with velocity v. A motional system corresponded in the origin O, with t=0 as for the rest system. 　And a figure 1 showed the position of the motional system after a time ｔ１. 　 　Now,Einstein's theory mentioned that the light reaches D after a time ｔ１ when light is shot in the C direction of the Y axis from the origin O (A' of the motional system) at t=0. Why the light flew like this to side direction,　because Einstein thought so that the light might move as well as the movement of an object. The thought to be so is called "Einstein's special principle of relativity" with "Galilean relativity" with the case of "an object". 　 　 In other consideration, Einstein thought so that the velocity of light might be a universal constant by reason that the motional observer insists that the light flew to D from A',so the velocity of light is　c　in the rest coordinate (therefore ＯＤ＝ｃｔ１ ), and also same value c in the motional coordinate (Ａ’Ｄ＝Ｌ＝ｃｔ’ ). This is the foundation of the special theory of relativity with the rest system and the motional　system to say that it is different "the time". 　 　If this thought is right, it is decided in the same way that a figure 2 can exist, too.As for the figure 2, all others are the same conditions as the figure 1 by the thing which is V>v　as to both the way of taking the scale of the coordinate axis and the transition of the time.These figures become right both because the relative velocity (in these figures, v and V ) of the rest system and the motional system is liberal with a special theory of relativity. But, a figure is seen, and it knows that it isn't right .ＯＤ＝ｃｔ１ of the figure 1 and ＯＤ＝ｃｔ１ of the figure 2 are because obviously length is different.As more obvious mathematical wrong descriptions are next formulas. 　 　（ｃｔ１ ）２＝（Ｌ）２＋（ｖｔ１ ）２　　　from the figure 1 　（ｃｔ１ ）２＝（Ｌ）２＋（Ｖｔ１ ）２　　　from the figure 2 　 　Why did we have such a wrong matter ?There are two reasons in that. One light is surely the so-called "Two coordinates of the rest system and the motional system are connected with ct." benefit to reach D after a time ｔ１.This is the mathematical foundation not to do it. 　One more is that　"the theorem of 3 square" is applied to the right-angled triangle of the coordinate that it is surrounded in the rest system and the motional system. We must formulate an equation within one coordinate,that is　mathematical foundation for the theorem of 3 square,too. 　 The general concept of the relative optical velocity 　 　 Well, how should we interpret a figure 1 and a figure 2 ? 　What it can think about first is in the shoot direction of the light.The apparatus is adjusted so that the light may be catch in D after a timeｔ１ (the figure 3 ), after a time ｔ２ (the figure 4 ), and it is probably to shoot it in the OD direction.It can guess this from the famous "Michelson-Morley experiment" and　"the Ring laser gyro", and so on. 　 　Then, as for saying ct' of the figure 1 and the figure 2, meaning is stopped.In other words, it becomes a "Such a thing is not here.".It is because an optical way is only one of OD's.That is shown in the figure 3 and the figure 4. 　 　Next, it is the fact of "The velocity of light in free space is a fixed value c." to be important. 　Though it is "an inertial coordinate" with a special theory of relativity, as for saying the rest system of the figure 1 and the figure 2, the rest system of the figure 3 and the figure 4 is "the coordinate that the　velocity of light is c". This didn't consider "free space" a rest system, by the thing which defined a coordinate from the origin which light was fired at. 　The velocity of light in the rest coordinate (basis coordinate) defined by the light like this is "c", and they are ＯＤ＝ｃｔ１　(figure 3) and ＯＤ＝ｃｔ２　(figure 4). 　A motional system can be calculated when it is moving in the velocity v (figure 3) and the velocity V (figure 4) to this. 　 　When it proceeds with the consideration here, it is decided that the optical velocity in the motional system is not c. It is decided that only cosθ　takes an influence in the relative optical velocity to understand from the figure. They are 　 ｃ−ｖcosθ１ by the figure 3, ｃ−Ｖcosθ２ by the figure 4. 　 　Incidentally, as for the figure 3, a motional system is an example to be moving in about 44% of the velocity c, about 132,000km/s, and a relative optical velocity is about 240,000km/s. 　As for the figure 4, it is an example to be moving in about 58% of the velocity c　, about　174,000km/s , and a relative optical velocity is about 200,000km/s. 　 　