Top page (correct Bohr model including helium. )
Supersymmetry is a waste of money.
On this page, we use the notations of this site.
Eq.1 is the chiral expression of γ matrices.
Only on this page, ( 1, -1, -1, -1 ) version of metric tensor is used.
And σ is Pauli matrices, which are
From Eq.1, we have
Here we introduced 4 × 1 Dirac spinor Ψ, as follows,
Dirac equation is
Here we use natural unit, so
Multiplying Eq.7 by γ0 from left side,
"E" means energy, which is the time derivative .
And the momentum operator (= p ) is
Using Eq.10 and Eq.4, Eq.9 becomes
From Eq.11, we obtain two equations,
When fermion's mass is zero ( m = 0 ), Eq.12 becomes
As you see Eq.14, upper 2 component spinor ψ has plus helicity (= σp ).
This means the directions of spin (= σ ) and momentum (= p ) are the same. (= right-handed ).
On the other hand, the lower 2 component spinor (= χ ) has minus helicity.
So this is left-handed spinor.
If we apply γ5 matrix on spinor, upper and lower spinors give different signs.
To make Dirac equation Lorentz invariant, they needed to define Lorentz transformation of spinor.
They introduced the following S operator.
In Eq.17, ω is antisymmetric constant.
And σμν is commutator of two γ matrices. ( This σ is NOT Pauli matrix. )
So we have
Using Eq.18 and Eq.19, infinitesimal Lorentz transformation of Eq.17 becomes
In Eq.20, we express ω using different constants ε and η
Applying Eq.20 Lorentz operator to Dirac spinor of Eq.15,
From Eq.20 and Eq.21, we have
From Eq.20, the inverse matrix of Eq.20 is
From Eq.1 and Eq.2, we have
From Eq.17, Eq.20, Eq.23, Eq.25 we obtain the following relation,
where we use
As a result,
So, Dirac Lagrangian is invariant under Lorentz transformation (= S ), as follows,
Like Eq.27, when we define
In Eq.30, Pauli matrices σ is Hermitian matix.
So the comlex conjugate transpose of σ remains the same ( σ† = σ ).
From Eq.22 and Eq.30, we have
Lagrangian of Eq.29 can be expressed as
So, we can prove Eq.32 is scalar Lagrangian.
Here we use the notations of
From Eq.30 and Eq.31, we have
From Eq.2, each Pauli matrix satisfies
Because only σ2 consists of imaginary number.
From Eq.35 and Eq.36, we get
Eq.37 means this wavefunction transforms like ψ of Eq.31, as follows,
Using Eq.38, Eq.39 becomes
In Eq.40, i* = -i, and σ2* =- σ2 is used.
Here we define
From Eq.42 and Eq.43,
From Eq.44 and Eq.45,
Using Eq.44, Eq.46 becomes
E.47 is Lorentz invariant scalar.
χ and ξ are fermions, so anticommutator of Eq.47 isn't zero.
Here we introduce new operator of εab,
From Eq.43 and Eq.44, we have
Eq.48 is equal to
Using Eq.49, we can express
Under the external electromagnetic field, Dirac equation contains vector ( scalar ) potentials A, like
The complex conjugate (= * ) of Eq.53 is
Using Eq.1 and Eq.3, we get the relation of
Multiplying Eq.54 by ( iγ2 ) from left side,
The first term of Eq.57 can be expressed as
where we insert
Using Eq.55 and Eq.58, Eq.57 becomes
Comparing Eq.53 and Eq.60, you find the charge "e" of Eq.60 becomes the opposite from Eq.53.
(= Charge conjugate of ψ becomes iγ2ψ*. Just artificial rule. )
When we define
This means, when the form of the spinor is Eq.61, the charge conjugate of wavefunction is equal to the original one.
The charge conjugate is antiparticle, so in this case, the particle is the same as its antiparticle.
(Eq.63) Majorana particle ?
They call this state Majorana particle.
It is said that neutrino and photino are Majorana fermions.
But unfortunately, this is just abstract math operator, lacks physical images.
(Eq.64) Supersymmetry Lagrangian ?
Eq.64 is the simplist supersymmetry Lagrangian (= Wess-Zumino model ).
φ is boson, and χ is fermion ( here we consider simple Majorana fermion ).
And "F" is "unreal" auxiliary field (= boson ), which is indispensable for supersymmetry algebra.
These auxiliary fields were artificially introduced, which proves supersymmetry itself is just math ( NOT physical ) concept.
From the right Dirac equation of Eq.12, we have
where we use
As shown on this site (p.33), units of total Lagrangian (= L ), boson (= φ ), fermion (= χ ), and F boson become
here we use the natural unit of
They define supersymmetric transformation of boson φ as
Of course, boson is NOT fermion.
So two fermions (= ξ, χ ) are necessary for expressing one boson (= φ ).
From Eq.67 and Eq.69, the unit of this strange fermion ξ is
So, this ξ is completely different from the ordinary fermion χ of Eq.67.
Depending on these unreal fermions and bosons proves supersymmetry itself is NOT truth.
And they define supersymmetry transformation of fermion χ (= Eq.71 ) and boson F (= Eq.72 ).
Of course, these forms were artificially introduced, and NOT natural ones.
Transformation of boson part in Lagrangian (= firs term of Eq.64 ) becomes
In Eq.73, Eq.69 is inserted.
From Eq.64 and Eq.71, fermion's transformation becomes
Here we use the antisymmetric property of Pauli matrices.
And integration by parts gives negative sign.
As a result, Eq.74 becomes
Again, the integration by parts gives negative sign, as follows,
Using Eq.72, auxiliary parts FF transforms like
From Eq.73, Eq.77 and Eq.79, the change of total Lagrangian becomes zero,
Eq.80 means Lagrangian of Eq.64 is invariant under supersymmetric transformations of Eq.69, Eq.71 and Eq.72.
This is called "supersymmetry".
You find physicists try to define artificial rules, and make Lagrangian invariant by force under supersymmetry transformation.
So SUSY does NOT mean the law of Nature at all, it exists only inside math equation.
Basically, Lagrangian of MSSM (= minimal supersymmetric standard model ) becomes
The last term of Eq.81 is potential energy.
And "D" is covariant derivative.
In Eq.82, A is vector potential, or gauge bosons.
Due to the strict limitation of SUSY and Lorentz invariance, the form of W must be
Furthermore we can add the Lagrangian of vector potential ( ex. photon ),
λ of Eq.84 is "photino". Just math ( NOT physical ) symbols.
And antisymmetric tensor of Eq.84 is
The interactive Hamiltonian between Higgs (= H ) and other particles are
Eq.86 gives "mass" to particles including Higgs itself.
As supersymmetry must be broken, the mass Lagrangian of SUSY particles is
Due to this SUSY breaking, as many as 124 free parameters appear even in MSSM.
So supersymmetry cannot predict anyhing at all.
MSSM define R parity.
Of course, this R parity is just artificial rule, NOT a natural result.
Ordinary particles always have R = +1, and SUSY particles have R = -1.
For example, in ordinary quark, B (= baryon ) number is 1/3, L (= lepton ) number is zero, and spin S is 1/2.
The left of Eq.89 is R parity of ordinary quark, and the right of Eq.89 is squark.
Spin S of squark is zero, so R parity becomes -1.
The current useless quantum field theory considers ONLY invariance of Lagrangian L ( or action S ) under some transformation.
The variation of action S is expressed as
Here we use Euler-Lagrange equation of
Integral of total derivative becomes zero, as shown in Eq.90.
This means, when Euler-Lagrange equation holds, action S is invariant under some transformation.
If we define artificial current J as
Eq.92 can be expressed as
Eq.94 means, if we define artificial charge Q as
This total charge is conserved.
SUSY theorists considers this unreal charge Q as most imporntant concept. This is strange.
Generally, arbitrary transformation can be expressed using this charge Q, as follows,
Here we use Lagrangian of
The canonical momentum π of boson field φ is
Here we define commutation relation between this φ and its canonical momentum (= π ).
From Eq.95 and Eq.64, the charge Q becomes
Using Eq.98 and Eq.99, we have
We can prove Eq.96.
When there are several kinds of transformations (= Q ), the anticommutator of these Q give the central charge Z of Eq.101.
To cancel this abstract central charge, superstring theory needs unreal 10 dimensions, as shown on this page.
So there are NO physical reality in these SUSY and string theory.
They are just math symbols.
Basicaly, rotational operator can be expressed as
"J" is angular momentum, and θ is angle.
In case of spinor rotation, J becomes Pauli matrices (= σ/2 ),
Charge "Q" of SUSY is a spinor, so it changes like
If we define
As a result,
Eq.108 means the charge Q can decrease particle's spin 1/2.
But SUSY theorists NEVER try to say what this charge Q ( = spin stropper !? ) really is.
In case of complex comjugate of Q,
Spin 1/2 is increased.
If this charge Q is applied to graviton with spin "2", it changes into gravitino with spin 3/2, they insist.
Unfortunately, there are NO other concrete explanations about spin here.
When there are 4 kinds of supersymmetric transformation, this is called "N=4" supersymmetry.
In this case, the number of different Q is "4".
2014/5/1 updated. Feel free to link to this site.