It is based on the light which came out from the sun, and θ　is about 89.994゜from the easy calculation when the earth is made a motional system D. 　And, though θ　isn't clear, it is probably about 90゜in the experiment of Michelson-Morley. 　 Application 　The general concept of the relative optical velocity is applied to "the Michelson-Morley experiment " and "the　Bradley's formula of aberration ". 　 (1) Application to the experiment of Michelson-Morley 　The experiment of Michelson-Morley splashed light in the east-west direction and the north-south direction to know well, and it checked whether it had that time lag. 　Although the apparatus and the way of the calculation of the experiment is on the textbook of many special theory of relativity, I show the calculation which is different from before here though it . 　As for the time when going and returning of the light in the east-west direction take 　 　As for the time when going and returning of the light in the north-south direction take 　 It is shown that becomes a (1) ≒ (2), so the fraction shift should not be observed. 　Where,　is a distance "to the mirror which reflects it from the light source ", and different from L of the figure 1 and the figure 2. V isn't clear at a displacement velocity against the light ray in the Michelson-Morley experiment . And θ is the angle that an optical axis and a mirror make it. But it is shown that there was a small shift of some fringe patterns even in the actual experiment to understand from a (1) ≒ (2). 　And, this calculation consists of a free direction.An experiment can be made in the free direction even if an interferometer isn't turned to the east-west direction and the north-south direction.The apparatus is moved precisely at right angles, and we have only to confirm the number of　fraction shifts . 　To be natural, we expect that the experiment is varying in the testing ground place more because it comes to detect the rotation of the earth, too, as becoming precise measurement more. 　 (2) Application to the Bradley's formula of aberration. 　We try to calculate the famous formula　sinβ＝（ｖ／ｃ）sinα　theoretically. 　 In the figure 5, it is the general concept of the relative optical velocity to be c-vcosθ　in the motional system (the earth K' ), and the basis velocity of light is c　in free space K . In ΔABC, ＢＣ＝（ｃ−ｖcosθ ）ｔ・tanβ＝ｖｔ・sinθ Therefore, ｃ−ｖcosθ ＝ｖsinθ／tanβ ＝ｖcosβsinθ／sinβ ｃsinβ ＝ｖcosβsinθ＋ｖcosθsinβ ＝ｖsin（β＋θ） 　　　 ＝ｖsin（π−∠ＳＢＡ）＝ｖsinα Hence, we obtain a next Bradley's formula. sinβ＝（ｖ／ｃ）sinα 　 To the hereafter 　Though "the principle of a universal constant c "　and "Einstein's　principle of special relativity" were the foundation to build up that theory as for Einstein's special theory of relativity, which both show that there is a defect mathematically in this paper,and was mentioned the importance of the general concept of the relative optical velocity. 　From now on, we will expect to develop more by the excellent scientist. 　 References : ★佐藤文隆「孤独になったアインシュタイン」２００４年／岩波書店 ★池内 了「物理学と神」２００２年／集英社 ★カンパニエーツ「理論物理学」１９６５年／岩波書店 ★内山龍雄「相対性理論入門」１９７８年／岩波書店 ★ランダウ・リフシッツ「力学」１９６５年／東京図書 ★メラー「相対性理論」１９６３年／みすず書房 ★矢野健太郎「相対性理論」１９６４年／至文堂 ★砂川重信「理論電磁気学」１９６５年／紀伊國屋書店 ★ヒルベルト「数理物理学の方法」１９６６年／東京図書 ★ニールス･ボーア「アインシュタインとの論争」１９６９年／東京図書 ★Hermann Weyl「SPACE　TIME　MATTER」1952年／Dover　Pub. ★Sir ARTHUR EDDINGTON 「SPACE TIME and GRAVITATION」1920年／CAMBRIGDE UNIVERSITY PRESS ★ERWIN SCHRODINGER「SPACE−TIME STRUCTURE」 ★A.D.Fokker「Time and Space，Weight and Inertia」1965年／Pergamon Press．OXFORD ★S.A.EDDINGTON「THE MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY」1965年／CAMBRIGDE UNIVERSITY PRESS ★E.P.NEY「Electromagnetism & Relativity」1965年／HARPER & ROW ★A.EINSTEIN「The Meaning of Relativity 3rd ed.」1950年／Princeton University Press ★R.C.TOLMAN「Relativity，Thermodynamics and Cosmology」1966年／Oxford University Press ★J.C.MAXWELL「A TREATISE ON ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM」1891年／DOVER PUB. ★V.FOCK「The Theory of Space Time and Gravitation」1964年／PERGAMON PRESS ★J.AHARONI「THE SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY」1965年／OXFORD ★H.A.Lorentz「The Theory of electrons」1909年／DOVER PUB. ★A.EINSTEIN「THE PRINCIPLE OF RELATIVITY」DOVER PUB. ★DE BROGLIE「Matter and Light」DOVER PUB. ★J.JEFFREYS「METHODS of MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS」CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS the　otheers 　 ――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――